a2p
accept
access
acct
addftinfo
addr2line
adjtime
afmtodit
after
aio_cancel
aio_error
aio_read
aio_return
aio_suspend
aio_waitcomplete
aio_write
alias
aliases
alloc
anvil
append
apply
apropos
ar
array
as
asa
asn1parse
at
atq
atrm
attemptckalloc
attemptckrealloc
authlib
authtest
autopoint
awk
b64decode
b64encode
basename
batch
bc
bdes
bell
bg
bgerror
biff
big5
binary
bind
bindkey
bindtags
bindtextdomain
bio
bitmap
blowfish
bn
bootparams
bootptab
bounce
brandelf
break
breaksw
brk
bsdiff
bsdtar
bsnmpd
bspatch
bthost
btsockstat
buffer
builtin
builtins
bunzip2
button
byacc
bzcat
bzegrep
bzfgrep
bzgrep
bzip2
c2ph
c89
c99
ca
cal
calendar
canvas
cap_mkdb
case
cat
catch
catman
cc
cd
cdcontrol
chdir
checkbutton
checknr
chflags
chfn
chgrp
chio
chkey
chmod
chown
chpass
chroot
chsh
ci
ciphers
ckalloc
ckdist
ckfree
ckrealloc
cksum
cleanup
clear
clipboard
clock
clock_getres
clock_gettime
clock_settime
close
cmp
co
col
colcrt
colldef
colors
colrm
column
comm
command
compile_et
complete
compress
concat
config
connect
console
continue
core
courierlogger
couriertcpd
cp
cpan
cpio
cpp
creat
crl
crontab
crunchgen
crunchide
crypt
crypto
csh
csplit
ctags
ctm
ctm_dequeue
ctm_rmail
ctm_smail
cu
cursor
cursors
cut
cvs
date
dbiprof
dbiproxy
dc
dcgettext
dcngettext
dd
dde
default
defer
deliverquota
des
destroy
devfs
df
dgettext
dgst
dh
dhparam
dialog
diff
diff3
dig
dir
dirent
dirname
dirs
discard
disktab
dngettext
do
domainname
done
dprofpp
dsa
dsaparam
dtmfdecode
du
dup
dup2
eaccess
ec
ecdsa
echo
echotc
ecparam
ed
edit
editrc
ee
egrep
elf
elfdump
elif
else
enc
enc2xs
encoding
end
endif
endsw
engine
enigma
entry
env
envsubst
eof
eqn
err
errno
error
errstr
esac
ethers
euc
eui64
eval
event
evp
ex
exec
execve
exit
expand
export
exports
expr
extattr
extattr_delete_fd
extattr_delete_file
extattr_get_fd
extattr_get_file
extattr_set_fd
extattr_set_file
f77
false
famm
famx
fblocked
fbtab
fc
fchdir
fchflags
fchmod
fchown
fcntl
fconfigure
fcopy
fdescfs
fdformat
fdread
fdwrite
fetch
fg
fgrep
fhopen
fhstat
fhstatfs
fi
file
file2c
fileevent
filename
filetest
find
find2perl
finger
flex
flock
flush
fmt
focus
fold
font
fontedit
for
foreach
fork
format
forward
fpathconf
frame
from
fs
fstab
fstat
fstatfs
fsync
ftp
ftpchroot
ftpusers
ftruncate
futimes
g711conv
gb2312
gb18030
gbk
gcc
gcore
gcov
gdb
gencat
gendsa
genrsa
gensnmptree
getconf
getdents
getdirentries
getdtablesize
getegid
geteuid
getfacl
getfh
getfsstat
getgid
getgroups
getitimer
getlogin
getopt
getopts
getpeername
getpgid
getpgrp
getpid
getppid
getpriority
getresgid
getresuid
getrlimit
getrusage
gets
getsid
getsockname
getsockopt
gettext
gettextize
gettimeofday
gettytab
getuid
glob
global
gmake
goto
gperf
gprof
grab
grep
grid
grn
grodvi
groff
groff_font
groff_out
groff_tmac
grog
grolbp
grolj4
grops
grotty
group
groups
gunzip
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gzexe
gzip
h2ph
h2xs
hash
hashstat
hd
head
help2man
hesinfo
hexdump
history
host
hostname
hosts
hosts_access
hosts_options
hpftodit
http
hup
i386_get_ioperm
i386_get_ldt
i386_set_ioperm
i386_set_ldt
i386_vm86
iconv
id
ident
idprio
if
ifnames253
ifnames259
image
imapd
incr
indent
indxbib
info
infokey
inode
install
instmodsh
interp
intro
introduction
ioctl
ipcrm
ipcs
ipf
ipftest
ipnat
ippool
ipresend
issetugid
jail
jail_attach
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jobs
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jot
kbdcontrol
kbdmap
kcon
kdestroy
kdump
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kevent
keycap
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keysyms
kgdb
kill
killall
killpg
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kse
kse_create
kse_exit
kse_release
kse_switchin
kse_thr_interrupt
kse_wakeup
ktrace
label
labelframe
lam
lappend
last
lastcomm
lastlog
lchflags
lchmod
lchown
ld
ldap
ldapadd
ldapcompare
ldapdelete
ldapmodify
ldapmodrdn
ldappasswd
ldapsearch
ldapwhoami
ldd
leave
less
lesskey
lex
lgetfh
lhash
libnetcfg
library
limit
limits
lindex
link
linprocfs
linsert
lint
lio_listio
list
listbox
listen
lj4_font
lkbib
llength
lmtp
ln
load
loadfont
local
locale
locate
lock
lockf
log
logger
login
logins
logname
logout
look
lookbib
lorder
lower
lp
lpq
lpr
lprm
lptest
lrange
lreplace
ls
lsearch
lseek
lset
lsort
lstat
lsvfs
lutimes
lynx
m4
madvise
magic
mail
maildiracl
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makeinfo
makewhatis
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manpath
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mmap
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moduli
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mptable
msdos
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msgconv
msgen
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msginit
msgmerge
msgs
msgunfmt
msguniq
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mt
munlock
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mv
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nanosleep
nawk
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ncal
ncplist
ncplogin
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neqn
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netid
netstat
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newaliases
newgrp
nex
nfsstat
nfssvc
ngettext
nice
nl
nm
nmount
nohup
nologin
notify
nroff
nseq
nslookup
ntp_adjtime
ntp_gettime
nvi
nview
objcopy
objdump
objformat
ocsp
od
onintr
open
openssl
opieaccess
opieinfo
opiekey
opiekeys
opiepasswd
option
options
oqmgr
pack
package
packagens
pagesize
palette
pam_auth
panedwindow
parray
passwd
paste
patch
pathchk
pathconf
pawd
pax
pbm
pcre
pcreapi
pcrebuild
pcrecallout
pcrecompat
pcrecpp
pcregrep
pcrematching
pcrepartial
pcrepattern
pcreperform
pcreposix
pcreprecompile
pcresample
pcretest
perl
perl56delta
perl58delta
perl561delta
perl570delta
perl571delta
perl572delta
perl573delta
perl581delta
perl582delta
perl583delta
perl584delta
perl585delta
perl586delta
perl587delta
perl588delta
perl5004delta
perl5005delta
perlaix
perlamiga
perlapi
perlapio
perlapollo
perlartistic
perlbeos
perlbook
perlboot
perlbot
perlbs2000
perlbug
perlcall
perlcc
perlce
perlcheat
perlclib
perlcn
perlcompile
perlcygwin
perldata
perldbmfilter
perldebguts
perldebtut
perldebug
perldelta
perldgux
perldiag
perldoc
perldos
perldsc
perlebcdic
perlembed
perlepoc
perlfaq
perlfaq1
perlfaq2
perlfaq3
perlfaq4
perlfaq5
perlfaq6
perlfaq7
perlfaq8
perlfaq9
perlfilter
perlfork
perlform
perlfreebsd
perlfunc
perlglossary
perlgpl
perlguts
perlhack
perlhist
perlhpux
perlhurd
perlintern
perlintro
perliol
perlipc
perlirix
perlivp
perljp
perlko
perllexwarn
perllinux
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perllol
perlmachten
perlmacos
perlmacosx
perlmint
perlmod
perlmodinstall
perlmodlib
perlmodstyle
perlmpeix
perlnetware
perlnewmod
perlnumber
perlobj
perlop
perlopenbsd
perlopentut
perlos2
perlos390
perlos400
perlothrtut
perlpacktut
perlplan9
perlpod
perlpodspec
perlport
perlqnx
perlre
perlref
perlreftut
perlrequick
perlreref
perlretut
perlrun
perlsec
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perlstyle
perlsub
perlsyn
perlthrtut
perltie
perltoc
perltodo
perltooc
perltoot
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perltru64
perltw
perlunicode
perluniintro
perlutil
perluts
perlvar
perlvmesa
perlvms
perlvos
perlwin32
perlxs
perlxstut
perror
pfbtops
pftp
pgrep
phones
photo
pic
pickup
piconv
pid
pipe
pkcs7
pkcs8
pkcs12
pkg_add
pkg_check
pkg_create
pkg_delete
pkg_info
pkg_sign
pkg_version
pkill
pl2pm
place
pod2html
pod2latex
pod2man
pod2text
pod2usage
podchecker
podselect
poll
popd
popup
posix_madvise
postalias
postcat
postconf
postdrop
postfix
postkick
postlock
postlog
postmap
postqueue
postsuper
pr
pread
preadv
printcap
printenv
printf
proc
procfs
profil
protocols
prove
proxymap
ps
psed
psroff
pstruct
ptrace
publickey
pushd
puts
pwd
pwrite
pwritev
qmgr
qmqpd
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quotactl
radiobutton
raise
rand
ranlib
rcp
rcs
rcsclean
rcsdiff
rcsfile
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rcsintro
rcsmerge
read
readelf
readlink
readonly
readv
realpath
reboot
recv
recvfrom
recvmsg
red
ree
refer
regexp
registry
regsub
rehash
remote
rename
repeat
replace
req
reset
resolver
resource
return
rev
revoke
rfcomm_sppd
rfork
rhosts
ripemd
ripemd160
rlog
rlogin
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rmd160
rmdir
rpc
rpcgen
rs
rsa
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rsh
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rtprio
rup
ruptime
rusers
rwall
rwho
s2p
safe
sasl
sasldblistusers2
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scache
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sched_get_priority_max
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sched_rr_get_interval
sched_setparam
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sched_yield
scon
scp
script
scrollbar
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sed
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selection
semctl
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semop
send
sendbug
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services
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set
setegid
setenv
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setfacl
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setgroups
setitimer
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tr
trace
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true
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tty
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type
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ul
ulimit
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uniq
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until
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users
utf8
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utmp
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uuidgen
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vi
vidcontrol
vidfont
view
virtual
vis
vt220keys
vwait
w
wait
wait3
wait4
waitpid
wall
wc
wget
what
whatis
where
whereis
which
while
who
whoami
whois
window
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wm
write
writev
wtmp
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xargs
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xmlwf
xstr
xsubpp
yacc
yes
ypcat
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yppasswd
ypwhich
yyfix
zcat
zcmp
zdiff
zegrep
zfgrep
zforce
zgrep
zmore
znew
_exit
__syscall
 
FreeBSD/Linux/UNIX General Commands Manual
Hypertext Man Pages
refer
 
REFER(1)							      REFER(1)



NAME
       refer - preprocess bibliographic references for groff

SYNOPSIS
       refer [ -benvCPRS ] [ -an ] [ -cfields ] [ -fn ] [ -ifields ]
	     [ -kfield ] [ -lm,n ] [ -pfilename ] [ -sfields ] [ -tn ]
	     [ -Bfield.macro ] [ filename... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its
       parameter.

DESCRIPTION
       This file documents the GNU version of refer,  which  is  part  of  the
       groff  document	formatting system.  refer copies the contents of file-
       name... to the standard output, except that lines between .[ and .] are
       interpreted as citations, and lines between .R1 and .R2 are interpreted
       as commands about how citations are to be processed.

       Each citation specifies a reference.  The citation can specify a refer-
       ence  that  is contained in a bibliographic database by giving a set of
       keywords that only that reference contains.  Alternatively it can spec-
       ify a reference by supplying a database record in the citation.	A com-
       bination of these alternatives is also possible.

       For each citation, refer can produce a mark in  the  text.   This  mark
       consists  of  some  label which can be separated from the text and from
       other labels in various ways.  For each reference it also outputs groff
       commands  that  can  be	used by a macro package to produce a formatted
       reference for each citation.  The output of  refer  must  therefore  be
       processed  using  a suitable macro package.  The -ms and -me macros are
       both suitable.  The commands to format a citation's  reference  can  be
       output immediately after the citation, or the references may be accumu-
       lated, and the commands output at some later point.  If the  references
       are  accumulated,  then	multiple  citations of the same reference will
       produce a single formatted reference.

       The interpretation of lines between .R1 and .R2 as commands  is	a  new
       feature	of  GNU refer.	Documents making use of this feature can still
       be processed by Unix refer just by adding the lines

	      .de R1
	      .ig R2
	      ..
       to the beginning of the document.  This	will  cause  troff  to	ignore
       everything  between  .R1 and .R2.  The effect of some commands can also
       be achieved by options.	These options are supported mainly for compat-
       ibility	with  Unix  refer.   It is usually more convenient to use com-
       mands.

       refer generates .lf lines so that filenames and line  numbers  in  mes-
       sages  produced	by commands that read refer output will be correct; it
       also interprets lines beginning with .lf so  that  filenames  and  line
       numbers in the messages and .lf lines that it produces will be accurate
       even if the input has been preprocessed by a command such as soelim(1).

OPTIONS
       Most  options  are  equivalent  to commands (for a description of these
       commands see the Commands subsection):

       -b     no-label-in-text; no-label-in-reference

       -e     accumulate

       -n     no-default-database

       -C     compatible

       -P     move-punctuation

       -S     label "(A.n|Q) ', ' (D.y|D)"; bracket-label " (" ) "; "

       -an    reverse An

       -cfields
	      capitalize fields

       -fn    label %n

       -ifields
	      search-ignore fields

       -k     label L~%a

       -kfield
	      label field~%a

       -l     label A.nD.y%a

       -lm    label A.n+mD.y%a

       -l,n   label A.nD.y-n%a

       -lm,n  label A.n+mD.y-n%a

       -pfilename
	      database filename

       -sspec sort spec

       -tn    search-truncate n

       These options are equivalent to the following commands with  the  addi-
       tion  that the filenames specified on the command line are processed as
       if they were arguments to the bibliography command instead  of  in  the
       normal way:

       -B     annotate X AP; no-label-in-reference

       -Bfield.macro
	      annotate field macro; no-label-in-reference

       The following options have no equivalent commands:

       -v     Print the version number.

       -R     Don't recognize lines beginning with .R1/.R2.

USAGE
   Bibliographic databases
       The  bibliographic  database is a text file consisting of records sepa-
       rated by one or more blank lines.  Within each record fields start with
       a  %  at  the beginning of a line.  Each field has a one character name
       that immediately follows the %.	It is best to use only upper and lower
       case  letters for the names of fields.  The name of the field should be
       followed by exactly one space, and then by the contents of  the	field.
       Empty fields are ignored.  The conventional meaning of each field is as
       follows:

       A      The name of an author.  If the name contains a title such as Jr.
	      at  the  end,  it  should  be  separated from the last name by a
	      comma.  There can be multiple occurrences of the A  field.   The
	      order  is  significant.  It is a good idea always to supply an A
	      field or a Q field.

       B      For an article that is part of a book, the title of the book.

       C      The place (city) of publication.

       D      The date of publication.	The year should be specified in  full.
	      If  the  month  is specified, the name rather than the number of
	      the month should be used, but only the first three  letters  are
	      required.   It is a good idea always to supply a D field; if the
	      date is unknown, a value such as in  press  or  unknown  can  be
	      used.

       E      For  an article that is part of a book, the name of an editor of
	      the book.  Where the work has editors and no authors, the  names
	      of the editors should be given as A fields and , (ed) or , (eds)
	      should be appended to the last author.

       G      US Government ordering number.

       I      The publisher (issuer).

       J      For an article in a journal, the name of the journal.

       K      Keywords to be used for searching.

       L      Label.

       N      Journal issue number.

       O      Other information.  This is usually printed at the  end  of  the
	      reference.

       P      Page number.  A range of pages can be specified as m-n.

       Q      The  name  of  the  author, if the author is not a person.  This
	      will only be used if there are no A fields.  There can  only  be
	      one Q field.

       R      Technical report number.

       S      Series name.

       T      Title.   For an article in a book or journal, this should be the
	      title of the article.

       V      Volume number of the journal or book.

       X      Annotation.

       For all fields except A and E, if there is more than one occurrence  of
       a  particular field in a record, only the last such field will be used.

       If accent strings are used, they should	follow	the  character	to  be
       accented.   This  means	that  the  AM  macro must be used with the -ms
       macros.	Accent strings should not be quoted: use  one  \  rather  than
       two.

   Citations
       The format of a citation is
	      .[opening-text
	      flags keywords
	      fields
	      .]closing-text

       The opening-text, closing-text and flags components are optional.  Only
       one of the keywords and fields components need be specified.

       The keywords component says to search the bibliographic databases for a
       reference  that	contains all the words in keywords.  It is an error if
       more than one reference if found.

       The fields components specifies additional fields to replace or supple-
       ment those specified in the reference.  When references are being accu-
       mulated and the keywords component is non-empty, then additional fields
       should be specified only on the first occasion that a particular refer-
       ence is cited, and will apply to all citations of that reference.

       The opening-text and closing-text component  specifies  strings	to  be
       used  to  bracket  the  label  instead  of the strings specified in the
       bracket-label command.  If either of these components is non-empty, the
       strings	specified  in the bracket-label command will not be used; this
       behaviour can be altered using the [ and ] flags.   Note  that  leading
       and trailing spaces are significant for these components.

       The  flags  component  is a list of non-alphanumeric characters each of
       which modifies the treatment of this particular citation.   Unix  refer
       will  treat these flags as part of the keywords and so will ignore them
       since they are non-alphanumeric.  The  following  flags	are  currently
       recognized:

       #      This says to use the label specified by the short-label command,
	      instead of that specified by the label  command.	 If  no  short
	      label  has been specified, the normal label will be used.  Typi-
	      cally the short label is used with author-date labels  and  con-
	      sists of only the date and possibly a disambiguating letter; the
	      # is supposed to be suggestive of a numeric type of label.

       [      Precede opening-text with the  first  string  specified  in  the
	      bracket-label command.

       ]      Follow  closing-text  with  the  second  string specified in the
	      bracket-label command.

       One advantages of using the [ and ] flags  rather  than	including  the
       brackets  in  opening-text  and closing-text is that you can change the
       style of bracket used in the document just  by  changing  the  bracket-
       label  command.	Another advantage is that sorting and merging of cita-
       tions will not necessarily be inhibited if the flags are used.

       If a label is to be inserted into the text, it will be attached to  the
       line  preceding	the  .[ line.  If there is no such line, then an extra
       line will be inserted before the .[ line and a warning will be given.

       There is no special notation for making a citation to  multiple	refer-
       ences.	Just  use  a  sequence	of  citations, one for each reference.
       Don't put anything between the citations.  The labels for all the cita-
       tions  will  be attached to the line preceding the first citation.  The
       labels may also be sorted or merged.  See the  description  of  the  <>
       label expression, and of the sort-adjacent-labels and abbreviate-label-
       ranges command.	A label will not be merged if its citation has a  non-
       empty opening-text or closing-text.  However, the labels for a citation
       using the ] flag and without any closing-text immediately followed by a
       citation  using	the  [ flag and without any opening-text may be sorted
       and merged even though the first citation's opening-text or the	second
       citation's  closing-text  is  non-empty.   (If you wish to prevent this
       just make the first citation's closing-text \&.)

   Commands
       Commands are contained between lines starting with .R1 and .R2.	Recog-
       nition  of  these  lines can be prevented by the -R option.  When a .R1
       line is recognized any accumulated references are flushed out.  Neither
       .R1 nor .R2 lines, nor anything between them is output.

       Commands  are separated by newlines or ;s.  # introduces a comment that
       extends to the end of the line (but  does  not  conceal	the  newline).
       Each command is broken up into words.  Words are separated by spaces or
       tabs.  A word that begins with " extends to the next " that is not fol-
       lowed  by another ".  If there is no such " the word extends to the end
       of the line.  Pairs of " in a word beginning with " collapse to a  sin-
       gle  ".	 Neither # nor ; are recognized inside "s.  A line can be con-
       tinued by ending it with \; this works everywhere except after a #.

       Each command name that is marked with * has an associated negative com-
       mand  no-name that undoes the effect of name.  For example, the no-sort
       command specifies that references should not be sorted.	 The  negative
       commands take no arguments.

       In the following description each argument must be a single word; field
       is used for a single upper or lower case letter naming a field;	fields
       is used for a sequence of such letters; m and n are used for a non-neg-
       ative numbers; string is used for an arbitrary string; filename is used
       for the name of a file.

       abbreviate* fields string1 string2 string3 string4
				Abbreviate the first names of fields.  An ini-
				tial letter will  be  separated  from  another
				initial  letter by string1, from the last name
				by string2, and from anything else (such as  a
				von  or  de)  by  string3.  These default to a
				period followed by a space.  In  a  hyphenated
				first  name,  the initial of the first part of
				the name will be separated from the hyphen  by
				string4;   this  defaults  to  a  period.   No
				attempt is made to handle any ambiguities that
				might  result  from  abbreviation.   Names are
				abbreviated before sorting  and  before  label
				construction.

       abbreviate-label-ranges* string
				Three  or  more  adjacent labels that refer to
				consecutive references will be abbreviated  to
				a  label  consisting  of the first label, fol-
				lowed by string followed by  the  last	label.
				This is mainly useful with numeric labels.  If
				string is omitted it defaults to -.

       accumulate*		Accumulate references instead of  writing  out
				each  reference as it is encountered.  Accumu-
				lated references will be written out  whenever
				a reference of the form

				       .[
				       $LIST$
				       .]

				is encountered, after all input files hve been
				processed, and whenever  .R1  line  is	recog-
				nized.

       annotate* field string	field is an annotation; print it at the end of
				the reference as a paragraph preceded  by  the
				line

				       .string

				If  macro is omitted it will default to AP; if
				field is also omitted it will  default	to  X.
				Only one field can be an annotation.

       articles string...	string... are definite or indefinite articles,
				and should be ignored at the  beginning  of  T
				fields when sorting.  Initially, the, a and an
				are recognized as articles.

       bibliography filename... Write out all the references contained in  the
				bibliographic databases filename...  This com-
				mand should come last in a .R1/.R2 block.

       bracket-label string1 string2 string3
				In the text, bracket each label  with  string1
				and string2.  An occurrence of string2 immedi-
				ately followed by string1 will be turned  into
				string3.  The default behaviour is

				       bracket-label \*([. \*(.] ", "

       capitalize fields	Convert fields to caps and small caps.

       compatible*		Recognize  .R1 and .R2 even when followed by a
				character other than space or newline.

       database filename...	Search the bibliographic databases filename...
				For  each filename if an index filename.i cre-
				ated by indxbib(1) exists,  then  it  will  be
				searched  instead; each index can cover multi-
				ple databases.

       date-as-label* string	string is a label expression that specifies  a
				string with which to replace the D field after
				constructing the label.  See the Label expres-
				sions  subsection  for	a description of label
				expressions.  This command is useful if you do
				not  want  explicit  labels  in  the reference
				list, but instead want to handle any necessary
				disambiguation	by qualifying the date in some
				way.  The label used in the text  would  typi-
				cally  be  some  combination of the author and
				date.  In most cases you should also  use  the
				no-label-in-reference command.	For example,

				       date-as-label D.+yD.y%a*D.-y

				would  attach  a  disambiguating letter to the
				year part of the D field in the reference.

       default-database*	The default database should be searched.  This
				is the default behaviour, so the negative ver-
				sion of this command is  more  useful.	 refer
				determines whether the default database should
				be searched on	the  first  occasion  that  it
				needs to do a search.  Thus a no-default-data-
				base command must be  given  before  then,  in
				order to be effective.

       discard* fields		When  the  reference is read, fields should be
				discarded; no string  definitions  for	fields
				will be output.  Initially, fields are XYZ.

       et-al* string m n	Control  use  of  et al in the evaluation of @
				expressions in label expressions.  If the num-
				ber  of  authors  needed  to  make  the author
				sequence unambiguous is u and the total number
				of authors is t then the last t-u authors will
				be replaced by string provided that t-u is not
				less  than  m  and  t is not less than n.  The
				default behaviour is

				       et-al " et al" 2 3

       include filename 	Include filename and interpret the contents as
				commands.

       join-authors string1 string2 string3
				This   says   how  authors  should  be	joined
				together.  When there are exactly two authors,
				they  will be joined with string1.  When there
				are more than two authors, all	but  the  last
				two  will be joined with string2, and the last
				two authors will be joined with  string3.   If
				string3   is   omitted,  it  will  default  to
				string1; if string2 is also  omitted  it  will
				also default to string1.  For example,

				       join-authors " and " ", " ", and "

				will  restore  the  default method for joining
				authors.

       label-in-reference*	When  outputting  the  reference,  define  the
				string	[F  to be the reference's label.  This
				is the default behaviour; so the negative ver-
				sion of this command is more useful.

       label-in-text*		For each reference output a label in the text.
				The label will be separated from the surround-
				ing  text  as  described  in the bracket-label
				command.  This is the  default	behaviour;  so
				the  negative  version of this command is more
				useful.

       label string		string is a label expression describing how to
				label each reference.

       separate-label-second-parts string
				When  merging  two-part  labels,  separate the
				second part of the second label from the first
				label with string.  See the description of the
				<> label expression.

       move-punctuation*	In the text, move any punctuation at  the  end
				of  line past the label.  It is usually a good
				idea to give this command unless you are using
				superscripted numbers as labels.

       reverse* string		Reverse  the fields whose names are in string.
				Each field name can be followed  by  a	number
				which  says  how  many	such  fields should be
				reversed.  If no number is given for a	field,
				all such fields will be reversed.

       search-ignore* fields	While  searching  for  keys  in  databases for
				which no index exists, ignore the contents  of
				fields.  Initially, fields XYZ are ignored.

       search-truncate* n	Only require the first n characters of keys to
				be given.  In  effect  when  searching	for  a
				given  key words in the database are truncated
				to the maximum of n and the length of the key.
				Initially n is 6.

       short-label* string	string is a label expression that specifies an
				alternative (usually shorter) style of	label.
				This  is  used when the # flag is given in the
				citation.   When   using   author-date	 style
				labels,  the identity of the author or authors
				is sometimes clear from the context, and so it
				may be desirable to omit the author or authors
				from the label.  The short-label command  will
				typically  be used to specify a label contain-
				ing just a date and possibly a	disambiguating
				letter.

       sort* string		Sort  references  according to string.	Refer-
				ences  will  automatically   be   accumulated.
				string	should	be a list of field names, each
				followed by  a	number,  indicating  how  many
				fields	with the name should be used for sort-
				ing.  + can be used to indicate that  all  the
				fields	with  the name should be used.	Also .
				can be used to indicate the references	should
				be  sorted  using the (tentative) label.  (The
				Label  expressions  subsection	describes  the
				concept of a tentative label.)

       sort-adjacent-labels*	Sort  labels  that  are  adjacent  in the text
				according to their position in	the  reference
				list.  This command should usually be given if
				the abbreviate-label-ranges command  has  been
				given,	or  if the label expression contains a
				<>  expression.   This	will  have  no	effect
				unless references are being accumulated.

   Label expressions
       Label  expressions can be evaluated both normally and tentatively.  The
       result of normal evaluation is used for output.	The result  of	tenta-
       tive  evaluation,  called  the  tentative  label, is used to gather the
       information that normal evaluation needs  to  disambiguate  the	label.
       Label  expressions  specified by the date-as-label and short-label com-
       mands are not evaluated tentatively.  Normal and  tentative  evaluation
       are the same for all types of expression other than @, *, and % expres-
       sions.  The description below  applies  to  normal  evaluation,	except
       where otherwise specified.

       field
       field n
	      The n-th part of field.  If n is omitted, it defaults to 1.

       'string'
	      The characters in string literally.

       @      All the authors joined as specified by the join-authors command.
	      The whole of each author's name will be used.  However,  if  the
	      references  are sorted by author (that is the sort specification
	      starts with A+), then authors' last names will be used  instead,
	      provided	that  this  does  not introduce ambiguity, and also an
	      initial subsequence of the authors may be used  instead  of  all
	      the authors, again provided that this does not introduce ambigu-
	      ity.  The use of only the last name for the i-th author of  some
	      reference  is  considered to be ambiguous if there is some other
	      reference, such that the first i-1 authors of the references are
	      the  same,  the  i-th  authors  are  not	the same, but the i-th
	      authors' last names are the same.  A proper initial  subsequence
	      of  the  sequence of authors for some reference is considered to
	      be ambiguous if there is a reference with some other sequence of
	      authors which also has that subsequence as a proper initial sub-
	      sequence.  When an initial subsequence of authors is  used,  the
	      remaining  authors  are  replaced by the string specified by the
	      et-al command; this command may also specify additional require-
	      ments  that  must  be  met  before an initial subsequence can be
	      used.  @ tentatively evaluates to a canonical representation  of
	      the  authors, such that authors that compare equally for sorting
	      purpose will have the same representation.

       %n
       %a
       %A
       %i
       %I     The serial number of the reference formatted  according  to  the
	      character  following  the  %.   The serial number of a reference
	      is 1 plus the number of earlier references with  same  tentative
	      label as this reference.	These expressions tentatively evaluate
	      to an empty string.

       expr*  If there is another reference with the same tentative  label  as
	      this reference, then expr, otherwise an empty string.  It tenta-
	      tively evaluates to an empty string.

       expr+n
       expr-n The first (+) or last (-) n upper or lower case letters or  dig-
	      its of expr.  Troff special characters (such as \('a) count as a
	      single letter.  Accent strings are retained  but	do  not  count
	      towards the total.

       expr.l expr converted to lowercase.

       expr.u expr converted to uppercase.

       expr.c expr converted to caps and small caps.

       expr.r expr reversed so that the last name is first.

       expr.a expr  with  first names abbreviated.  Note that fields specified
	      in the abbreviate command are abbreviated before any labels  are
	      evaluated.   Thus  .a is useful only when you want a field to be
	      abbreviated in a label but not in a reference.

       expr.y The year part of expr.

       expr.+y
	      The part of expr before the year, or the whole  of  expr	if  it
	      does not contain a year.

       expr.-y
	      The part of expr after the year, or an empty string if expr does
	      not contain a year.

       expr.n The last name part of expr.

       expr1~expr2
	      expr1 except that if the last character of expr1 is  -  then  it
	      will be replaced by expr2.

       expr1 expr2
	      The concatenation of expr1 and expr2.

       expr1|expr2
	      If expr1 is non-empty then expr1 otherwise expr2.

       expr1&expr2
	      If expr1 is non-empty then expr2 otherwise an empty string.

       expr1?expr2:expr3
	      If expr1 is non-empty then expr2 otherwise expr3.

       <expr> The  label  is  in  two parts, which are separated by expr.  Two
	      adjacent two-part labels which have the same first part will  be
	      merged by appending the second part of the second label onto the
	      first label separated by the string specified in	the  separate-
	      label-second-parts  command  (initially,	a  comma followed by a
	      space); the resulting label will also be a two-part  label  with
	      the  same first part as before merging, and so additional labels
	      can be merged into it.  Note that  it  is  permissible  for  the
	      first  part  to  be  empty; this maybe desirable for expressions
	      used in the short-label command.

       (expr) The same as expr.  Used for grouping.

       The above expressions  are  listed  in  order  of  precedence  (highest
       first); & and | have the same precedence.

   Macro interface
       Each  reference starts with a call to the macro ]-.  The string [F will
       be defined to be the label for this reference, unless the  no-label-in-
       reference  command  has	been  given.   There  then follows a series of
       string definitions, one for each field: string [X corresponds to  field
       X.   The number register [P is set to 1 if the P field contains a range
       of pages.  The [T, [A and [O number registers are set to 1 according as
       the  T, A and O fields end with one of the characters .?!.  The [E num-
       ber register will be set to 1 if the [E string contains more  than  one
       name.   The reference is followed by a call to the ][ macro.  The first
       argument to this macro gives a number representing the type of the ref-
       erence.	 If  a	reference contains a J field, it will be classified as
       type 1, otherwise if it contains a B field, it will  type 3,  otherwise
       if  it contains a G or R field it will be type 4, otherwise if contains
       a I field it will be type 2, otherwise it will be type 0.   The	second
       argument is a symbolic name for the type: other, journal-article, book,
       article-in-book or tech-report.	Groups of references  that  have  been
       accumulated or are produced by the bibliography command are preceded by
       a call to the ]< macro and followed by a call to the ]> macro.

FILES
       /usr/share/dict/papers/Ind  Default database.

       file.i			   Index files.

ENVIRONMENT
       REFER  If set, overrides the default database.

SEE ALSO
       indxbib(1), lookbib(1), lkbib(1)

BUGS
       In label expressions, <> expressions are ignored inside	.char  expres-
       sions.



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