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FreeBSD/Linux/UNIX General Commands Manual
Hypertext Man Pages
grid
 
grid(n) 		     Tk Built-In Commands		       grid(n)



NAME
       grid - Geometry manager that arranges widgets in a grid

SYNOPSIS
       grid option arg ?arg ...?


DESCRIPTION
       The  grid command is used to communicate with the grid geometry manager
       that arranges widgets in rows and columns  inside  of  another  window,
       called  the  geometry  master (or master window).  The grid command can
       have any of several forms, depending on the option argument:

       grid slave ?slave ...? ?options?
	      If the first argument to grid is suitable  as  the  first  slave
	      argument	to  grid  configure,  either  a window name (any value
	      starting with .) or one of the characters x or ^ (see the  RELA-
	      TIVE  PLACEMENT section below), then the command is processed in
	      the same way as grid configure.

       grid bbox master ?column row? ?column2 row2?
	      With no arguments, the bounding box (in pixels) of the  grid  is
	      returned.   The  return value consists of 4 integers.  The first
	      two are the pixel offset from the master window (x  then	y)  of
	      the top-left corner of the grid, and the second two integers are
	      the width and height of the grid, also in pixels.  If  a	single
	      column and row is specified on the command line, then the bound-
	      ing box for that cell is returned, where the top	left  cell  is
	      numbered from zero.  If both column and row arguments are speci-
	      fied, then the bounding box spanning the rows and columns  indi-
	      cated is returned.

       grid columnconfigure master index ?-option value...?
	      Query  or  set  the column properties of the index column of the
	      geometry	master,  master.   The	valid  options	are  -minsize,
	      -weight,	-uniform  and  -pad.   If one or more options are pro-
	      vided, then index may be given as a list of  column  indices  to
	      which  the  configuration options will operate on.  The -minsize
	      option sets the minimum size, in screen units, that will be per-
	      mitted  for  this column.  The -weight option (an integer value)
	      sets the relative weight for apportioning any extra spaces among
	      columns.	 A  weight  of	zero (0) indicates the column will not
	      deviate from its requested size.	A column whose weight  is  two
	      will grow at twice the rate as a column of weight one when extra
	      space is allocated to the layout.  The -uniform option,  when  a
	      non-empty  value	is  supplied,  places  the column in a uniform
	      group with other columns that have the same value for  -uniform.
	      The  space for columns belonging to a uniform group is allocated
	      so that their sizes are always in  strict  proportion  to  their
	      -weight  values.	 See  THE  GRID  ALGORITHM  below  for further
	      details.	The -pad option specifies the number of  screen  units
	      that will be added to the largest window contained completely in
	      that column when the grid geometry manager requests a size  from
	      the  containing window.  If only an option is specified, with no
	      value, the current value of that option is  returned.   If  only
	      the  master  window and index is specified, all the current set-
	      tings are returned in a list of "-option value" pairs.

       grid configure slave ?slave ...? ?options?
	      The arguments consist of the names of one or more slave  windows
	      followed	by  pairs  of arguments that specify how to manage the
	      slaves.  The characters -,  x and ^, can be specified instead of
	      a  window  name  to  alter  the  default location of a slave, as
	      described in the RELATIVE PLACEMENT section, below.  The follow-
	      ing options are supported:

	      -column n
		     Insert  the  slave  so that it occupies the nth column in
		     the grid.	Column numbers start with 0.  If  this	option
		     is  not  supplied, then the slave is arranged just to the
		     right of previous slave specified on this call  to  grid,
		     or  column "0" if it is the first slave.  For each x that
		     immediately precedes the slave, the  column  position  is
		     incremented by one.  Thus the x represents a blank column
		     for this row in the grid.

	      -columnspan n
		     Insert the slave so that it occupies  n  columns  in  the
		     grid.   The default is one column, unless the window name
		     is followed by a -,  in  which  case  the	columnspan  is
		     incremented once for each immediately following -.

	      -in other
		     Insert  the slave(s) in the master window given by other.
		     The default is the first slave's parent window.

	      -ipadx amount
		     The amount specifies how much horizontal internal padding
		     to  leave on each side of the slave(s).  This is space is
		     added inside the slave(s) border.	The amount must  be  a
		     valid  screen distance, such as 2 or .5c.	It defaults to
		     0.

	      -ipady amount
		     The amount specifies how much vertical  internal  padding
		     to  leave	on  the  top and bottom of the slave(s).  This
		     space is added inside the slave(s)  border.   The	amount
		     defaults to 0.

	      -padx amount
		     The amount specifies how much horizontal external padding
		     to leave on each side of the slave(s), in	screen	units.
		     Amount may be a list of two values to specify padding for
		     left and right separately.  The  amount  defaults	to  0.
		     This space is added outside the slave(s) border.

	      -pady amount
		     The  amount  specifies how much vertical external padding
		     to leave on the top and bottom of the slave(s), in screen
		     units.   Amount  may  be  a list of two values to specify
		     padding  for  top	and  bottom  separately.   The	amount
		     defaults  to 0.  This space is added outside the slave(s)
		     border.

	      -row n Insert the slave so that it occupies the nth row  in  the
		     grid.   Row  numbers start with 0.  If this option is not
		     supplied, then the slave is arranged on the same  row  as
		     the previous slave specified on this call to grid, or the
		     first unoccupied row if this is the first slave.

	      -rowspan n
		     Insert the slave so that it occupies n rows in the  grid.
		     The  default  is  one row.  If the next grid command con-
		     tains ^ characters instead of slaves that	line  up  with
		     the columns of this slave, then the rowspan of this slave
		     is extended by one.

	      -sticky style
		     If a slave's cell is larger  than	its  requested	dimen-
		     sions,  this  option may be used to position (or stretch)
		     the slave within its cell.  Style	is a string that  con-
		     tains  zero  or more of the characters n, s, e or w.  The
		     string can optionally contains spaces or commas, but they
		     are ignored.  Each letter refers to a side (north, south,
		     east, or west) that the slave will "stick" to.  If both n
		     and  s  (or  e  and  w)  are specified, the slave will be
		     stretched to fill the entire height  (or  width)  of  its
		     cavity.   The  sticky  option subsumes the combination of
		     -anchor and -fill that is used by pack.  The  default  is
		     {},  which causes the slave to be centered in its cavity,
		     at its requested size.

	      If any of the slaves are already managed by the geometry manager
	      then any unspecified options for them retain their previous val-
	      ues rather than receiving default values.

       grid forget slave ?slave ...?
	      Removes each of the slaves from grid for its master  and	unmaps
	      their windows.  The slaves will no longer be managed by the grid
	      geometry manager.  The configuration options for that window are
	      forgotten, so that if the slave is managed once more by the grid
	      geometry manager, the initial default settings are used.

       grid info slave
	      Returns a list whose  elements  are  the	current  configuration
	      state  of the slave given by slave in the same option-value form
	      that might be specified to grid configure.  The first  two  ele-
	      ments of the list are ``-in master'' where master is the slave's
	      master.

       grid location master x y
	      Given  x and y values in screen units  relative  to  the	master
	      window,  the  column  and row number at that x and y location is
	      returned.  For locations that are above or to the  left  of  the
	      grid, -1 is returned.

       grid propagate master ?boolean?
	      If  boolean has a true boolean value such as 1 or on then propa-
	      gation is enabled for master, which must be a window  name  (see
	      GEOMETRY	PROPAGATION  below).   If  boolean has a false boolean
	      value then propagation is disabled for  master.	In  either  of
	      these  cases an empty string is returned.  If boolean is omitted
	      then the command returns 0 or 1 to indicate whether  propagation
	      is  currently  enabled  for  master.   Propagation is enabled by
	      default.

       grid rowconfigure master index ?-option value...?
	      Query or set the row properties of the index row of the geometry
	      master,  master.	The valid options are -minsize, -weight, -uni-
	      form and -pad.  If one or more options are provided, then  index
	      may be given as a list of row indices to which the configuration
	      options will operate on.	The -minsize option sets  the  minimum
	      size, in screen units, that will be permitted for this row.  The
	      -weight option (an integer value) sets the relative  weight  for
	      apportioning  any extra spaces among rows.  A weight of zero (0)
	      indicates the row will not deviate from its requested  size.   A
	      row  whose weight is two will grow at twice the rate as a row of
	      weight one when extra space is allocated	to  the  layout.   The
	      -uniform	option, when a non-empty value is supplied, places the
	      row in a uniform group with other rows that have the same  value
	      for  -uniform.   The space for rows belonging to a uniform group
	      is allocated so that their sizes are always in strict proportion
	      to  their -weight values.  See THE GRID ALGORITHM below for fur-
	      ther details.  The -pad option specifies the  number  of	screen
	      units  that  will  be added to the largest window contained com-
	      pletely in that row when the grid geometry  manager  requests  a
	      size  from  the  containing window.  If only an option is speci-
	      fied, with no  value,  the  current  value  of  that  option  is
	      returned.  If only the master window and index is specified, all
	      the current settings are returned in a list of  "-option	value"
	      pairs.

       grid remove slave ?slave ...?
	      Removes  each  of the slaves from grid for its master and unmaps
	      their windows.  The slaves will no longer be managed by the grid
	      geometry	manager.   However, the configuration options for that
	      window are remembered, so that if the slave is managed once more
	      by  the grid geometry manager, the previous values are retained.

       grid size master
	      Returns the size of the grid (in columns then rows) for  master.
	      The size is determined either by the slave occupying the largest
	      row or column, or the largest column  or	row  with  a  minsize,
	      weight, or pad that is non-zero.

       grid slaves master ?-option value?
	      If  no options are supplied, a list of all of the slaves in mas-
	      ter are returned, most recently manages first.   Option  can  be
	      either  -row  or -column which causes only the slaves in the row
	      (or column) specified by value to be returned.

RELATIVE PLACEMENT
       The grid command contains a limited set	of  capabilities  that	permit
       layouts to be created without specifying the row and column information
       for each slave.	This  permits  slaves  to  be  rearranged,  added,  or
       removed	without the need to explicitly specify row and column informa-
       tion.  When no column or row information  is  specified	for  a	slave,
       default	values	are  chosen for column, row, columnspan and rowspan at
       the time the slave is managed. The values are  chosen  based  upon  the
       current layout of the grid, the position of the slave relative to other
       slaves in the same grid command, and the presence of the characters  -,
       x, and ^ in grid command where slave names are normally expected.

	      -      This  increases  the columnspan of the slave to the left.
		     Several -'s in  a	row  will  successively  increase  the
		     columnspan.  A - may not follow a ^ or a x, nor may it be
		     the first slave argument to grid configure.

	      x      This leaves an empty column between the slave on the left
		     and the slave on the right.

	      ^      This  extends  the  rowspan of the slave above the ^'s in
		     the grid.	The number of ^'s in a row must match the num-
		     ber of columns spanned by the slave above it.

THE GRID ALGORITHM
       The  grid  geometry manager lays out its slaves in three steps.	In the
       first step, the minimum size needed to fit all of the  slaves  is  com-
       puted,  then  (if  propagation  is turned on), a request is made of the
       master window to become that size.  In the second step,	the  requested
       size  is  compared against the actual size of the master.  If the sizes
       are different, then spaces is added to or taken away from the layout as
       needed.	For the final step, each slave is positioned in its row(s) and
       column(s) based on the setting of its sticky flag.

       To compute the minimum size of a  layout,  the  grid  geometry  manager
       first  looks at all slaves whose columnspan and rowspan values are one,
       and computes the nominal size of each row or column to  be  either  the
       minsize for that row or column, or the sum of the padding plus the size
       of the largest slave, whichever is greater.  After  that  the  rows  or
       columns	in  each  uniform  group adapt to each other.  Then the slaves
       whose rowspans or columnspans are greater than one are examined.  If  a
       group  of  rows	or  columns  need  to be increased in size in order to
       accommodate these slaves, then extra space is added to each row or col-
       umn in the group according to its weight.  For each group whose weights
       are all zero, the additional space is apportioned equally.

       When multiple rows or columns belong to	a  uniform  group,  the  space
       allocated  to  them is always in proportion to their weights. (A weight
       of zero is considered to be 1.)	In other words, a row or  column  con-
       figured	with  -weight  1 -uniform a will have exactly the same size as
       any other row or column configured with -weight 1 -uniform a.  A row or
       column  configured  with  -weight 2 -uniform b will be exactly twice as
       large as one that is configured with -weight 1 -uniform b.

       More technically, each row or column in the  group  will  have  a  size
       equal  to  k*weight  for  some constant k.  The constant k is chosen so
       that no row or column becomes smaller than its minimum size.  For exam-
       ple,  if all rows or columns in a group have the same weight, then each
       row or column will have the same size as the largest row or  column  in
       the group.

       For  masters  whose size is larger than the requested layout, the addi-
       tional space is apportioned according to the row  and  column  weights.
       If  all of the weights are zero, the layout is centered within its mas-
       ter.  For masters whose size is	smaller  than  the  requested  layout,
       space  is  taken away from columns and rows according to their weights.
       However, once a column or row shrinks to its  minsize,  its  weight  is
       taken to be zero.  If more space needs to be removed from a layout than
       would be permitted, as when all the rows or columns are at their  mini-
       mum sizes, the layout is clipped on the bottom and right.

GEOMETRY PROPAGATION
       The  grid geometry manager normally computes how large a master must be
       to just exactly meet the needs of its slaves, and it sets the requested
       width and height of the master to these dimensions.  This causes geome-
       try information to propagate up through a window hierarchy  to  a  top-
       level  window so that the entire sub-tree sizes itself to fit the needs
       of the leaf windows.  However, the grid propagate command may  be  used
       to  turn  off  propagation  for one or more masters.  If propagation is
       disabled then grid will not set the requested width and height  of  the
       master window.  This may be useful if, for example, you wish for a mas-
       ter window to have a fixed size that you specify.

RESTRICTIONS ON MASTER WINDOWS
       The master for each slave  must	either	be  the  slave's  parent  (the
       default)  or  a	descendant of the slave's parent.  This restriction is
       necessary to guarantee that the slave can be placed over  any  part  of
       its master that is visible without danger of the slave being clipped by
       its parent.  In addition, all slaves in one call to grid must have  the
       same master.

STACKING ORDER
       If  the	master	for  a slave is not its parent then you must make sure
       that the slave is higher in the stacking order than the master.	Other-
       wise  the  master  will	obscure the slave and it will appear as if the
       slave hasn't been managed correctly.  The easiest way to make sure  the
       slave  is  higher than the master is to create the master window first:
       the most recently created window will be highest in the stacking order.

CREDITS
       The grid command is based on ideas taken from the GridBag geometry man-
       ager written by Doug. Stein, and the blt_table geometry manager,  writ-
       ten by George Howlett.

EXAMPLES
       A  toplevel  window containing a text widget and two scrollbars: # Make
       the widgets toplevel .t text .t.txt  -wrap  none  -xscroll  {.t.h  set}
       -yscroll  {.t.v set} scrollbar .t.v -orient vertical   -command {.t.txt
       xview} scrollbar .t.h -orient horizontal -command {.t.txt xview} #  Lay
       them  out grid .t.txt .t.v -sticky nsew grid .t.h	-sticky nsew #
       Tell the text widget to take all the extra room grid rowconfigure    .t
       0 -weight 1 grid columnconfigure .t 0 -weight 1

       Three widgets of equal width, despite their different "natural" widths:
       button .b -text "Foo" entry .e -variable foo label .l -text "This is  a
       fairly  long piece of text" grid .b .e .l -sticky ew grid columnconfig-
       ure . {0 1 2} -uniform allTheSame


SEE ALSO
       pack(n), place(n)


KEYWORDS
       geometry manager, location, grid, cell, propagation, size, pack



Tk				      8.4			       grid(n)
=201886
+85
(31)