a2p
accept
access
acct
addftinfo
addr2line
adjtime
afmtodit
after
aio_cancel
aio_error
aio_read
aio_return
aio_suspend
aio_waitcomplete
aio_write
alias
aliases
alloc
anvil
append
apply
apropos
ar
array
as
asa
asn1parse
at
atq
atrm
attemptckalloc
attemptckrealloc
authlib
authtest
autopoint
awk
b64decode
b64encode
basename
batch
bc
bdes
bell
bg
bgerror
biff
big5
binary
bind
bindkey
bindtags
bindtextdomain
bio
bitmap
blowfish
bn
bootparams
bootptab
bounce
brandelf
break
breaksw
brk
bsdiff
bsdtar
bsnmpd
bspatch
bthost
btsockstat
buffer
builtin
builtins
bunzip2
button
byacc
bzcat
bzegrep
bzfgrep
bzgrep
bzip2
c2ph
c89
c99
ca
cal
calendar
canvas
cap_mkdb
case
cat
catch
catman
cc
cd
cdcontrol
chdir
checkbutton
checknr
chflags
chfn
chgrp
chio
chkey
chmod
chown
chpass
chroot
chsh
ci
ciphers
ckalloc
ckdist
ckfree
ckrealloc
cksum
cleanup
clear
clipboard
clock
clock_getres
clock_gettime
clock_settime
close
cmp
co
col
colcrt
colldef
colors
colrm
column
comm
command
compile_et
complete
compress
concat
config
connect
console
continue
core
courierlogger
couriertcpd
cp
cpan
cpio
cpp
creat
crl
crontab
crunchgen
crunchide
crypt
crypto
csh
csplit
ctags
ctm
ctm_dequeue
ctm_rmail
ctm_smail
cu
cursor
cursors
cut
cvs
date
dbiprof
dbiproxy
dc
dcgettext
dcngettext
dd
dde
default
defer
deliverquota
des
destroy
devfs
df
dgettext
dgst
dh
dhparam
dialog
diff
diff3
dig
dir
dirent
dirname
dirs
discard
disktab
dngettext
do
domainname
done
dprofpp
dsa
dsaparam
dtmfdecode
du
dup
dup2
eaccess
ec
ecdsa
echo
echotc
ecparam
ed
edit
editrc
ee
egrep
elf
elfdump
elif
else
enc
enc2xs
encoding
end
endif
endsw
engine
enigma
entry
env
envsubst
eof
eqn
err
errno
error
errstr
esac
ethers
euc
eui64
eval
event
evp
ex
exec
execve
exit
expand
export
exports
expr
extattr
extattr_delete_fd
extattr_delete_file
extattr_get_fd
extattr_get_file
extattr_set_fd
extattr_set_file
f77
false
famm
famx
fblocked
fbtab
fc
fchdir
fchflags
fchmod
fchown
fcntl
fconfigure
fcopy
fdescfs
fdformat
fdread
fdwrite
fetch
fg
fgrep
fhopen
fhstat
fhstatfs
fi
file
file2c
fileevent
filename
filetest
find
find2perl
finger
flex
flock
flush
fmt
focus
fold
font
fontedit
for
foreach
fork
format
forward
fpathconf
frame
from
fs
fstab
fstat
fstatfs
fsync
ftp
ftpchroot
ftpusers
ftruncate
futimes
g711conv
gb2312
gb18030
gbk
gcc
gcore
gcov
gdb
gencat
gendsa
genrsa
gensnmptree
getconf
getdents
getdirentries
getdtablesize
getegid
geteuid
getfacl
getfh
getfsstat
getgid
getgroups
getitimer
getlogin
getopt
getopts
getpeername
getpgid
getpgrp
getpid
getppid
getpriority
getresgid
getresuid
getrlimit
getrusage
gets
getsid
getsockname
getsockopt
gettext
gettextize
gettimeofday
gettytab
getuid
glob
global
gmake
goto
gperf
gprof
grab
grep
grid
grn
grodvi
groff
groff_font
groff_out
groff_tmac
grog
grolbp
grolj4
grops
grotty
group
groups
gunzip
gzcat
gzexe
gzip
h2ph
h2xs
hash
hashstat
hd
head
help2man
hesinfo
hexdump
history
host
hostname
hosts
hosts_access
hosts_options
hpftodit
http
hup
i386_get_ioperm
i386_get_ldt
i386_set_ioperm
i386_set_ldt
i386_vm86
iconv
id
ident
idprio
if
ifnames253
ifnames259
image
imapd
incr
indent
indxbib
info
infokey
inode
install
instmodsh
interp
intro
introduction
ioctl
ipcrm
ipcs
ipf
ipftest
ipnat
ippool
ipresend
issetugid
jail
jail_attach
jobid
jobs
join
jot
kbdcontrol
kbdmap
kcon
kdestroy
kdump
kenv
kevent
keycap
keylogin
keylogout
keymap
keysyms
kgdb
kill
killall
killpg
kinit
kldfind
kldfirstmod
kldload
kldnext
kldstat
kldsym
kldunload
klist
kpasswd
kqueue
kse
kse_create
kse_exit
kse_release
kse_switchin
kse_thr_interrupt
kse_wakeup
ktrace
label
labelframe
lam
lappend
last
lastcomm
lastlog
lchflags
lchmod
lchown
ld
ldap
ldapadd
ldapcompare
ldapdelete
ldapmodify
ldapmodrdn
ldappasswd
ldapsearch
ldapwhoami
ldd
leave
less
lesskey
lex
lgetfh
lhash
libnetcfg
library
limit
limits
lindex
link
linprocfs
linsert
lint
lio_listio
list
listbox
listen
lj4_font
lkbib
llength
lmtp
ln
load
loadfont
local
locale
locate
lock
lockf
log
logger
login
logins
logname
logout
look
lookbib
lorder
lower
lp
lpq
lpr
lprm
lptest
lrange
lreplace
ls
lsearch
lseek
lset
lsort
lstat
lsvfs
lutimes
lynx
m4
madvise
magic
mail
maildiracl
maildirkw
maildirmake
mailq
mailx
make
makeinfo
makewhatis
man
manpath
master
mc
mcedit
mcview
md2
md4
md5
mdc2
memory
menu
menubar
menubutton
merge
mesg
message
mincore
minherit
minigzip
mkdep
mkdir
mkfifo
mkimapdcert
mklocale
mknod
mkpop3dcert
mkstr
mktemp
mlock
mlockall
mmap
mmroff
modfind
modfnext
modnext
modstat
moduli
more
motd
mount
mprotect
mptable
msdos
msdosfs
msgattrib
msgcat
msgcmp
msgcomm
msgconv
msgen
msgexec
msgfilter
msgfmt
msggrep
msginit
msgmerge
msgs
msgunfmt
msguniq
mskanji
msql2mysql
msync
mt
munlock
munlockall
munmap
mv
myisamchk
myisamlog
myisampack
mysql
mysqlaccess
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mysqlhotcopy
mysqlimport
mysqlshow
mysql_config
mysql_fix_privilege_tables
mysql_zap
namespace
nanosleep
nawk
nc
ncal
ncplist
ncplogin
ncplogout
neqn
netconfig
netgroup
netid
netstat
networks
newaliases
newgrp
nex
nfsstat
nfssvc
ngettext
nice
nl
nm
nmount
nohup
nologin
notify
nroff
nseq
nslookup
ntp_adjtime
ntp_gettime
nvi
nview
objcopy
objdump
objformat
ocsp
od
onintr
open
openssl
opieaccess
opieinfo
opiekey
opiekeys
opiepasswd
option
options
oqmgr
pack
package
packagens
pagesize
palette
pam_auth
panedwindow
parray
passwd
paste
patch
pathchk
pathconf
pawd
pax
pbm
pcre
pcreapi
pcrebuild
pcrecallout
pcrecompat
pcrecpp
pcregrep
pcrematching
pcrepartial
pcrepattern
pcreperform
pcreposix
pcreprecompile
pcresample
pcretest
perl
perl56delta
perl58delta
perl561delta
perl570delta
perl571delta
perl572delta
perl573delta
perl581delta
perl582delta
perl583delta
perl584delta
perl585delta
perl586delta
perl587delta
perl588delta
perl5004delta
perl5005delta
perlaix
perlamiga
perlapi
perlapio
perlapollo
perlartistic
perlbeos
perlbook
perlboot
perlbot
perlbs2000
perlbug
perlcall
perlcc
perlce
perlcheat
perlclib
perlcn
perlcompile
perlcygwin
perldata
perldbmfilter
perldebguts
perldebtut
perldebug
perldelta
perldgux
perldiag
perldoc
perldos
perldsc
perlebcdic
perlembed
perlepoc
perlfaq
perlfaq1
perlfaq2
perlfaq3
perlfaq4
perlfaq5
perlfaq6
perlfaq7
perlfaq8
perlfaq9
perlfilter
perlfork
perlform
perlfreebsd
perlfunc
perlglossary
perlgpl
perlguts
perlhack
perlhist
perlhpux
perlhurd
perlintern
perlintro
perliol
perlipc
perlirix
perlivp
perljp
perlko
perllexwarn
perllinux
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perllol
perlmachten
perlmacos
perlmacosx
perlmint
perlmod
perlmodinstall
perlmodlib
perlmodstyle
perlmpeix
perlnetware
perlnewmod
perlnumber
perlobj
perlop
perlopenbsd
perlopentut
perlos2
perlos390
perlos400
perlothrtut
perlpacktut
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perlpod
perlpodspec
perlport
perlqnx
perlre
perlref
perlreftut
perlrequick
perlreref
perlretut
perlrun
perlsec
perlsolaris
perlstyle
perlsub
perlsyn
perlthrtut
perltie
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perltodo
perltooc
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perltrap
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perltw
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perluniintro
perlutil
perluts
perlvar
perlvmesa
perlvms
perlvos
perlwin32
perlxs
perlxstut
perror
pfbtops
pftp
pgrep
phones
photo
pic
pickup
piconv
pid
pipe
pkcs7
pkcs8
pkcs12
pkg_add
pkg_check
pkg_create
pkg_delete
pkg_info
pkg_sign
pkg_version
pkill
pl2pm
place
pod2html
pod2latex
pod2man
pod2text
pod2usage
podchecker
podselect
poll
popd
popup
posix_madvise
postalias
postcat
postconf
postdrop
postfix
postkick
postlock
postlog
postmap
postqueue
postsuper
pr
pread
preadv
printcap
printenv
printf
proc
procfs
profil
protocols
prove
proxymap
ps
psed
psroff
pstruct
ptrace
publickey
pushd
puts
pwd
pwrite
pwritev
qmgr
qmqpd
quota
quotactl
radiobutton
raise
rand
ranlib
rcp
rcs
rcsclean
rcsdiff
rcsfile
rcsfreeze
rcsintro
rcsmerge
read
readelf
readlink
readonly
readv
realpath
reboot
recv
recvfrom
recvmsg
red
ree
refer
regexp
registry
regsub
rehash
remote
rename
repeat
replace
req
reset
resolver
resource
return
rev
revoke
rfcomm_sppd
rfork
rhosts
ripemd
ripemd160
rlog
rlogin
rm
rmd160
rmdir
rpc
rpcgen
rs
rsa
rsautl
rsh
rtld
rtprio
rup
ruptime
rusers
rwall
rwho
s2p
safe
sasl
sasldblistusers2
saslpasswd2
sbrk
scache
scale
scan
sched
sched_getparam
sched_getscheduler
sched_get_priority_max
sched_get_priority_min
sched_rr_get_interval
sched_setparam
sched_setscheduler
sched_yield
scon
scp
script
scrollbar
sdiff
sed
seek
select
selection
semctl
semget
semop
send
sendbug
sendfile
sendmail
sendmsg
sendto
services
sess_id
set
setegid
setenv
seteuid
setfacl
setgid
setgroups
setitimer
setlogin
setpgid
setpgrp
setpriority
setregid
setresgid
setresuid
setreuid
setrlimit
setsid
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settc
settimeofday
setty
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setvar
sftp
sh
sha
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showq
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slapadd
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slapindex
slappasswd
slaptest
sleep
slogin
slurpd
smbutil
smime
smtp
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socket
socketpair
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sort
source
spawn
speed
spinbox
spkac
splain
split
squid
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sscop
ssh
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ssh_config
stab
startslip
stat
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stop
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strings
strip
stty
su
subst
sum
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tee
tell
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text
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tfmtodit
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then
threads
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tk
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tkwait
tlsmgr
tmac
top
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tr
trace
trafshow
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troff
true
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truss
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tsort
tty
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type
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ui
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ulimit
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unalias
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unifdef
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uniq
units
unknown
unlimit
unlink
unmount
unset
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until
unvis
update
uplevel
uptime
upvar
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usbhidctl
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utf8
utimes
utmp
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uuidgen
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verify
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vi
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view
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vis
vt220keys
vwait
w
wait
wait3
wait4
waitpid
wall
wc
wget
what
whatis
where
whereis
which
while
who
whoami
whois
window
winfo
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wm
write
writev
wtmp
x509
xargs
xgettext
xmlwf
xstr
xsubpp
yacc
yes
ypcat
ypchfn
ypchpass
ypchsh
ypmatch
yppasswd
ypwhich
yyfix
zcat
zcmp
zdiff
zegrep
zfgrep
zforce
zgrep
zmore
znew
_exit
__syscall
 
FreeBSD/Linux/UNIX General Commands Manual
Hypertext Man Pages
groff
 
GROFF(1)							      GROFF(1)



NAME
       groff - front-end for the groff document formatting system

SYNOPSIS
       groff [-abcegilpstzCEGNRSUVXZ] [-d cs] [-f fam] [-F dir] [-I dir]
	     [-L arg] [-m name] [-M dir] [-n num] [-o list] [-P arg] [-r cn]
	     [-T dev] [-w name] [-W name] [file ...]
       groff -h | --help
       groff -v | --version [option ...]

       The  command line is parsed according to the usual GNU convention.  The
       whitespace between a command line option and its argument is  optional.
       Options can be grouped behind a single - (minus character).  A filename
       of - (minus character) denotes the standard input.

DESCRIPTION
       This document describes the groff program, the main front-end  for  the
       groff document formatting system.  The groff program and macro suite is
       the implementation of a roff(7) system within the free software collec-
       tion  GNU  .   The groff system has all features of
       the classical roff, but adds many extensions.

       The groff program allows to control the whole groff system  by  command
       line  options.	This  is  a  great simplification in comparison to the
       classical case (which uses pipes only).

OPTIONS
       As groff is a wrapper program for troff both programs share  a  set  of
       options.  But the groff program has some additional, native options and
       gives a new meaning to some troff options.  On the other hand, not  all
       troff options can be fed into groff.

   Native groff Options
       The  following options either do not exist for troff or are differently
       interpreted by groff.

       -e     Preprocess with eqn.

       -g     Preprocess with grn.

       -G     Preprocess with grap.

       -h --help
	      Print a help message.

       -I dir This option may be used to specify a  directory  to  search  for
	      files  (both  those on the command line and those named in .psbb
	      and .so requests, and \X'ps: import' and \X'ps: file'  escapes).
	      The current directory is always searched first.  This option may
	      be specified more than once; the directories will be searched in
	      the order specified.  No directory search is performed for files
	      specified using an absolute path.  This option  implies  the  -s
	      option.

       -l     Send  the output to a spooler program for printing.  The command
	      that should be used for this is specified by the	print  command
	      in the device description file, see groff_font(5).  If this com-
	      mand is not present, the output is piped into the lpr(1) program
	      by default.  See options -L and -X.

       -L arg Pass  arg  to  the spooler program.  Several arguments should be
	      passed with a separate -L option each.  Note that groff does not
	      prepend - (a minus sign) to arg before passing it to the spooler
	      program.

       -N     Don't allow newlines within eqn delimiters.  This is the same as
	      the -N option in eqn.

       -p     Preprocess with pic.

       -P -option
       -P -option -P arg
	      Pass  -option  or  -option arg to the postprocessor.  The option
	      must be specified with the necessary preceding minus sign(s) `-'
	      or `--' because groff does not prepend any dashes before passing
	      it to the postprocessor.	For example, to pass a	title  to  the
	      gxditview postprocessor, the shell command

	      sh# groff -X -P -title -P 'groff it' foo

	      is equivalent to

	      sh# groff -X -Z foo | gxditview -title 'groff it' -

       -R     Preprocess with refer.  No mechanism is provided for passing ar-
	      guments to refer because most refer options have equivalent lan-
	      guage  elements  that can be specified within the document.  See
	      refer(1) for more details.

       -s     Preprocess with soelim.

       -S     Safer mode.  Pass the -S option to pic and disable the following
	      troff requests: .open, .opena, .pso, .sy, and .pi.  For security
	      reasons, safer mode is enabled by default.

       -t     Preprocess with tbl.

       -T dev Set output device to dev.  For this device, troff generates  the
	      intermediate output; see groff_out(5).  Then groff calls a post-
	      processor to convert troff's intermediate output	to  its  final
	      format.  Real devices in groff are

		     dvi    TeX DVI format (postprocessor is grodvi).

		     html   HTML   output   (preprocessors   are   soelim  and
			    pre-grohtml, postprocessor is post-grohtml).

		     lbp    Canon CAPSL printers (LBP-4 and LBP-8 series laser
			    printers; postprocessor is grolbp).

		     lj4    HP LaserJet4 compatible (or other PCL5 compatible)
			    printers (postprocessor is grolj4).

		     ps     PostScript output (postprocessor is grops).

	      For the following TTY output devices  (postprocessor  is	always
	      grotty), -T selects the output encoding:

		     ascii  7bit ASCII.

		     cp1047 Latin-1 character set for EBCDIC hosts.

		     latin1 ISO 8859-1.

		     utf8   Unicode character set in UTF-8 encoding.

	      The  following arguments select gxditview as the `postprocessor'
	      (it is rather a viewing program):

		     X75    75dpi resolution, 10pt document base font.

		     X75-12 75dpi resolution, 12pt document base font.

		     X100   100dpi resolution, 10pt document base font.

		     X100-12
			    100dpi resolution, 12pt document base font.

	      The default device is ps.

       -U     Unsafe mode.  Reverts to the (old) unsafe behaviour; see	option
	      -S.

       -v --version
	      Output version information of groff and of all programs that are
	      run by it; that is, the given command line is parsed in the usu-
	      al way, passing -v to all subprograms.

       -V     Output  the  pipeline  that  would be run by groff (as a wrapper
	      program) on the standard output, but do not execute it.  If giv-
	      en  more	than  once,  the  commands will be both printed on the
	      standard error and run.

       -X     Use gxditview  instead  of  using  the  usual  postprocessor  to
	      (pre)view a document.  The printing spooler behavior as outlined
	      with options -l and -L is carried over to gxditview(1) by deter-
	      mining an argument for the -printCommand option of gxditview(1).
	      This sets the default Print action and  the  corresponding  menu
	      entry  to  that value.  -X only produces good results with -Tps,
	      -TX75, -TX75-12, -TX100, and -TX100-12.  The default  resolution
	      for  previewing  -Tps  output  is  75dpi; this can be changed by
	      passing the -resolution option to gxditview, for example

	      sh# groff -X -P-resolution -P100 -man foo.1

       -z     Suppress output generated by troff.  Only error messages will be
	      printed.

       -Z     Print  the  groff  intermediate  output  to standard output; see
	      groff_out(5).  Normally groff calls automatically a  postproces-
	      sor.   With this option, the output of troff for the device, the
	      so-called intermediate output is issued without  postprocessing.

   Transparent Options
       The  following  options	are transparently handed over to the formatter
       program troff that is called by groff subsequently.  These options  are
       described in more detail in troff(1).

       -a     ascii approximation of output.

       -b     backtrace on error or warning.

       -c     disable color output.  Please consult the grotty(1) man page for
	      more details.

       -C     enable compatibility mode.

       -d cs
       -d name=s
	      define string.

       -E     disable troff error messages.

       -f fam set default font family.

       -F dir set path for font DESC files.

       -i     process standard input after the specified input files.

       -m name
	      include  macro  file  name.tmac	(or   tmac.name);   see   also
	      groff_tmac(5).

       -M dir path for macro files.

       -n num number the first page num.

       -o list
	      output only pages in list.

       -r cn
       -r name=n
	      set number register.

       -w name
	      enable warning name.

       -W name
	      disable warning name.

USING GROFF
       The  groff  system implements the infrastructure of classical roff; see
       roff(7) for a survey on how a roff system works in general.  Due to the
       front-end  programs  available  within the groff system, using groff is
       much easier than classical roff.  This section gives an overview of the
       parts  that  constitute	the groff system.  It complements roff(7) with
       groff-specific features.  This section can be regarded as  a  guide  to
       the documentation around the groff system.

   Paper Size
       The  virtual paper size used by troff to format the input is controlled
       globally with the requests .po, .pl, and .ll.   See  groff_tmac(5)  for
       the `papersize' macro package which provides a convenient interface.

       The  physical  paper  size,  giving  the actual dimensions of the paper
       sheets, is controlled by output devices like  grops  with  the  command
       line  options  -p  and  -l.  See groff_font(5) and the man pages of the
       output devices for more details.  groff uses the command line option -P
       to  pass  options to output devices; for example, the following selects
       A4 paper in landscape orientation for the PS device:

	      groff -Tps -P-pa4 -P-l ...

   Front-ends
       The groff program is a wrapper around the troff(1) program.  It	allows
       to  specify the preprocessors by command line options and automatically
       runs the postprocessor that is appropriate  for	the  selected  device.
       Doing  so,  the sometimes tedious piping mechanism of classical roff(7)
       can be avoided.

       The grog(1) program can be used for guessing the correct groff  command
       line to format a file.

       The  groffer(1)	program  is an allround-viewer for groff files and man
       pages.

   Preprocessors
       The groff preprocessors are reimplementations  of  the  classical  pre-
       processors  with  moderate  extensions.	 The preprocessors distributed
       with the groff package are

       eqn(1) for mathematical formulae,

       grn(1) for including gremlin(1) pictures,

       pic(1) for drawing diagrams,

       refer(1)
	      for bibliographic references,

       soelim(1)
	      for including macro files from standard locations,

       and

       tbl(1) for tables.

       Besides these, there are some internal preprocessors that are automati-
       cally run with some devices.  These aren't visible to the user.

   Macro Packages
       Macro  packages	can be included by option -m.  The groff system imple-
       ments and extends all classical macro packages in a compatible way  and
       adds  some packages of its own.	Actually, the following macro packages
       come with groff:

       man    The traditional man page format; see groff_man(7).   It  can  be
	      specified on the command line as -man or -m man.

       mandoc The  general  package for man pages; it automatically recognizes
	      whether the documents uses  the  man  or	the  mdoc  format  and
	      branches	to  the corresponding macro package.  It can be speci-
	      fied on the command line as -mandoc or -m mandoc.

       mdoc   The BSD-style man page format; see  groff_mdoc(7).   It  can  be
	      specified on the command line as -mdoc or -m mdoc.

       me     The  classical  me  document format; see groff_me(7).  It can be
	      specified on the command line as -me or -m me.

       mm     The classical mm document format; see groff_mm(7).   It  can  be
	      specified on the command line as -mm or -m mm.

       ms     The  classical  ms  document format; see groff_ms(7).  It can be
	      specified on the command line as -ms or -m ms.

       www    HTML-like macros for inclusion in arbitrary groff documents; see
	      groff_www(7).

       Details	on  the naming of macro files and their placement can be found
       in groff_tmac(5); this man page also documents some other, minor auxil-
       iary macro packages not mentioned here.

   Programming Language
       General concepts common to all roff programming languages are described
       in roff(7).

       The groff extensions to the classical troff language are documented  in
       groff_diff(7).

       The  groff  language  as a whole is described in the (still incomplete)
       groff info file; a short (but  complete)  reference  can  be  found  in
       groff(7).

   Formatters
       The  central  roff  formatter  within the groff system is troff(1).  It
       provides the features of both the classical troff and nroff, as well as
       the  groff  extensions.	The command line option -C switches troff into
       compatibility mode which tries to emulate classical  roff  as  much  as
       possible.

       There  is a shell script nroff(1) that emulates the behavior of classi-
       cal nroff.  It tries to automatically select the proper	output	encod-
       ing, according to the current locale.

       The  formatter program generates intermediate output; see groff_out(7).

   Devices
       In roff, the output targets are called devices.	 A  device  can  be  a
       piece of hardware, e.g. a printer, or a software file format.  A device
       is specified by the option -T.  The groff devices are as follows.

       ascii  Text output using the ascii(7) character set.

       cp1047 Text output using the EBCDIC code page IBM cp1047  (e.g.	OS/390
	      Unix).

       dvi    TeX DVI format.

       html   HTML output.

       latin1 Text  output  using  the ISO Latin-1 (ISO 8859-1) character set;
	      see iso_8859_1(7).

       koi8-r Text output using the Russian KOI8-R character set.

       lbp    Output for Canon CAPSL printers (LBP-4 and  LBP-8  series  laser
	      printers).

       lj4    HP LaserJet4-compatible (or other PCL5-compatible) printers.

       ps     PostScript  output;  suitable  for  printers and previewers like
	      gv(1).

       utf8   Text output using the Unicode (ISO  10646)  character  set  with
	      UTF-8 encoding; see unicode(7).

       X75    75dpi  X	Window	System	output	suitable  for  the  previewers
	      xditview(1x) and gxditview(1).  A variant for  a	12pt  document
	      base font is X75-12.

       X100   100dpi  X  Window  System  output  suitable  for	the previewers
	      xditview(1x) and gxditview(1).  A variant for  a	12pt  document
	      base font is X100-12.

       The  postprocessor  to be used for a device is specified by the postpro
       command in the device description file; see groff_font(5).  This can be
       overridden with the -X option.

       The default device is ps.

   Postprocessors
       groff provides 3 hardware postprocessors:

       grolbp(1)
	      for some Canon printers,

       grolj4(1)
	      for printers compatible to the HP LaserJet 4 and PCL5,

       grotty(1)
	      for  text  output using various encodings, e.g. on text-oriented
	      terminals or line-printers.

       Today, most printing or drawing hardware is handled  by	the  operating
       system, by device drivers, or by software interfaces, usually accepting
       PostScript.  Consequently, there isn't an urgent need for more hardware
       device postprocessors.

       The groff software devices for conversion into other document file for-
       mats are

       grodvi(1)
	      for the DVI format,

       grohtml(1)
	      for HTML format,

       grops(1)
	      for PostScript.

       Combined with the many existing free conversion tools  this  should  be
       sufficient to convert a troff document into virtually any existing data
       format.

   Utilities
       The following utility programs around groff are available.

       addftinfo(1)
	      Add information to troff font description  files	for  use  with
	      groff.

       afmtodit(1)
	      Create font description files for PostScript device.

       groffer(1)
	      General viewer program for groff files and man pages.

       gxditview(1)
	      The groff X viewer, the GNU version of xditview.

       hpftodit(1)
	      Create font description files for lj4 device.

       indxbib(1)
	      Make inverted index for bibliographic databases.

       lkbib(1)
	      Search bibliographic databases.

       lookbib(1)
	      Interactively search bibliographic databases.

       pfbtops(1)
	      Translate a PostScript font in .pfb format to ASCII.

       tfmtodit(1)
	      Create font description files for TeX DVI device.

       xditview(1x)
	      roff viewer distributed with X window.

ENVIRONMENT
       Normally,  the path separator in the following environment variables is
       the colon; this may vary depending on the operating system.  For  exam-
       ple, DOS and Windows use a semicolon instead.

       GROFF_BIN_PATH
	      This  search  path, followed by $PATH, will be used for commands
	      that are executed by groff.  If it is not set then the directory
	      where the groff binaries were installed is prepended to PATH.

       GROFF_COMMAND_PREFIX
	      When  there  is  a need to run different roff implementations at
	      the same time groff provides the facility to prepend a prefix to
	      most  of	its  programs that could provoke name clashings at run
	      time (default is to have none).  Historically, this  prefix  was
	      the  character  g,  but it can be anything.  For example, gtroff
	      stood for groff's troff, gtbl for the groff version of tbl.   By
	      setting  GROFF_COMMAND_PREFIX to different values, the different
	      roff installations can be addressed.  More exactly, if it is set
	      to  prefix  xxx  then groff as a wrapper program will internally
	      call xxxtroff instead of troff.  This also applies to  the  pre-
	      processors  eqn, grn, pic, refer, tbl, soelim, and to the utili-
	      ties indxbib and lookbib.  This feature does not	apply  to  any
	      programs	different  from the ones above (most notably groff it-
	      self) since they are unique to the groff package.

       GROFF_FONT_PATH
	      A list of directories in which to search for the devname	direc-
	      tory  in	addition  to  the  default  ones.   See  troff(1)  and
	      groff_font(5) for more details.

       GROFF_TMAC_PATH
	      A list of directories in which to search for macro files in  ad-
	      dition   to   the   default   directories.    See  troff(1)  and
	      groff_tmac(5) for more details.

       GROFF_TMPDIR
	      The directory in which temporary files will be created.  If this
	      is  not  set but the environment variable TMPDIR instead, tempo-
	      rary files will be created in the directory $TMPDIR.  On	MS-DOS
	      and Windows 32 platforms, the environment variables TMP and TEMP
	      (in that	order)	are  searched  also,  after  GROFF_TMPDIR  and
	      TMPDIR.	Otherwise,  temporary  files  will be created in /tmp.
	      The refer(1), groffer(1), grohtml(1), and grops(1) commands  use
	      temporary files.

       GROFF_TYPESETTER
	      Preset  the default device.  If this is not set the ps device is
	      used as default.	This device name is overwritten by the	option
	      -T.

FILES
       There  are  some  directories  in  which groff installs all of its data
       files.  Due to different installation  habits  on  different  operating
       systems,  their	locations are not absolutely fixed, but their function
       is clearly defined and coincides on all systems.

   groff Macro Directory
       This contains all information related to  macro	packages.   Note  that
       more  than a single directory is searched for those files as documented
       in groff_tmac(5).  For the groff  installation  corresponding  to  this
       document,  it  is located at /usr/share/tmac.  The following files con-
       tained in the groff macro directory have a special meaning:

       troffrc
	      Initialization file for troff.  This is interpreted by troff be-
	      fore reading the macro sets and any input.

       troffrc-end
	      Final  startup file for troff, it is parsed after all macro sets
	      have been read.

       name.tmac
       tmac.name
	      Macro file for macro package name.

   groff Font Directory
       This contains all information related to  output  devices.   Note  that
       more than a single directory is searched for those files; see troff(1).
       For the groff installation corresponding to this document, it is locat-
       ed  at  /usr/share/groff_font.	The  following	files contained in the
       groff font directory have a special meaning:

       devname/DESC
	      Device description file for device name, see groff_font(5).

       devname/F
	      Font file for font F of device name.

EXAMPLES
       The following example illustrates the power of the groff program  as  a
       wrapper around troff.

       To  process  a roff file using the preprocessors tbl and pic and the me
       macro set, classical troff had to be called by

       sh# pic foo.me | tbl | troff -me -Tlatin1 | grotty

       Using groff, this pipe can be shortened to the equivalent command

       sh# groff -p -t -me -T latin1 foo.me

       An even easier way to call this is to use grog(1)  to  guess  the  pre-
       processor and macro options and execute the generated command (by using
       backquotes to specify shell command substitution)

       sh# `grog -Tlatin1 foo.me`

       The simplest way is to view the contents in an automated way by calling

       sh# groffer foo.me

BUGS
       On  EBCDIC  hosts  (e.g.  OS/390 Unix), output devices ascii and latin1
       aren't available.  Similarly, output for EBCDIC code page cp1047 is not
       available on ASCII based operating systems.

       Report  bugs  to bug-groff@gnu.org.  Include a complete, self-contained
       example that will allow the bug to be reproduced, and say which version
       of groff you are using.

AVAILABILITY
       Information on how to get groff and related information is available at
       the GNU website .  The  most	recent
       released version of groff is available for anonymous ftp at the groff
       development site .

       Three groff mailing lists are available:

       bug-groff@gnu.org
	      for reporting bugs,

       groff@gnu.org
	      for general discussion of groff,

       groff-commit@ffii.org
	      a  read-only list showing logs of commitments to the CVS reposi-
	      tory.

       Details on CVS access and much more can be found in the file README  at
       the top directory of the groff source package.

       There is a free implementation of the grap preprocessor, written by Ted
       Faber .  The actual version can be found at the
       grap   website	.
       This is the only grap version supported by groff.

AUTHORS
       Copyright (C) 1989, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005  Free  Software  Foundation,
       Inc.

       This document is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free Docu-
       mentation License) version 1.1 or later.  You should  have  received  a
       copy of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at the GNU
       copyleft site .

       This document is based on the original groff man page written by  James
       Clark  .  It was rewritten, enhanced, and put under the
       FDL license by Bernd  Warken.   It  is  maintained  by  Werner  Lemberg
       .

       groff  is  a GNU free software project.	All parts of the groff package
       are protected by GNU copyleft licenses.	The software  files  are  dis-
       tributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL), while
       the documentation files mostly use the GNU Free	Documentation  License
       (FDL).

SEE ALSO
       The groff info file contains all information on the groff system within
       a single document.  Beneath the detailed documentation of all  aspects,
       it provides examples and background information.  See info(1) on how to
       read it.

       Due to its complex structure, the groff	system	has  many  man	pages.
       They can be read with man(1) or groffer(1).

       Introduction, history and further readings:
	      roff(7).

       Viewer for groff files:
	      groffer(1), gxditview(1), xditview(1x).

       Wrapper programs for formatters:
	      groff(1), grog(1).

       Roff preprocessors:
	      eqn(1), grn(1), pic(1), refer(1), soelim(1), tbl(1), grap(1).

       Roff language with the groff extensions:
	      groff(7), groff_char(7), groff_diff(7), groff_font(5).

       Roff formatter programs:
	      nroff(1), troff(1), ditroff(7).

       The    intermediate output language: groff_out(7).

       Postprocessors for the output devices:
	      grodvi(1),   grohtml(1),	 grolbp(1),   grolj4(1),  lj4_font(5),
	      grops(1), grotty(1).

       Groff macro packages and macro-specific utilities:
	      groff_tmac(5),   groff_man(7),	groff_mdoc(7),	  groff_me(7),
	      groff_mm(7),     groff_mmse(7),	 groff_mom(7),	  groff_ms(7),
	      groff_www(7), groff_trace(7), mmroff(7).

       The following utilities are available:
	      addftinfo(1),    afmtodit(1),    eqn2graph(1),	grap2graph(1),
	      groffer(1),  gxditview(1),  hpftodit(1), indxbib(1), lookbib(1),
	      pfbtops(1), pic2graph(1), tfmtodit(1).



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