a2p
accept
access
acct
addftinfo
addr2line
adjtime
afmtodit
after
aio_cancel
aio_error
aio_read
aio_return
aio_suspend
aio_waitcomplete
aio_write
alias
aliases
alloc
anvil
append
apply
apropos
ar
array
as
asa
asn1parse
at
atq
atrm
attemptckalloc
attemptckrealloc
authlib
authtest
autopoint
awk
b64decode
b64encode
basename
batch
bc
bdes
bell
bg
bgerror
biff
big5
binary
bind
bindkey
bindtags
bindtextdomain
bio
bitmap
blowfish
bn
bootparams
bootptab
bounce
brandelf
break
breaksw
brk
bsdiff
bsdtar
bsnmpd
bspatch
bthost
btsockstat
buffer
builtin
builtins
bunzip2
button
byacc
bzcat
bzegrep
bzfgrep
bzgrep
bzip2
c2ph
c89
c99
ca
cal
calendar
canvas
cap_mkdb
case
cat
catch
catman
cc
cd
cdcontrol
chdir
checkbutton
checknr
chflags
chfn
chgrp
chio
chkey
chmod
chown
chpass
chroot
chsh
ci
ciphers
ckalloc
ckdist
ckfree
ckrealloc
cksum
cleanup
clear
clipboard
clock
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clock_gettime
clock_settime
close
cmp
co
col
colcrt
colldef
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colrm
column
comm
command
compile_et
complete
compress
concat
config
connect
console
continue
core
courierlogger
couriertcpd
cp
cpan
cpio
cpp
creat
crl
crontab
crunchgen
crunchide
crypt
crypto
csh
csplit
ctags
ctm
ctm_dequeue
ctm_rmail
ctm_smail
cu
cursor
cursors
cut
cvs
date
dbiprof
dbiproxy
dc
dcgettext
dcngettext
dd
dde
default
defer
deliverquota
des
destroy
devfs
df
dgettext
dgst
dh
dhparam
dialog
diff
diff3
dig
dir
dirent
dirname
dirs
discard
disktab
dngettext
do
domainname
done
dprofpp
dsa
dsaparam
dtmfdecode
du
dup
dup2
eaccess
ec
ecdsa
echo
echotc
ecparam
ed
edit
editrc
ee
egrep
elf
elfdump
elif
else
enc
enc2xs
encoding
end
endif
endsw
engine
enigma
entry
env
envsubst
eof
eqn
err
errno
error
errstr
esac
ethers
euc
eui64
eval
event
evp
ex
exec
execve
exit
expand
export
exports
expr
extattr
extattr_delete_fd
extattr_delete_file
extattr_get_fd
extattr_get_file
extattr_set_fd
extattr_set_file
f77
false
famm
famx
fblocked
fbtab
fc
fchdir
fchflags
fchmod
fchown
fcntl
fconfigure
fcopy
fdescfs
fdformat
fdread
fdwrite
fetch
fg
fgrep
fhopen
fhstat
fhstatfs
fi
file
file2c
fileevent
filename
filetest
find
find2perl
finger
flex
flock
flush
fmt
focus
fold
font
fontedit
for
foreach
fork
format
forward
fpathconf
frame
from
fs
fstab
fstat
fstatfs
fsync
ftp
ftpchroot
ftpusers
ftruncate
futimes
g711conv
gb2312
gb18030
gbk
gcc
gcore
gcov
gdb
gencat
gendsa
genrsa
gensnmptree
getconf
getdents
getdirentries
getdtablesize
getegid
geteuid
getfacl
getfh
getfsstat
getgid
getgroups
getitimer
getlogin
getopt
getopts
getpeername
getpgid
getpgrp
getpid
getppid
getpriority
getresgid
getresuid
getrlimit
getrusage
gets
getsid
getsockname
getsockopt
gettext
gettextize
gettimeofday
gettytab
getuid
glob
global
gmake
goto
gperf
gprof
grab
grep
grid
grn
grodvi
groff
groff_font
groff_out
groff_tmac
grog
grolbp
grolj4
grops
grotty
group
groups
gunzip
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gzexe
gzip
h2ph
h2xs
hash
hashstat
hd
head
help2man
hesinfo
hexdump
history
host
hostname
hosts
hosts_access
hosts_options
hpftodit
http
hup
i386_get_ioperm
i386_get_ldt
i386_set_ioperm
i386_set_ldt
i386_vm86
iconv
id
ident
idprio
if
ifnames253
ifnames259
image
imapd
incr
indent
indxbib
info
infokey
inode
install
instmodsh
interp
intro
introduction
ioctl
ipcrm
ipcs
ipf
ipftest
ipnat
ippool
ipresend
issetugid
jail
jail_attach
jobid
jobs
join
jot
kbdcontrol
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kdestroy
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kenv
kevent
keycap
keylogin
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keymap
keysyms
kgdb
kill
killall
killpg
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kldfind
kldfirstmod
kldload
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kldstat
kldsym
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klist
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kqueue
kse
kse_create
kse_exit
kse_release
kse_switchin
kse_thr_interrupt
kse_wakeup
ktrace
label
labelframe
lam
lappend
last
lastcomm
lastlog
lchflags
lchmod
lchown
ld
ldap
ldapadd
ldapcompare
ldapdelete
ldapmodify
ldapmodrdn
ldappasswd
ldapsearch
ldapwhoami
ldd
leave
less
lesskey
lex
lgetfh
lhash
libnetcfg
library
limit
limits
lindex
link
linprocfs
linsert
lint
lio_listio
list
listbox
listen
lj4_font
lkbib
llength
lmtp
ln
load
loadfont
local
locale
locate
lock
lockf
log
logger
login
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logname
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look
lookbib
lorder
lower
lp
lpq
lpr
lprm
lptest
lrange
lreplace
ls
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lseek
lset
lsort
lstat
lsvfs
lutimes
lynx
m4
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magic
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maildiracl
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maildirmake
mailq
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makeinfo
makewhatis
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master
mc
mcedit
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mptable
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mt
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nawk
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neqn
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nex
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nice
nl
nm
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notify
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ntp_adjtime
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nview
objcopy
objdump
objformat
ocsp
od
onintr
open
openssl
opieaccess
opieinfo
opiekey
opiekeys
opiepasswd
option
options
oqmgr
pack
package
packagens
pagesize
palette
pam_auth
panedwindow
parray
passwd
paste
patch
pathchk
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pawd
pax
pbm
pcre
pcreapi
pcrebuild
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pcreperform
pcreposix
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pcretest
perl
perl56delta
perl58delta
perl561delta
perl570delta
perl571delta
perl572delta
perl573delta
perl581delta
perl582delta
perl583delta
perl584delta
perl585delta
perl586delta
perl587delta
perl588delta
perl5004delta
perl5005delta
perlaix
perlamiga
perlapi
perlapio
perlapollo
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perldoc
perldos
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perlebcdic
perlembed
perlepoc
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perlfaq1
perlfaq2
perlfaq3
perlfaq4
perlfaq5
perlfaq6
perlfaq7
perlfaq8
perlfaq9
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perlglossary
perlgpl
perlguts
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perlintern
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perliol
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perllinux
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perllol
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perlreftut
perlrequick
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perlretut
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perlvmesa
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pfbtops
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pic
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piconv
pid
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pkcs7
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place
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readelf
readlink
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readv
realpath
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recv
recvfrom
recvmsg
red
ree
refer
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remote
rename
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replace
req
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resolver
resource
return
rev
revoke
rfcomm_sppd
rfork
rhosts
ripemd
ripemd160
rlog
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rmdir
rpc
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rs
rsa
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rtprio
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rusers
rwall
rwho
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safe
sasl
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select
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send
sendbug
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services
sess_id
set
setegid
setenv
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setfacl
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setgroups
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setregid
setresgid
setresuid
setreuid
setrlimit
setsid
setsockopt
settc
settimeofday
setty
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setvar
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sh
sha
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slapdn
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slaptest
sleep
slogin
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socket
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source
spawn
speed
spinbox
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splain
split
squid
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sscop
ssh
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stab
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su
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sum
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tbl
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text
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tfmtodit
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then
threads
time
tip
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tkerror
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tlsmgr
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top
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tr
trace
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true
truncate
truss
tset
tsort
tty
ttys
type
tzfile
ui
ul
ulimit
umask
unalias
uname
uncomplete
uncompress
undelete
unexpand
unhash
unifdef
unifdefall
uniq
units
unknown
unlimit
unlink
unmount
unset
unsetenv
until
unvis
update
uplevel
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upvar
usbhidaction
usbhidctl
users
utf8
utimes
utmp
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uudecode
uuencode
uuidgen
vacation
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verify
version
vfork
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vi
vidcontrol
vidfont
view
virtual
vis
vt220keys
vwait
w
wait
wait3
wait4
waitpid
wall
wc
wget
what
whatis
where
whereis
which
while
who
whoami
whois
window
winfo
wish
wm
write
writev
wtmp
x509
xargs
xgettext
xmlwf
xstr
xsubpp
yacc
yes
ypcat
ypchfn
ypchpass
ypchsh
ypmatch
yppasswd
ypwhich
yyfix
zcat
zcmp
zdiff
zegrep
zfgrep
zforce
zgrep
zmore
znew
_exit
__syscall
 
FreeBSD/Linux/UNIX General Commands Manual
Hypertext Man Pages
text
 
text(n) 		     Tk Built-In Commands		       text(n)



NAME
       text,  tk_textCopy,  tk_textCut,  tk_textPaste  - Create and manipulate
       text widgets

SYNOPSIS
       text pathName ?options?
       tk_textCopy pathName
       tk_textCut pathName
       tk_textPaste pathName
       -background    -highlightthickness -relief
       -borderwidth   -insertbackground   -selectbackground
       -cursor	 -insertborderwidth  -selectborderwidth
       -exportselection    -insertofftime -selectforeground
       -font	 -insertontime	-setgrid
       -foreground    -insertwidth   -takefocus
       -highlightbackground	-padx	  -xscrollcommand
       -highlightcolor	   -pady     -yscrollcommand

WIDGET-SPECIFIC OPTIONS
       Specifies a boolean that  says  whether	separators  are  automatically
       inserted  in  the  undo stack. Only meaningful when the -undo option is
       true.  Specifies the desired height for the window, in units of charac-
       ters  in  the  font  given  by the -font option.  Must be at least one.
       Specifies the maximum number of	compound  undo	actions  on  the  undo
       stack.  A  zero	or  a  negative  value	imply an unlimited undo stack.
       Requests additional space above each text line in the widget, using any
       of  the	standard  forms  for  screen distances.  If a line wraps, this
       option only applies to the first line on the display.  This option  may
       be  overridden with -spacing1 options in tags.  For lines that wrap (so
       that they cover more than one line on the display) this	option	speci-
       fies  additional space to provide between the display lines that repre-
       sent a single line of text.  The value may have	any  of  the  standard
       forms  for screen distances.  This option may be overridden with -spac-
       ing2 options in tags.  Requests additional space below each  text  line
       in  the	widget,  using any of the standard forms for screen distances.
       If a line wraps, this option only applies to the last line on the  dis-
       play.   This  option  may be overridden with -spacing3 options in tags.
       Specifies one of two states for the text:  normal or disabled.  If  the
       text  is disabled then characters may not be inserted or deleted and no
       insertion cursor will be displayed, even if the input focus is  in  the
       widget.	 Specifies  a  set  of tab stops for the window.  The option's
       value consists of a list of screen distances giving  the  positions  of
       the tab stops, each of which is a distance relative to the left edge of
       the widget  (excluding  borders,  padding,  etc).   Each  position  may
       optionally  be followed in the next list element by one of the keywords
       left, right, center, or numeric, which specifies how  to  justify  text
       relative to the tab stop.  Left is the default; it causes the text fol-
       lowing the tab character to be positioned with its left edge at the tab
       position.   Right  means  that the right edge of the text following the
       tab character is positioned at the tab position, and center means  that
       the text is centered at the tab position.  Numeric means that the deci-
       mal point in the text is positioned at the tab position;  if  there  is
       no  decimal  point  then  the  least significant digit of the number is
       positioned just to the left of the tab position;  if there is no number
       in  the text then the text is right-justified at the tab position.  For
       example, -tabs {2c left 4c 6c center} creates three tab stops  at  two-
       centimeter  intervals;	the  first  two use left justification and the
       third uses center justification.  If the list of  tab  stops  does  not
       have  enough  elements to cover all of the tabs in a text line, then Tk
       extrapolates new tab stops using the spacing  and  alignment  from  the
       last  tab  stop	in the list.  Tab distances must be strictly positive,
       and must always increase from one tab stop to  the  next  (if  not,  an
       error  is  thrown).   The value of the tabs option may be overridden by
       -tabs options in tags.  If no -tabs option is specified, or  if	it  is
       specified  as  an  empty  list,	then Tk uses default tabs spaced every
       eight (average size) characters.  Specifies a boolean that says whether
       the  undo  mechanism is active or not.  Specifies the desired width for
       the window in units of characters  in  the  font  given	by  the  -font
       option.	If the font doesn't have a uniform width then the width of the
       character ``0'' is used in translating from character units  to	screen
       units.	Specifies how to handle lines in the text that are too long to
       be displayed in a single line of the text's window.  The value must  be
       none or char or word.  A wrap mode of none means that each line of text
       appears as exactly one line on the screen;  extra characters that don't
       fit  on	the screen are not displayed.  In the other modes each line of
       text will be broken up into several screen lines if necessary  to  keep
       all the characters visible.  In char mode a screen line break may occur
       after any character; in word mode a line break will  only  be  made  at
       word boundaries.


DESCRIPTION
       The  text command creates a new window (given by the pathName argument)
       and makes it into a text widget.  Additional options, described	above,
       may  be specified on the command line or in the option database to con-
       figure aspects of the text such as its  default	background  color  and
       relief.	The text command returns the path name of the new window.

       A  text	widget displays one or more lines of text and allows that text
       to be edited.  Text widgets support four different kinds of annotations
       on  the	text, called tags, marks, embedded windows or embedded images.
       Tags allow different portions of the text to be displayed with  differ-
       ent fonts and colors.  In addition, Tcl commands can be associated with
       tags so that scripts are invoked when particular actions such  as  key-
       strokes	and  mouse  button  presses  occur in particular ranges of the
       text.  See TAGS below for more details.

       The second form of annotation consists of floating markers in the  text
       called  "marks".   Marks  are used to keep track of various interesting
       positions in the text as it  is	edited.   See  MARKS  below  for  more
       details.

       The third form of annotation allows arbitrary windows to be embedded in
       a text widget.  See EMBEDDED WINDOWS below for more details.

       The fourth form of annotation allows Tk images to be embedded in a text
       widget.	See EMBEDDED IMAGES below for more details.

       The  text widget also has a built-in undo/redo mechanism.  See THE UNDO
       MECHANISM below for more details.

INDICES
       Many of the widget commands for texts take one or more indices as argu-
       ments.  An index is a string used to indicate a particular place within
       a text, such as a place to insert characters or one endpoint of a range
       of  characters  to delete.  Indices have the syntax base modifier modi-
       fier modifier ...  Where base gives a starting point and the  modifiers
       adjust the index from the starting point (e.g. move forward or backward
       one character).	Every index must contain a base, but the modifiers are
       optional.

       The base for an index must have one of the following forms:

       line.char   Indicates  char'th  character on line line.	Lines are num-
		   bered from 1 for consistency with other UNIX programs  that
		   use	this  numbering scheme.  Within a line, characters are
		   numbered from 0.  If char is end then it refers to the new-
		   line character that ends the line.

       @x,y	   Indicates the character that covers the pixel whose x and y
		   coordinates within the text's window are x and y.

       end	   Indicates the end of the text (the character just after the
		   last newline).

       mark	   Indicates  the  character just after the mark whose name is
		   mark.

       tag.first   Indicates the first character in the  text  that  has  been
		   tagged  with tag.  This form generates an error if no char-
		   acters are currently tagged with tag.

       tag.last    Indicates the character just after the last one in the text
		   that  has  been  tagged  with  tag.	This form generates an
		   error if no characters are currently tagged with tag.

       pathName    Indicates the position of the embedded window whose name is
		   pathName.   This  form  generates  an  error if there is no
		   embedded window by the given name.

       imageName   Indicates the position of the embedded image whose name  is
		   imageName.	This  form  generates  an error if there is no
		   embedded image by the given name.

       If the base could match more than one of the above  forms,  such  as  a
       mark and imageName both having the same value, then the form earlier in
       the above list takes precedence.  If modifiers follow the  base	index,
       each  one  of  them  must have one of the forms listed below.  Keywords
       such as chars and wordend may be abbreviated as long as	the  abbrevia-
       tion is unambiguous.

       + count chars
	      Adjust  the  index  forward by count characters, moving to later
	      lines in the text if necessary.  If there are fewer  than  count
	      characters  in  the  text  after the current index, then set the
	      index to the last character in the text.	Spaces on either  side
	      of count are optional.

       - count chars
	      Adjust the index backward by count characters, moving to earlier
	      lines in the text if necessary.  If there are fewer  than  count
	      characters  in  the  text before the current index, then set the
	      index to the first character in the text.  Spaces on either side
	      of count are optional.

       + count lines
	      Adjust  the  index  forward  by  count lines, retaining the same
	      character position within the line.  If  there  are  fewer  than
	      count  lines  after  the line containing the current index, then
	      set the index to refer to the same  character  position  on  the
	      last  line of the text.  Then, if the line is not long enough to
	      contain a character at the indicated character position,	adjust
	      the  character  position	to  refer to the last character of the
	      line  (the  newline).   Spaces  on  either  side	of  count  are
	      optional.

       - count lines
	      Adjust  the  index  backward  by count lines, retaining the same
	      character position within the line.  If  there  are  fewer  than
	      count  lines  before the line containing the current index, then
	      set the index to refer to the same  character  position  on  the
	      first line of the text.  Then, if the line is not long enough to
	      contain a character at the indicated character position,	adjust
	      the  character  position	to  refer to the last character of the
	      line  (the  newline).   Spaces  on  either  side	of  count  are
	      optional.

       linestart
	      Adjust the index to refer to the first character on the line.

       lineend
	      Adjust the index to refer to the last character on the line (the
	      newline).

       wordstart
	      Adjust the index to refer to the first  character  of  the  word
	      containing  the current index.  A word consists of any number of
	      adjacent characters that are letters, digits, or underscores, or
	      a single character that is not one of these.

       wordend
	      Adjust  the  index to refer to the character just after the last
	      one of the word containing the current index.   If  the  current
	      index  refers  to  the last character of the text then it is not
	      modified.

       If more than one modifier is present then they are applied in  left-to-
       right  order.   For  example, the index ``end - 1 chars'' refers to the
       next-to-last character in the text  and	``insert  wordstart  -	1  c''
       refers  to the character just before the first one in the word contain-
       ing the insertion cursor.

TAGS
       The first form of annotation in text widgets is a tag.  A tag is a tex-
       tual  string  that is associated with some of the characters in a text.
       Tags may contain arbitrary characters, but it is probably best to avoid
       using the characters `` '' (space), +, or -: these characters have spe-
       cial meaning in indices, so tags  containing  them  can't  be  used  as
       indices.  There may be any number of tags associated with characters in
       a text.	Each tag may refer to a single character, a range  of  charac-
       ters,  or  several  ranges  of characters.  An individual character may
       have any number of tags associated with it.

       A priority order is defined among tags,	and  this  order  is  used  in
       implementing some of the tag-related functions described below.	When a
       tag is defined (by associating it with characters or setting  its  dis-
       play  options or binding commands to it), it is given a priority higher
       than any existing tag.  The priority order of  tags  may  be  redefined
       using the ``pathName tag raise'' and ``pathName tag lower'' widget com-
       mands.

       Tags serve three purposes in text widgets.  First, they control the way
       information  is	displayed  on  the screen.  By default, characters are
       displayed as determined by the background, font, and foreground options
       for  the  text widget.  However, display options may be associated with
       individual tags using the ``pathName tag  configure''  widget  command.
       If  a  character  has  been tagged, then the display options associated
       with the tag override the default display style.  The following options
       are currently supported for tags:

       -background color
	      Color specifies the background color to use for characters asso-
	      ciated with the tag.  It may have any of the forms  accepted  by
	      Tk_GetColor.

       -bgstipple bitmap
	      Bitmap  specifies a bitmap that is used as a stipple pattern for
	      the background.  It may  have  any  of  the  forms  accepted  by
	      Tk_GetBitmap.   If  bitmap  hasn't  been	specified, or if it is
	      specified as an empty string, then a solid fill will be used for
	      the background.

       -borderwidth pixels
	      Pixels  specifies  the  width of a 3-D border to draw around the
	      background.  It may have any of the forms accepted by Tk_GetPix-
	      els.  This option is used in conjunction with the -relief option
	      to give a 3-D appearance to the background for characters; it is
	      ignored  unless the -background option has been set for the tag.

       -elide boolean
	      Elide specifies whether the data should be elided.  Elided  data
	      is  not  displayed  and takes no space on screen, but further on
	      behaves just as normal data.

       -fgstipple bitmap
	      Bitmap specifies a bitmap that is used as a stipple pattern when
	      drawing  text  and  other  foreground information such as under-
	      lines.  It may have any of the forms accepted  by  Tk_GetBitmap.
	      If  bitmap  hasn't  been	specified, or if it is specified as an
	      empty string, then a solid fill will be used.

       -font fontName
	      FontName is the name of a font to use  for  drawing  characters.
	      It may have any of the forms accepted by Tk_GetFont.

       -foreground color
	      Color  specifies	the  color  to use when drawing text and other
	      foreground information such as underlines.  It may have  any  of
	      the forms accepted by Tk_GetColor.

       -justify justify
	      If  the  first  character  of a display line has a tag for which
	      this option has been specified, then justify determines  how  to
	      justify the line.  It must be one of left, right, or center.  If
	      a line wraps, then the justification for each line on  the  dis-
	      play  is determined by the first character of that display line.

       -lmargin1 pixels
	      If the first character of a text line has a tag for  which  this
	      option  has  been  specified, then pixels specifies how much the
	      line should be indented from the left edge of the window.   Pix-
	      els may have any of the standard forms for screen distances.  If
	      a line of text wraps, this option only applies to the first line
	      on  the  display;  the -lmargin2 option controls the indentation
	      for subsequent lines.

       -lmargin2 pixels
	      If the first character of a display line has  a  tag  for  which
	      this  option  has been specified, and if the display line is not
	      the first for its text line (i.e., the text line	has  wrapped),
	      then  pixels specifies how much the line should be indented from
	      the left edge of the window.  Pixels may have any of  the  stan-
	      dard  forms for screen distances.  This option is only used when
	      wrapping is enabled, and it only applies to the second and later
	      display lines for a text line.

       -offset pixels
	      Pixels  specifies  an amount by which the text's baseline should
	      be offset vertically from the baseline of the overall  line,  in
	      pixels.	For  example, a positive offset can be used for super-
	      scripts and a negative offset can be used for subscripts.   Pix-
	      els may have any of the standard forms for screen distances.

       -overstrike boolean
	      Specifies  whether  or not to draw a horizontal rule through the
	      middle of  characters.   Boolean	may  have  any	of  the  forms
	      accepted by Tcl_GetBoolean.

       -relief relief
	      Relief  specifies the 3-D relief to use for drawing backgrounds,
	      in any of the forms accepted by Tk_GetRelief.   This  option  is
	      used  in	conjunction with the -borderwidth option to give a 3-D
	      appearance to the  background  for  characters;  it  is  ignored
	      unless the -background option has been set for the tag.

       -rmargin pixels
	      If  the  first  character  of a display line has a tag for which
	      this option has been specified, then pixels specifies how wide a
	      margin  to  leave between the end of the line and the right edge
	      of the window.  Pixels may have any of the  standard  forms  for
	      screen  distances.   This  option  is only used when wrapping is
	      enabled.	If a text line wraps, the right margin for  each  line
	      on the display is determined by the first character of that dis-
	      play line.

       -spacing1 pixels
	      Pixels specifies how much additional space should be left  above
	      each  text line, using any of the standard forms for screen dis-
	      tances.  If a line wraps, this option only applies to the  first
	      line on the display.

       -spacing2 pixels
	      For  lines  that wrap, this option specifies how much additional
	      space to leave between the display lines for a single text line.
	      Pixels  may have any of the standard forms for screen distances.

       -spacing3 pixels
	      Pixels specifies how much additional space should be left  below
	      each  text line, using any of the standard forms for screen dis-
	      tances.  If a line wraps, this option only applies to  the  last
	      line on the display.

       -tabs tabList
	      TabList specifies a set of tab stops in the same form as for the
	      -tabs option for the text widget.  This option only applies to a
	      display  line  if it applies to the first character on that dis-
	      play line.  If this option is specified as an empty  string,  it
	      cancels  the  option,  leaving  it  unspecified for the tag (the
	      default).  If the option is specified as a non-empty string that
	      is  an  empty  list, such as -tags { }, then it requests default
	      8-character tabs as described for the tags widget option.

       -underline boolean
	      Boolean specifies whether or not to draw an underline underneath
	      characters.   It	may have any of the forms accepted by Tcl_Get-
	      Boolean.

       -wrap mode
	      Mode specifies how to handle  lines  that  are  wider  than  the
	      text's window.  It has the same legal values as the -wrap option
	      for the text widget:  none, char, or word.  If this  tag	option
	      is specified, it overrides the -wrap option for the text widget.

       If a character has several tags associated with it, and if  their  dis-
       play options conflict, then the options of the highest priority tag are
       used.  If a particular display option hasn't been specified for a  par-
       ticular tag, or if it is specified as an empty string, then that option
       will never be used;  the next-highest-priority tag's option  will  used
       instead.   If  no  tag  specifies a particular display option, then the
       default style for the widget will be used.

       The second purpose for tags is event bindings.  You can associate bind-
       ings  with a tag in much the same way you can associate bindings with a
       widget class:  whenever particular X events occur  on  characters  with
       the  given tag, a given Tcl command will be executed.  Tag bindings can
       be used to give behaviors to ranges of characters; among other  things,
       this  allows  hypertext-like  features to be implemented.  For details,
       see the description of the tag bind widget command below.

       The third use for tags is in managing the selection.  See THE SELECTION
       below.

MARKS
       The  second  form  of  annotation in text widgets is a mark.  Marks are
       used for remembering particular places in a text.  They	are  something
       like  tags,  in	that  they  have names and they refer to places in the
       file, but a mark isn't associated with particular characters.  Instead,
       a  mark is associated with the gap between two characters.  Only a sin-
       gle position may be associated with a mark at any given time.   If  the
       characters  around  a  mark are deleted the mark will still remain;  it
       will just have new neighbor characters.	In contrast, if the characters
       containing  a tag are deleted then the tag will no longer have an asso-
       ciation with characters in the file.  Marks may be manipulated with the
       ``pathName  mark''  widget  command, and their current locations may be
       determined by using the mark name as an index in widget commands.

       Each mark also has a "gravity", which is either	left  or  right.   The
       gravity	for  a	mark  specifies  what happens to the mark when text is
       inserted at the point of the mark.  If a mark has  left	gravity,  then
       the  mark  is  treated  as  if it were attached to the character on its
       left, so the mark will remain to the left of any text inserted  at  the
       mark position.  If the mark has right gravity, new text inserted at the
       mark position will appear to the left of the mark  (so  that  the  mark
       remains rightmost).  The gravity for a mark defaults to right.

       The  name  space  for  marks is different from that for tags:  the same
       name may be used for both a mark and a tag, but they will refer to dif-
       ferent things.

       Two marks have special significance.  First, the mark insert is associ-
       ated with the insertion cursor, as described under THE INSERTION CURSOR
       below.  Second, the mark current is associated with the character clos-
       est to the mouse and is adjusted automatically to track the mouse posi-
       tion and any changes to the text in the widget (one exception:  current
       is not updated in response to mouse motions if a mouse button is  down;
       the  update  will  be  deferred	until  all  mouse  buttons  have  been
       released).  Neither of these special marks may be deleted.

EMBEDDED WINDOWS
       The third form of annotation in text widgets  is  an  embedded  window.
       Each  embedded  window  annotation causes a window to be displayed at a
       particular point in  the text.  There may be  any  number  of  embedded
       windows	in  a  text  widget, and any widget may be used as an embedded
       window (subject to the  usual  rules  for  geometry  management,  which
       require	the  text  window to be the parent of the embedded window or a
       descendant of its parent).   The  embedded  window's  position  on  the
       screen will be updated as the text is modified or scrolled, and it will
       be mapped and unmapped as it moves into and out of the visible area  of
       the  text  widget.  Each embedded window occupies one character's worth
       of index space in the text widget, and it may be referred to either  by
       the  name  of  its  embedded  window or by its position in the widget's
       index space.  If the range of text containing the  embedded  window  is
       deleted then the window is destroyed.

       When  an embedded window is added to a text widget with the window cre-
       ate widget command, several configuration  options  may	be  associated
       with  it.  These options may be	modified later with the window config-
       ure widget command.  The following options are currently supported:

       -align where
	      If the window is not as tall as the line in  which  it  is  dis-
	      played,  this option determines where the window is displayed in
	      the line.  Where must have one of the values top (align the  top
	      of the window with the top of the line), center (center the win-
	      dow within the range of the line), bottom (align the  bottom  of
	      the  window  with  the  bottom  of the line's area), or baseline
	      (align the bottom of the window with the baseline of the	line).

       -create script
	      Specifies  a Tcl script that may be evaluated to create the win-
	      dow for the annotation.  If no -window option has been specified
	      for  the annotation this script will be evaluated when the anno-
	      tation is about to be displayed on the screen.  Script must cre-
	      ate a window for the annotation and return the name of that win-
	      dow as its result.  If the annotation's window  should  ever  be
	      deleted,	script will be evaluated again the next time the anno-
	      tation is displayed.

       -padx pixels
	      Pixels specifies the amount of extra space to leave on each side
	      of  the  embedded  window.   It  may have any of the usual forms
	      defined for a screen distance.

       -pady pixels
	      Pixels specifies the amount of extra space to leave on  the  top
	      and  on  the  bottom of the embedded window.  It may have any of
	      the usual forms defined for a screen distance.

       -stretch boolean
	      If the requested height of the embedded window is less than  the
	      height  of the line in which it is displayed, this option can be
	      used to specify whether the window should  be  stretched	verti-
	      cally  to fill its line.	If the -pady option has been specified
	      as well, then the requested padding will be retained even if the
	      window is stretched.

       -window pathName
	      Specifies the name of a window to display in the annotation.

EMBEDDED IMAGES
       The  final  form  of  annotation  in text widgets is an embedded image.
       Each embedded image annotation causes an image to  be  displayed  at  a
       particular  point  in   the  text.  There may be any number of embedded
       images in a text widget, and a particular image may be embedded in mul-
       tiple places in the same text widget.  The embedded image's position on
       the screen will be updated as the text is modified or  scrolled.   Each
       embedded  image	occupies  one  character's worth of index space in the
       text widget, and it may be referred to either by its  position  in  the
       widget's  index	space,	or  the  name it is assigned when the image is
       inserted into the text widget with image create.  If the range of  text
       containing the embedded image is deleted then that copy of the image is
       removed from the screen.

       When an embedded image is added to a text widget with the image	create
       widget  command,  a  name  unique  to  this  instance  of  the image is
       returned.  This name may then be used to refer to this image  instance.
       The  name  is  taken  to  be  the  value of the -name option (described
       below).	If the -name option is not provided, the -image name  is  used
       instead.   If  the imageName is already in use in the text widget, then
       #nn is added to the end of the imageName,  where  nn  is  an  arbitrary
       integer.   This	insures  the  imageName  is unique.  Once this name is
       assigned to this instance of the image, it does not change, even though
       the -image or -name values can be changed with image configure.

       When  an embedded image is added to a text widget with the image create
       widget command, several configuration options may  be  associated  with
       it.   These options may be modified later with the image configure wid-
       get command.  The following options are currently supported:

       -align where
	      If the image is not as tall as the line  in  which  it  is  dis-
	      played,  this  option determines where the image is displayed in
	      the line.  Where must have one of the values top (align the  top
	      of the image with the top of the line), center (center the image
	      within the range of the line), bottom (align the bottom  of  the
	      image  with  the	bottom of the line's area), or baseline (align
	      the bottom of the image with the baseline of the line).

       -image image
	      Specifies the name of the Tk image to display in the annotation.
	      If image is not a valid Tk image, then an error is returned.

       -name ImageName
	      Specifies  the  name  by which this image instance may be refer-
	      enced in the text widget. If ImageName is not supplied, then the
	      name  of	the  Tk  image	is  used instead.  If the imageName is
	      already in use, #nn is appended  to  the	end  of  the  name  as
	      described above.

       -padx pixels
	      Pixels specifies the amount of extra space to leave on each side
	      of the embedded image.  It may  have  any  of  the  usual  forms
	      defined for a screen distance.

       -pady pixels
	      Pixels  specifies  the amount of extra space to leave on the top
	      and on the bottom of the embedded image.	It may have any of the
	      usual forms defined for a screen distance.

THE SELECTION
       Selection  support  is  implemented  via  tags.	If the exportSelection
       option for the text widget is true then the sel tag will be  associated
       with the selection:

       [1]    Whenever	characters  are  tagged  with sel the text widget will
	      claim ownership of the selection.

       [2]    Attempts to retrieve the selection will be serviced by the  text
	      widget, returning all the characters with the sel tag.

       [3]    If  the  selection  is claimed away by another application or by
	      another window within this application, then the sel tag will be
	      removed from all characters in the text.

       [4]    Whenever the sel tag range changes a virtual event <>
	      is generated.

       The sel tag is automatically defined when a text widget is created, and
       it  may not be deleted with the ``pathName tag delete'' widget command.
       Furthermore, the selectBackground, selectBorderWidth,  and  selectFore-
       ground  options	for the text widget are tied to the -background, -bor-
       derwidth, and -foreground options for the sel tag:  changes  in	either
       will automatically be reflected in the other.

THE INSERTION CURSOR
       The  mark named insert has special significance in text widgets.  It is
       defined automatically when a text widget is created and it may  not  be
       unset with the ``pathName mark unset'' widget command.  The insert mark
       represents the position of the insertion cursor, and the insertion cur-
       sor  will automatically be drawn at this point whenever the text widget
       has the input focus.

THE MODIFIED FLAG
       The text widget can keep track of changes to the content of the	widget
       by means of the modified flag. Inserting or deleting text will set this
       flag. The flag can be queried,  set  and  cleared  programmatically  as
       well.  Whenever	the flag changes state a <> virtual event is
       generated. See the edit modified widget command for more details.

THE UNDO MECHANISM
       The text widget has an unlimited undo  and  redo  mechanism  (when  the
       -undo  widget  option  is  true)  which records every insert and delete
       action on a stack.

       Boundaries (called "separators") are  inserted  between	edit  actions.
       The  purpose  of  these	separators  is	to  group inserts, deletes and
       replaces into one compound edit action.	When undoing a	change	every-
       thing  between  two  separators will be undone.	The undone changes are
       then moved to the redo stack, so that an  undone  edit  can  be	redone
       again.	The  redo  stack  is  cleared  whenever  new  edit actions are
       recorded on the undo stack.  The undo and redo stacks can be cleared to
       keep their depth under control.

       Separators  are	inserted automatically when the -autoseparators widget
       option is true.	You can insert separators  programmatically  as  well.
       If a separator is already present at the top of the undo stack no other
       will be inserted.  That means that two separators on the undo stack are
       always separated by at least one insert or delete action.

       The  undo  mechanism  is  also linked to the modified flag.  This means
       that undoing or redoing changes can take a modified text widget back to
       the  unmodified	state  or  vice  versa.  The modified flag will be set
       automatically to the appropriate state.	This automatic	coupling  does
       not  work  when	the  modified flag has been set by the user, until the
       flag has been reset again.

       See below for the edit widget command that controls the undo mechanism.

WIDGET COMMAND
       The  text  command  creates a new Tcl command whose name is the same as
       the path name of the text's window.  This command may be used to invoke
       various	operations  on the widget.  It has the following general form:
       pathName option ?arg arg ...?  PathName is the  name  of  the  command,
       which  is the same as the text widget's path name.  Option and the args
       determine the exact behavior of the command.   The  following  commands
       are possible for text widgets:

       pathName bbox index
	      Returns  a  list	of four elements describing the screen area of
	      the character given by index.  The first	two  elements  of  the
	      list  give  the  x and y coordinates of the upper-left corner of
	      the area occupied by the character, and the  last  two  elements
	      give the width and height of the area.  If the character is only
	      partially visible on the screen, then the return value  reflects
	      just  the  visible part.	If the character is not visible on the
	      screen then the return value is an empty list.

       pathName cget option
	      Returns the current value of the configuration option  given  by
	      option.	Option may have any of the values accepted by the text
	      command.

       pathName compare index1 op index2
	      Compares the indices given by index1 and index2 according to the
	      relational  operator given by op, and returns 1 if the relation-
	      ship is satisfied and 0 if it isn't.  Op	must  be  one  of  the
	      operators  <,  <=,  ==,  >=,  >,	or  !=.  If op is == then 1 is
	      returned if the two indices refer to the same character,	if  op
	      is < then 1 is returned if index1 refers to an earlier character
	      in the text than index2, and so on.

       pathName configure ?option? ?value option value ...?
	      Query or modify the configuration options of the widget.	If  no
	      option is specified, returns a list describing all of the avail-
	      able options for pathName (see Tk_ConfigureInfo for  information
	      on  the  format  of  this list).	If option is specified with no
	      value, then the command returns a list describing the one  named
	      option (this list will be identical to the corresponding sublist
	      of the value returned if no option is  specified).   If  one  or
	      more option-value pairs are specified, then the command modifies
	      the given widget option(s) to have the given value(s);  in  this
	      case  the  command returns an empty string.  Option may have any
	      of the values accepted by the text command.

       pathName debug ?boolean?
	      If boolean is specified, then it must have one of  the  true  or
	      false values accepted by Tcl_GetBoolean.	If the value is a true
	      one then internal consistency checks will be turned on in the B-
	      tree  code associated with text widgets.	If boolean has a false
	      value then the debugging checks will be turned off.   In	either
	      case  the  command  returns  an empty string.  If boolean is not
	      specified then the command returns on or off to indicate whether
	      or  not  debugging  is  turned  on.  There is a single debugging
	      switch shared by all text widgets:  turning debugging on or  off
	      in  any  widget turns it on or off for all widgets.  For widgets
	      with large amounts of text, the consistency checks may  cause  a
	      noticeable slow-down.

       When  debugging	is  turned on, the drawing routines of the text widget
       set the global variables tk_textRedraw and tk_textRelayout to the lists
       of  indices that are redrawn.  The values of these variables are tested
       by Tk's test suite.

       pathName delete index1 ?index2 ...?
	      Delete a range of characters from the text.  If both index1  and
	      index2  are  specified,  then delete all the characters starting
	      with the one given by index1 and	stopping  just	before	index2
	      (i.e.  the  character  at  index2  is  not  deleted).  If index2
	      doesn't specify a position later in the text than index1 then no
	      characters are deleted.  If index2 isn't specified then the sin-
	      gle character at index1 is deleted.   It	is  not  allowable  to
	      delete  characters  in a way that would leave the text without a
	      newline as the last character.  The  command  returns  an  empty
	      string.  If more indices are given, multiple ranges of text will
	      be deleted.  All indices are first checked for  validity	before
	      any deletions are made.  They are sorted and the text is removed
	      from the last range to the first range to deleted text does  not
	      cause  an  undesired  index  shifting side-effects.  If multiple
	      ranges with the same start index are  given,  then  the  longest
	      range  is used.  If overlapping ranges are given, then they will
	      be merged into spans that do not cause deletion of text  outside
	      the given ranges due to text shifted during deletion.

       pathName dlineinfo index
	      Returns  a  list with five elements describing the area occupied
	      by the display line containing index.  The first two elements of
	      the  list  give the x and y coordinates of the upper-left corner
	      of the area occupied by the line, the third and fourth  elements
	      give  the  width	and  height of the area, and the fifth element
	      gives the position of the baseline for the line,	measured  down
	      from  the  top of the area.  All of this information is measured
	      in pixels.  If the current  wrap	mode  is  none	and  the  line
	      extends  beyond  the boundaries of the window, the area returned
	      reflects the entire area of the  line,  including  the  portions
	      that  are  out  of  the window.  If the line is shorter than the
	      full width of the window then the area  returned	reflects  just
	      the  portion  of	the  line  that  is occupied by characters and
	      embedded windows.  If the display line containing index  is  not
	      visible on the screen then the return value is an empty list.

       pathName dump ?switches? index1 ?index2?
	      Return  the  contents  of the text widget from index1 up to, but
	      not including index2, including the text and  information  about
	      marks,  tags, and embedded windows.  If index2 is not specified,
	      then it defaults to one character past index1.  The  information
	      is returned in the following format:

	      key1 value1 index1 key2 value2 index2 ...

	      The  possible  key  values are text, mark, tagon, tagoff, image,
	      and window.  The corresponding value is the text, mark name, tag
	      name,  image name, or window name.  The index information is the
	      index of the start of the text, mark, tag transition,  image  or
	      window.  One or more of the following switches (or abbreviations
	      thereof) may be specified to control the dump:

	      -all   Return information about all elements: text, marks, tags,
		     images and windows.  This is the default.

	      -command command
		     Instead of returning the information as the result of the
		     dump operation, invoke the command on each element of the
		     text  widget  within  the	range.	 The command has three
		     arguments appended to it before it is evaluated: the key,
		     value, and index.

	      -image Include information about images in the dump results.

	      -mark  Include information about marks in the dump results.

	      -tag   Include  information  about  tag  transitions in the dump
		     results. Tag information is returned as tagon and	tagoff
		     elements that indicate the begin and end of each range of
		     each tag, respectively.

	      -text  Include information about text in the dump results.   The
		     value  is	the  text up to the next element or the end of
		     range indicated by index2.  A text element does not  span
		     newlines.	 A  multi-line	block of text that contains no
		     marks or tag transitions will still be dumped as a set of
		     text  segments that each end with a newline.  The newline
		     is part of the value.

	      -window
		     Include information about embedded windows  in  the  dump
		     results.	The  value  of	a  window  is its Tk pathname,
		     unless the window has not been  created  yet.   (It  must
		     have  a  create script.)  In this case an empty string is
		     returned, and you must query  the	window	by  its  index
		     position to get more information.

       pathName edit option ?arg arg ...?
	      This  command controls the undo mechanism and the modified flag.
	      The exact behavior of the command depends on the option argument
	      that follows the edit argument.  The following forms of the com-
	      mand are currently supported:

	      pathName edit modified ?boolean?
		     If boolean is not specified, returns the modified flag of
		     the  widget.  The insert, delete, edit undo and edit redo
		     commands or the user can set or clear the modified  flag.
		     If  boolean  is  specified, sets the modified flag of the
		     widget to boolean.

	      pathName edit redo
		     When the -undo option is true, reapplies the last	undone
		     edits  provided no other edits were done since then. Gen-
		     erates an error when the redo stack is empty.  Does noth-
		     ing when the -undo option is false.

	      pathName edit reset
		     Clears the undo and redo stacks.

	      pathName edit separator
		     Inserts  a  separator  (boundary) on the undo stack. Does
		     nothing when the -undo option is false.

	      pathName edit undo
		     Undoes the last edit action  when	the  -undo  option  is
		     true.   An  edit  action is defined as all the insert and
		     delete commands that are recorded on the  undo  stack  in
		     between  two separators. Generates an error when the undo
		     stack is empty.  Does nothing when the  -undo  option  is
		     false.

       pathName get index1 ?index2 ...?
	      Return  a  range	of characters from the text.  The return value
	      will be all the characters in the text  starting	with  the  one
	      whose index is index1 and ending just before the one whose index
	      is index2 (the character at index2 will not  be  returned).   If
	      index2  is  omitted  then  the  single  character  at  index1 is
	      returned.  If there are no characters  in  the  specified  range
	      (e.g.  index1 is past the end of the file or index2 is less than
	      or equal to index1) then an empty string is  returned.   If  the
	      specified  range contains embedded windows, no information about
	      them is included in the  returned  string.   If  multiple  index
	      pairs  are  given, multiple ranges of text will be returned in a
	      list.  Invalid ranges will not be represented with empty strings
	      in  the  list.   The  ranges are returned in the order passed to
	      get.

       pathName image option ?arg arg ...?
	      This command is used to manipulate embedded images.  The	behav-
	      ior  of  the command depends on the option argument that follows
	      the tag argument.  The following forms of the command  are  cur-
	      rently supported:

	      pathName image cget index option
		     Returns the value of a configuration option for an embed-
		     ded image.  Index	identifies  the  embedded  image,  and
		     option specifies a particular configuration option, which
		     must be one of the ones listed in	the  section  EMBEDDED
		     IMAGES.

	      pathName image configure index ?option value ...?
		     Query or modify the configuration options for an embedded
		     image.   If  no  option  is  specified,  returns  a  list
		     describing  all of the available options for the embedded
		     image at index (see Tk_ConfigureInfo for  information  on
		     the format of this list).	If option is specified with no
		     value, then the command returns a list describing the one
		     named  option  (this list will be identical to the corre-
		     sponding sublist of the value returned if	no  option  is
		     specified).  If one or more option-value pairs are speci-
		     fied, then the command modifies the  given  option(s)  to
		     have  the	given  value(s);   in  this  case  the command
		     returns an empty string.  See EMBEDDED IMAGES for	infor-
		     mation on the options that are supported.

	      pathName image create index ?option value ...?
		     This  command  creates a new image annotation, which will
		     appear in the text at the position given by  index.   Any
		     number  of option-value pairs may be specified to config-
		     ure the annotation.  Returns a unique identifier that may
		     be used as an index to refer to this image.  See EMBEDDED
		     IMAGES for information on the options that are supported,
		     and a description of the identifier returned.

	      pathName image names
		     Returns  a list whose elements are the names of all image
		     instances currently embedded in window.

       pathName index index
	      Returns  the  position  corresponding  to  index	in  the   form
	      line.char  where line is the line number and char is the charac-
	      ter number.  Index may have any of  the  forms  described  under
	      INDICES above.

       pathName insert index chars ?tagList chars tagList ...?
	      Inserts  all of the chars arguments just before the character at
	      index.  If index refers to the end of the  text  (the  character
	      after  the  last	newline)  then	the  new text is inserted just
	      before the last newline instead.	If there  is  a  single  chars
	      argument and no tagList, then the new text will receive any tags
	      that are present on both the character before and the  character
	      after  the  insertion  point; if a tag is present on only one of
	      these characters then it will not be applied to  the  new  text.
	      If tagList is specified then it consists of a list of tag names;
	      the new characters will receive all of the tags in this list and
	      no  others,  regardless of the tags present around the insertion
	      point.  If multiple chars-tagList argument  pairs  are  present,
	      they produce the same effect as if a separate insert widget com-
	      mand had been issued for each pair, in order.  The last  tagList
	      argument may be omitted.

       pathName mark option ?arg arg ...?
	      This command is used to manipulate marks.  The exact behavior of
	      the command depends on the option argument that follows the mark
	      argument.  The following forms of the command are currently sup-
	      ported:

	      pathName mark gravity markName ?direction?
		     If direction is not specified, returns left or  right  to
		     indicate  which  of  its  adjacent characters markName is
		     attached to.  If direction is specified, it must be  left
		     or  right;  the  gravity  of markName is set to the given
		     value.

	      pathName mark names
		     Returns a list whose elements are the names  of  all  the
		     marks that are currently set.

	      pathName mark next index
		     Returns  the name of the next mark at or after index.  If
		     index is specified in numerical form, then the search for
		     the next mark begins at that index.  If index is the name
		     of a mark, then the search for the next mark begins imme-
		     diately after that mark.  This can still return a mark at
		     the same position if there are multiple marks at the same
		     index.  These semantics mean that the mark next operation
		     can be used to step through all the marks in a text  wid-
		     get in the same order as the mark information returned by
		     the dump operation.  If a mark has been set to  the  spe-
		     cial  end	index,	then  it  appears to be after end with
		     respect to the mark next operation.  An empty  string  is
		     returned if there are no marks after index.

	      pathName mark previous index
		     Returns  the  name  of  the  mark at or before index.  If
		     index is specified in numerical form, then the search for
		     the  previous  mark begins with the character just before
		     that index.  If index is the name of  a  mark,  then  the
		     search  for  the next mark begins immediately before that
		     mark.  This can still return a mark at the same  position
		     if  there	are  multiple  marks at the same index.  These
		     semantics mean that the mark previous  operation  can  be
		     used  to  step  through all the marks in a text widget in
		     the reverse order as the mark information returned by the
		     dump operation.  An empty string is returned if there are
		     no marks before index.

	      pathName mark set markName index
		     Sets the mark named markName to a	position  just	before
		     the  character  at index.	If markName already exists, it
		     is moved from its old position; if it  doesn't  exist,  a
		     new  mark	is  created.   This  command  returns an empty
		     string.

	      pathName mark unset markName ?markName markName ...?
		     Remove the mark corresponding to  each  of  the  markName
		     arguments.   The  removed	marks  will  not  be usable in
		     indices and will not  be  returned  by  future  calls  to
		     ``pathName  mark  names''.  This command returns an empty
		     string.

       pathName scan option args
	      This command is used to implement scanning on texts.  It has two
	      forms, depending on option:

	      pathName scan mark x y
		     Records  x and y and the current view in the text window,
		     for use in conjunction with later scan  dragto  commands.
		     Typically	this command is associated with a mouse button
		     press in the widget.  It returns an empty string.

	      pathName scan dragto x y
		     This command computes the difference between its x and  y
		     arguments and the x and y arguments to the last scan mark
		     command for the widget.  It then adjusts the view	by  10
		     times  the  difference  in  coordinates.  This command is
		     typically associated with mouse motion events in the wid-
		     get,  to  produce the effect of dragging the text at high
		     speed through the window.	The return value is  an  empty
		     string.

       pathName search ?switches? pattern index ?stopIndex?
	      Searches	the  text in pathName starting at index for a range of
	      characters that matches pattern.	If a match is found, the index
	      of the first character in the match is returned as result;  oth-
	      erwise an empty string is returned.  One or more of the  follow-
	      ing switches (or abbreviations thereof) may be specified to con-
	      trol the search:

	      -forwards
		     The search will proceed forward through the text, finding
		     the  first  matching range starting at or after the posi-
		     tion given by index.  This is the default.

	      -backwards
		     The search will proceed backward through the text,  find-
		     ing the matching range closest to index whose first char-
		     acter is before index.

	      -exact Use exact matching:  the characters in the matching range
		     must  be  identical  to  those  in  pattern.  This is the
		     default.

	      -regexp
		     Treat pattern  as	a  regular  expression	and  match  it
		     against  the text using the rules for regular expressions
		     (see the regexp command for details).

	      -nocase
		     Ignore case differences between the pattern and the text.

	      -count varName
		     The  argument  following -count gives the name of a vari-
		     able; if a match is found, the number of index  positions
		     between  beginning  and end of the matching range will be
		     stored in the variable.  If there are no embedded	images
		     or windows in the matching range (and there are no elided
		     characters if -elide is not given), this is equivalent to
		     the  number  of  characters matched.  In either case, the
		     range matchIdx to matchIdx + $count chars will return the
		     entire matched text.

	      -elide Find  elided  (hidden) text as well. By default only dis-
		     played text is searched.

	      --     This switch has no effect except to terminate the list of
		     switches:	the  next  argument will be treated as pattern
		     even if it starts with -.

	      The matching range must be entirely  within  a  single  line  of
	      text.   For regular expression matching the newlines are removed
	      from the ends of the lines before matching:  use the  $  feature
	      in  regular  expressions	to match the end of a line.  For exact
	      matching the newlines are retained.  If stopIndex is  specified,
	      the  search  stops at that index: for forward searches, no match
	      at  or  after  stopIndex	will  be  considered;	for   backward
	      searches,  no  match  earlier in the text than stopIndex will be
	      considered.  If stopIndex is omitted, the entire	text  will  be
	      searched:  when the beginning or end of the text is reached, the
	      search continues at the other end until the starting location is
	      reached  again;	if stopIndex is specified, no wrap-around will
	      occur.

       pathName see index
	      Adjusts the view in the window so that the  character  given  by
	      index  is  completely visible.  If index is already visible then
	      the command does nothing.  If index is a short distance  out  of
	      view,  the  command  adjusts  the view just enough to make index
	      visible at the edge of the window.  If index is far out of view,
	      then the command centers index in the window.

       pathName tag option ?arg arg ...?
	      This  command is used to manipulate tags.  The exact behavior of
	      the command depends on the option argument that follows the  tag
	      argument.  The following forms of the command are currently sup-
	      ported:

	      pathName tag add tagName index1 ?index2 index1 index2 ...?
		     Associate the tag tagName	with  all  of  the  characters
		     starting  with  index1 and ending just before index2 (the
		     character at index2 isn't tagged).  A single command  may
		     contain  any  number of index1-index2 pairs.  If the last
		     index2 is omitted then the single character at index1  is
		     tagged.   If  there  are  no  characters in the specified
		     range (e.g. index1 is past the end of the file or	index2
		     is  less than or equal to index1) then the command has no
		     effect.

	      pathName tag bind tagName ?sequence? ?script?
		     This command associates script with the tag given by tag-
		     Name.   Whenever  the  event  sequence  given by sequence
		     occurs for a character that has been tagged with tagName,
		     the script will be invoked.  This widget command is simi-
		     lar to the bind command except that it operates on  char-
		     acters  in  a  text  rather than entire widgets.  See the
		     bind manual entry for complete details on the  syntax  of
		     sequence and the substitutions performed on script before
		     invoking it.  If all arguments are specified then	a  new
		     binding  is  created,  replacing any existing binding for
		     the same sequence and tagName (if the first character  of
		     script  is ``+'' then script augments an existing binding
		     rather than replacing it).  In this case the return value
		     is  an  empty string.  If script is omitted then the com-
		     mand returns  the	script	associated  with  tagName  and
		     sequence  (an  error occurs if there is no such binding).
		     If both script and sequence are omitted then the  command
		     returns  a  list  of all the sequences for which bindings
		     have been defined for tagName.

		     The only events for which bindings may be	specified  are
		     those  related  to the mouse and keyboard (such as Enter,
		     Leave, ButtonPress,  Motion,  and	KeyPress)  or  virtual
		     events.  Event bindings for a text widget use the current
		     mark described under MARKS above.	An Enter  event  trig-
		     gers  for a tag when the tag first becomes present on the
		     current character, and a Leave event triggers for	a  tag
		     when  it  ceases  to be present on the current character.
		     Enter and Leave events can happen either because the cur-
		     rent mark moved or because the character at that position
		     changed.  Note that these events are different than Enter
		     and  Leave events for windows.  Mouse and keyboard events
		     are directed to the  current  character.	If  a  virtual
		     event is used in a binding, that binding can trigger only
		     if the virtual event is defined by an  underlying	mouse-
		     related or keyboard-related event.

		     It is possible for the current character to have multiple
		     tags, and for each of them to have a binding for  a  par-
		     ticular event sequence.  When this occurs, one binding is
		     invoked for each tag, in order  from  lowest-priority  to
		     highest  priority.   If there are multiple matching bind-
		     ings for a single tag, then the most specific binding  is
		     chosen  (see  the	manual	entry for the bind command for
		     details).	continue and  break  commands  within  binding
		     scripts  are  processed  in  the same way as for bindings
		     created with the bind command.

		     If bindings are created for the widget as a  whole  using
		     the bind command, then those bindings will supplement the
		     tag bindings.  The tag bindings will  be  invoked	first,
		     followed by bindings for the window as a whole.

	      pathName tag cget tagName option
		     This  command  returns  the  current  value of the option
		     named option associated with the tag  given  by  tagName.
		     Option  may  have	any  of the values accepted by the tag
		     configure widget command.

	      pathName tag configure tagName ?option?  ?value?	?option  value
	      ...?
		     This command is similar to the configure  widget  command
		     except  that  it modifies options associated with the tag
		     given by tagName instead of  modifying  options  for  the
		     overall text widget.  If no option is specified, the com-
		     mand returns a  list  describing  all  of	the  available
		     options for tagName (see Tk_ConfigureInfo for information
		     on the format of this list).  If option is specified with
		     no  value, then the command returns a list describing the
		     one named option (this list will be identical to the cor-
		     responding  sublist of the value returned if no option is
		     specified).  If one or more option-value pairs are speci-
		     fied,  then  the  command modifies the given option(s) to
		     have the given value(s) in tagName; in this case the com-
		     mand returns an empty string.  See TAGS above for details
		     on the options available for tags.

	      pathName tag delete tagName ?tagName ...?
		     Deletes all tag information for each of the tagName argu-
		     ments.   The command removes the tags from all characters
		     in the file and also deletes any other information  asso-
		     ciated with the tags, such as bindings and display infor-
		     mation.  The command returns an empty string.

	      pathName tag lower tagName ?belowThis?
		     Changes the priority of tag tagName so that  it  is  just
		     lower  in	priority than the tag whose name is belowThis.
		     If belowThis  is  omitted,  then  tagName's  priority  is
		     changed to make it lowest priority of all tags.

	      pathName tag names ?index?
		     Returns  a  list  whose elements are the names of all the
		     tags that are active at the character position  given  by
		     index.   If  index is omitted, then the return value will
		     describe all of the tags that exist for  the  text  (this
		     includes  all  tags  that have been named in a ``pathName
		     tag'' widget  command  but  haven't  been	deleted  by  a
		     ``pathName  tag delete'' widget command, even if no char-
		     acters are currently marked with the tag).  The list will
		     be sorted in order from lowest priority to highest prior-
		     ity.

	      pathName tag nextrange tagName index1 ?index2?
		     This command searches the text for a range of  characters
		     tagged  with  tagName  where  the	first character of the
		     range is no earlier than the character at index1  and  no
		     later  than  the  character  just	before index2 (a range
		     starting at index2 will not be considered).   If  several
		     matching ranges exist, the first one is chosen.  The com-
		     mand's return value is a list  containing	two  elements,
		     which  are  the index of the first character of the range
		     and the index of the character just after the last one in
		     the range.  If no matching range is found then the return
		     value is an empty string.	If index2 is not given then it
		     defaults to the end of the text.

	      pathName tag prevrange tagName index1 ?index2?
		     This  command searches the text for a range of characters
		     tagged with tagName where	the  first  character  of  the
		     range  is	before	the character at index1 and no earlier
		     than the character at index2 (a range starting at	index2
		     will  be  considered).  If several matching ranges exist,
		     the one closest  to  index1  is  chosen.	The  command's
		     return value is a list containing two elements, which are
		     the index of the first character of  the  range  and  the
		     index  of	the  character	just after the last one in the
		     range.  If no matching range is  found  then  the	return
		     value is an empty string.	If index2 is not given then it
		     defaults to the beginning of the text.

	      pathName tag raise tagName ?aboveThis?
		     Changes the priority of tag tagName so that  it  is  just
		     higher  in priority than the tag whose name is aboveThis.
		     If aboveThis  is  omitted,  then  tagName's  priority  is
		     changed to make it highest priority of all tags.

	      pathName tag ranges tagName
		     Returns  a list describing all of the ranges of text that
		     have been tagged with tagName.  The first two elements of
		     the list describe the first tagged range in the text, the
		     next two elements describe the second range, and  so  on.
		     The  first element of each pair contains the index of the
		     first character of the range, and the second  element  of
		     the  pair	contains the index of the character just after
		     the last one in the range.  If there  are	no  characters
		     tagged with tag then an empty string is returned.

	      pathName tag remove tagName index1 ?index2 index1 index2 ...?
		     Remove  the tag tagName from all of the characters start-
		     ing at index1 and ending just before index2 (the  charac-
		     ter at index2 isn't affected).  A single command may con-
		     tain any number of  index1-index2	pairs.	 If  the  last
		     index2  is omitted then the single character at index1 is
		     tagged.  If there are  no	characters  in	the  specified
		     range  (e.g. index1 is past the end of the file or index2
		     is less than or equal to index1) then the command has  no
		     effect.  This command returns an empty string.

       pathName window option ?arg arg ...?
	      This command is used to manipulate embedded windows.  The behav-
	      ior of the command depends on the option argument  that  follows
	      the  tag	argument.  The following forms of the command are cur-
	      rently supported:

	      pathName window cget index option
		     Returns the value of a configuration option for an embed-
		     ded  window.   Index  identifies the embedded window, and
		     option specifies a particular configuration option, which
		     must  be  one  of the ones listed in the section EMBEDDED
		     WINDOWS.

	      pathName window configure index ?option value ...?
		     Query or modify the configuration options for an embedded
		     window.   If  no  option  is  specified,  returns	a list
		     describing all of the available options for the  embedded
		     window  at index (see Tk_ConfigureInfo for information on
		     the format of this list).	If option is specified with no
		     value, then the command returns a list describing the one
		     named option (this list will be identical to  the	corre-
		     sponding  sublist	of  the value returned if no option is
		     specified).  If one or more option-value pairs are speci-
		     fied,  then  the  command modifies the given option(s) to
		     have the  given  value(s);   in  this  case  the  command
		     returns an empty string.  See EMBEDDED WINDOWS for infor-
		     mation on the options that are supported.

	      pathName window create index ?option value ...?
		     This command creates a new window annotation, which  will
		     appear  in  the text at the position given by index.  Any
		     number of option-value pairs may be specified to  config-
		     ure the annotation.  See EMBEDDED WINDOWS for information
		     on the options that  are  supported.   Returns  an  empty
		     string.

	      pathName window names
		     Returns  a  list whose elements are the names of all win-
		     dows currently embedded in window.

       pathName xview option args
	      This command is used to query and change the horizontal position
	      of the text in the widget's window.  It can take any of the fol-
	      lowing forms:

	      pathName xview
		     Returns a list containing two elements.  Each element  is
		     a	real fraction between 0 and 1;	together they describe
		     the portion of the document's  horizontal	span  that  is
		     visible in the window.  For example, if the first element
		     is .2 and the second element is .6, 20% of  the  text  is
		     off-screen  to the left, the middle 40% is visible in the
		     window, and 40% of the text is off-screen to  the	right.
		     The  fractions  refer only to the lines that are actually
		     visible in the window:  if the lines in  the  window  are
		     all  very	short,	so that they are entirely visible, the
		     returned fractions will be 0 and 1,  even	if  there  are
		     other lines in the text that are much wider than the win-
		     dow.  These are the same values passed to scrollbars  via
		     the -xscrollcommand option.

	      pathName xview moveto fraction
		     Adjusts  the  view  in the window so that fraction of the
		     horizontal span of the text is off-screen	to  the  left.
		     Fraction is a fraction between 0 and 1.

	      pathName xview scroll number what
		     This  command shifts the view in the window left or right
		     according to number and what.  Number must be an integer.
		     What  must be either units or pages or an abbreviation of
		     one of these.  If what is units, the view adjusts left or
		     right  by number average-width characters on the display;
		     if it is pages then the view adjusts  by  number  screen-
		     fuls.   If  number is negative then characters farther to
		     the left become visible;  if it is positive then  charac-
		     ters farther to the right become visible.

       pathName yview ?args?
	      This  command  is used to query and change the vertical position
	      of the text in the widget's window.  It can take any of the fol-
	      lowing forms:

	      pathName yview
		     Returns a list containing two elements, both of which are
		     real fractions between 0 and 1.  The first element  gives
		     the  position  of	the first character in the top line in
		     the window, relative to the text as a whole (0.5 means it
		     is  halfway  through  the text, for example).  The second
		     element gives the position of the	character  just  after
		     the  last	one in the bottom line of the window, relative
		     to the text as a whole.  These are the same values passed
		     to scrollbars via the -yscrollcommand option.

	      pathName yview moveto fraction
		     Adjusts  the  view  in  the  window so that the character
		     given by fraction appears on the top line of the  window.
		     Fraction  is a fraction between 0 and 1;  0 indicates the
		     first character in the text, 0.33 indicates the character
		     one-third the way through the text, and so on.

	      pathName yview scroll number what
		     This  command  adjust  the  view in the window up or down
		     according to number and what.  Number must be an integer.
		     What  must  be  either units or pages.  If what is units,
		     the view adjusts up or down by number lines on  the  dis-
		     play;   if  it  is  pages then the view adjusts by number
		     screenfuls.  If number is negative then earlier positions
		     in the text become visible;  if it is positive then later
		     positions in the text become visible.

	      pathName yview ?-pickplace? index
		     Changes the view in the widget's  window  to  make  index
		     visible.	If  the -pickplace option isn't specified then
		     index will appear at the top of the  window.   If	-pick-
		     place  is	specified  then the widget chooses where index
		     appears in the window:

		     [1]    If index is already visible somewhere in the  win-
			    dow then the command does nothing.

		     [2]    If	index is only a few lines off-screen above the
			    window then it will be positioned at  the  top  of
			    the window.

		     [3]    If	index is only a few lines off-screen below the
			    window then it will be positioned at the bottom of
			    the window.

		     [4]    Otherwise, index will be centered in the window.

		     The  -pickplace option has been obsoleted by the see wid-
		     get command (see handles both x- and y-motion to  make  a
		     location  visible, whereas -pickplace only handles motion
		     in y).

	      pathName yview number
		     This command makes the first character on the line  after
		     the one given by number visible at the top of the window.
		     Number must be an integer.  This command used to be  used
		     for scrolling, but now it is obsolete.

BINDINGS
       Tk  automatically  creates  class bindings for texts that give them the
       following default behavior.  In the  descriptions  below,  ``word''  is
       dependent  on the value of the tcl_wordchars variable.  See tclvars(n).

       [1]    Clicking mouse button 1  positions  the  insertion  cursor  just
	      before the character underneath the mouse cursor, sets the input
	      focus to this widget, and clears any selection  in  the  widget.
	      Dragging with mouse button 1 strokes out a selection between the
	      insertion cursor and the character under the mouse.

       [2]    Double-clicking with mouse button 1 selects the word  under  the
	      mouse and positions the insertion cursor at the end of the word.
	      Dragging after a double click will stroke out a  selection  con-
	      sisting of whole words.

       [3]    Triple-clicking  with  mouse button 1 selects the line under the
	      mouse and positions the insertion cursor at the end of the line.
	      Dragging	after  a triple click will stroke out a selection con-
	      sisting of whole lines.

       [4]    The ends of the selection can be adjusted by dragging with mouse
	      button  1 while the Shift key is down;  this will adjust the end
	      of the selection that was nearest to the mouse cursor when  but-
	      ton 1 was pressed.  If the button is double-clicked before drag-
	      ging then the selection will  be	adjusted  in  units  of  whole
	      words;   if  it  is  triple-clicked  then  the selection will be
	      adjusted in units of whole lines.

       [5]    Clicking mouse button 1 with the Control key down  will  reposi-
	      tion the insertion cursor without affecting the selection.

       [6]    If  any  normal printing characters are typed, they are inserted
	      at the point of the insertion cursor.

       [7]    The view in the widget can be adjusted by  dragging  with  mouse
	      button  2.   If  mouse  button  2  is clicked without moving the
	      mouse, the selection is copied into the text at the position  of
	      the  mouse  cursor.   The Insert key also inserts the selection,
	      but at the position of the insertion cursor.

       [8]    If the mouse is dragged out of the  widget  while  button  1  is
	      pressed,	the  entry will automatically scroll to make more text
	      visible (if there is more text off-screen on the side where  the
	      mouse left the window).

       [9]    The  Left and Right keys move the insertion cursor one character
	      to the left or right;  they also	clear  any  selection  in  the
	      text.   If  Left or Right is typed with the Shift key down, then
	      the insertion cursor moves and  the  selection  is  extended  to
	      include  the new character.  Control-Left and Control-Right move
	      the insertion cursor by words, and Control-Shift-Left  and  Con-
	      trol-Shift-Right	move  the  insertion  cursor by words and also
	      extend the selection.  Control-b and Control-f behave  the  same
	      as  Left	and Right, respectively.  Meta-b and Meta-f behave the
	      same as Control-Left and Control-Right, respectively.

       [10]   The Up and Down keys move the insertion cursor one  line	up  or
	      down  and  clear	any  selection in the text.  If Up or Right is
	      typed with the Shift key down, then the insertion  cursor  moves
	      and  the	selection  is  extended  to include the new character.
	      Control-Up and Control-Down move the insertion cursor  by  para-
	      graphs  (groups of lines separated by blank lines), and Control-
	      Shift-Up and Control-Shift-Down move  the  insertion  cursor  by
	      paragraphs  and  also  extend the selection.  Control-p and Con-
	      trol-n behave the same as Up and Down, respectively.

       [11]   The Next and Prior keys move the	insertion  cursor  forward  or
	      backwards  by one screenful and clear any selection in the text.
	      If the Shift key is held down while Next or Prior is typed, then
	      the  selection  is  extended to include the new character.  Con-
	      trol-v moves the view down  one  screenful  without  moving  the
	      insertion cursor or adjusting the selection.

       [12]   Control-Next  and Control-Prior scroll the view right or left by
	      one page without moving the insertion cursor  or	affecting  the
	      selection.

       [13]   Home and Control-a move the insertion cursor to the beginning of
	      its line and clear any  selection  in  the  widget.   Shift-Home
	      moves the insertion cursor to the beginning of the line and also
	      extends the selection to that point.

       [14]   End and Control-e move the insertion cursor to the  end  of  the
	      line and clear any selection in the widget.  Shift-End moves the
	      cursor to the end of the line and extends the selection to  that
	      point.

       [15]   Control-Home  and Meta-< move the insertion cursor to the begin-
	      ning of the text and clear any selection in  the	widget.   Con-
	      trol-Shift-Home  moves  the insertion cursor to the beginning of
	      the text and also extends the selection to that point.

       [16]   Control-End and Meta-> move the insertion cursor to the  end  of
	      the  text and clear any selection in the widget.	Control-Shift-
	      End moves the cursor to the end of  the  text  and  extends  the
	      selection to that point.

       [17]   The Select key and Control-Space set the selection anchor to the
	      position of the insertion cursor.  They don't affect the current
	      selection.   Shift-Select  and  Control-Shift-Space  adjust  the
	      selection to the	current  position  of  the  insertion  cursor,
	      selecting  from  the anchor to the insertion cursor if there was
	      not any selection previously.

       [18]   Control-/ selects the entire contents of the widget.

       [19]   Control-\ clears any selection in the widget.

       [20]   The F16 key (labelled Copy on many Sun workstations)  or	Meta-w
	      copies the selection in the widget to the clipboard, if there is
	      a  selection.   This  action  is	carried  out  by  the  command
	      tk_textCopy.

       [21]   The F20 key (labelled Cut on many Sun workstations) or Control-w
	      copies the selection in the widget to the clipboard and  deletes
	      the  selection.	This  action  is  carried  out	by the command
	      tk_textCut.  If there is no selection in the widget  then  these
	      keys have no effect.

       [22]   The  F18	key  (labelled Paste on many Sun workstations) or Con-
	      trol-y inserts the contents of the clipboard at the position  of
	      the insertion cursor.  This action is carried out by the command
	      tk_textPaste.

       [23]   The Delete key deletes the selection, if there  is  one  in  the
	      widget.	If  there is no selection, it deletes the character to
	      the right of the insertion cursor.

       [24]   Backspace and Control-h delete the selection, if there is one in
	      the widget.  If there is no selection, they delete the character
	      to the left of the insertion cursor.

       [25]   Control-d deletes the character to the right  of	the  insertion
	      cursor.

       [26]   Meta-d deletes the word to the right of the insertion cursor.

       [27]   Control-k  deletes  from	the insertion cursor to the end of its
	      line; if the insertion cursor is already at the end of  a  line,
	      then Control-k deletes the newline character.

       [28]   Control-o  opens	a new line by inserting a newline character in
	      front of the insertion cursor without moving the insertion  cur-
	      sor.

       [29]   Meta-backspace  and  Meta-Delete	delete the word to the left of
	      the insertion cursor.

       [30]   Control-x deletes whatever is selected in the text widget  after
	      copying it to the clipboard.

       [31]   Control-t  reverses the order of the two characters to the right
	      of the insertion cursor.

       [32]   Control-z (and Control-underscore on UNIX when tk_strictMotif is
	      true)  undoes  the last edit action if the -undo option is true.
	      Does nothing otherwise.

       [33]   Control-Z (or Control-y on Windows) reapplies  the  last	undone
	      edit action if the -undo option is true. Does nothing otherwise.

       If the widget is disabled using the -state option, then	its  view  can
       still be adjusted and text can still be selected, but no insertion cur-
       sor will be displayed and no text modifications will take place.

       The behavior of texts can be changed by defining new bindings for indi-
       vidual widgets or by redefining the class bindings.

PERFORMANCE ISSUES
       Text widgets should run efficiently under a variety of conditions.  The
       text widget uses about 2-3 bytes of main memory for each byte of  text,
       so  texts  containing  a  megabyte  or more should be practical on most
       workstations.  Text is represented internally with  a  modified	B-tree
       structure  that	makes  operations relatively efficient even with large
       texts.  Tags are included in the B-tree structure in a way that	allows
       tags  to span large ranges or have many disjoint smaller ranges without
       loss of efficiency.  Marks are also implemented in a  way  that	allows
       large numbers of marks.	In most cases it is fine to have large numbers
       of unique tags, or a tag that has many distinct ranges.

       One performance problem can arise if you have hundreds or thousands  of
       different  tags	that all have the following characteristics: the first
       and last ranges of each tag are near the beginning and end of the text,
       respectively,  or  a  single  tag range covers most of the text widget.
       The cost of adding and deleting tags like this is proportional  to  the
       number  of  other tags with the same properties.  In contrast, there is
       no problem with having thousands of  distinct  tags  if	their  overall
       ranges are localized and spread uniformly throughout the text.

       Very  long  text  lines	can be expensive, especially if they have many
       marks and tags within them.

       The display line with the insert cursor is redrawn each time the cursor
       blinks,	which  causes  a  steady  stream of graphics traffic.  Set the
       insertOffTime attribute to 0 avoid this.


SEE ALSO
       entry(n), scrollbar(n)


KEYWORDS
       text, widget, tkvars



Tk				      8.4			       text(n)
=11883
+152
(19)