a2p
accept
access
acct
addftinfo
addr2line
adjtime
afmtodit
after
aio_cancel
aio_error
aio_read
aio_return
aio_suspend
aio_waitcomplete
aio_write
alias
aliases
alloc
anvil
append
apply
apropos
ar
array
as
asa
asn1parse
at
atq
atrm
attemptckalloc
attemptckrealloc
authlib
authtest
autopoint
awk
b64decode
b64encode
basename
batch
bc
bdes
bell
bg
bgerror
biff
big5
binary
bind
bindkey
bindtags
bindtextdomain
bio
bitmap
blowfish
bn
bootparams
bootptab
bounce
brandelf
break
breaksw
brk
bsdiff
bsdtar
bsnmpd
bspatch
bthost
btsockstat
buffer
builtin
builtins
bunzip2
button
byacc
bzcat
bzegrep
bzfgrep
bzgrep
bzip2
c2ph
c89
c99
ca
cal
calendar
canvas
cap_mkdb
case
cat
catch
catman
cc
cd
cdcontrol
chdir
checkbutton
checknr
chflags
chfn
chgrp
chio
chkey
chmod
chown
chpass
chroot
chsh
ci
ciphers
ckalloc
ckdist
ckfree
ckrealloc
cksum
cleanup
clear
clipboard
clock
clock_getres
clock_gettime
clock_settime
close
cmp
co
col
colcrt
colldef
colors
colrm
column
comm
command
compile_et
complete
compress
concat
config
connect
console
continue
core
courierlogger
couriertcpd
cp
cpan
cpio
cpp
creat
crl
crontab
crunchgen
crunchide
crypt
crypto
csh
csplit
ctags
ctm
ctm_dequeue
ctm_rmail
ctm_smail
cu
cursor
cursors
cut
cvs
date
dbiprof
dbiproxy
dc
dcgettext
dcngettext
dd
dde
default
defer
deliverquota
des
destroy
devfs
df
dgettext
dgst
dh
dhparam
dialog
diff
diff3
dig
dir
dirent
dirname
dirs
discard
disktab
dngettext
do
domainname
done
dprofpp
dsa
dsaparam
dtmfdecode
du
dup
dup2
eaccess
ec
ecdsa
echo
echotc
ecparam
ed
edit
editrc
ee
egrep
elf
elfdump
elif
else
enc
enc2xs
encoding
end
endif
endsw
engine
enigma
entry
env
envsubst
eof
eqn
err
errno
error
errstr
esac
ethers
euc
eui64
eval
event
evp
ex
exec
execve
exit
expand
export
exports
expr
extattr
extattr_delete_fd
extattr_delete_file
extattr_get_fd
extattr_get_file
extattr_set_fd
extattr_set_file
f77
false
famm
famx
fblocked
fbtab
fc
fchdir
fchflags
fchmod
fchown
fcntl
fconfigure
fcopy
fdescfs
fdformat
fdread
fdwrite
fetch
fg
fgrep
fhopen
fhstat
fhstatfs
fi
file
file2c
fileevent
filename
filetest
find
find2perl
finger
flex
flock
flush
fmt
focus
fold
font
fontedit
for
foreach
fork
format
forward
fpathconf
frame
from
fs
fstab
fstat
fstatfs
fsync
ftp
ftpchroot
ftpusers
ftruncate
futimes
g711conv
gb2312
gb18030
gbk
gcc
gcore
gcov
gdb
gencat
gendsa
genrsa
gensnmptree
getconf
getdents
getdirentries
getdtablesize
getegid
geteuid
getfacl
getfh
getfsstat
getgid
getgroups
getitimer
getlogin
getopt
getopts
getpeername
getpgid
getpgrp
getpid
getppid
getpriority
getresgid
getresuid
getrlimit
getrusage
gets
getsid
getsockname
getsockopt
gettext
gettextize
gettimeofday
gettytab
getuid
glob
global
gmake
goto
gperf
gprof
grab
grep
grid
grn
grodvi
groff
groff_font
groff_out
groff_tmac
grog
grolbp
grolj4
grops
grotty
group
groups
gunzip
gzcat
gzexe
gzip
h2ph
h2xs
hash
hashstat
hd
head
help2man
hesinfo
hexdump
history
host
hostname
hosts
hosts_access
hosts_options
hpftodit
http
hup
i386_get_ioperm
i386_get_ldt
i386_set_ioperm
i386_set_ldt
i386_vm86
iconv
id
ident
idprio
if
ifnames253
ifnames259
image
imapd
incr
indent
indxbib
info
infokey
inode
install
instmodsh
interp
intro
introduction
ioctl
ipcrm
ipcs
ipf
ipftest
ipnat
ippool
ipresend
issetugid
jail
jail_attach
jobid
jobs
join
jot
kbdcontrol
kbdmap
kcon
kdestroy
kdump
kenv
kevent
keycap
keylogin
keylogout
keymap
keysyms
kgdb
kill
killall
killpg
kinit
kldfind
kldfirstmod
kldload
kldnext
kldstat
kldsym
kldunload
klist
kpasswd
kqueue
kse
kse_create
kse_exit
kse_release
kse_switchin
kse_thr_interrupt
kse_wakeup
ktrace
label
labelframe
lam
lappend
last
lastcomm
lastlog
lchflags
lchmod
lchown
ld
ldap
ldapadd
ldapcompare
ldapdelete
ldapmodify
ldapmodrdn
ldappasswd
ldapsearch
ldapwhoami
ldd
leave
less
lesskey
lex
lgetfh
lhash
libnetcfg
library
limit
limits
lindex
link
linprocfs
linsert
lint
lio_listio
list
listbox
listen
lj4_font
lkbib
llength
lmtp
ln
load
loadfont
local
locale
locate
lock
lockf
log
logger
login
logins
logname
logout
look
lookbib
lorder
lower
lp
lpq
lpr
lprm
lptest
lrange
lreplace
ls
lsearch
lseek
lset
lsort
lstat
lsvfs
lutimes
lynx
m4
madvise
magic
mail
maildiracl
maildirkw
maildirmake
mailq
mailx
make
makeinfo
makewhatis
man
manpath
master
mc
mcedit
mcview
md2
md4
md5
mdc2
memory
menu
menubar
menubutton
merge
mesg
message
mincore
minherit
minigzip
mkdep
mkdir
mkfifo
mkimapdcert
mklocale
mknod
mkpop3dcert
mkstr
mktemp
mlock
mlockall
mmap
mmroff
modfind
modfnext
modnext
modstat
moduli
more
motd
mount
mprotect
mptable
msdos
msdosfs
msgattrib
msgcat
msgcmp
msgcomm
msgconv
msgen
msgexec
msgfilter
msgfmt
msggrep
msginit
msgmerge
msgs
msgunfmt
msguniq
mskanji
msql2mysql
msync
mt
munlock
munlockall
munmap
mv
myisamchk
myisamlog
myisampack
mysql
mysqlaccess
mysqladmin
mysqlbinlog
mysqlcheck
mysqld
mysqldump
mysqld_multi
mysqld_safe
mysqlhotcopy
mysqlimport
mysqlshow
mysql_config
mysql_fix_privilege_tables
mysql_zap
namespace
nanosleep
nawk
nc
ncal
ncplist
ncplogin
ncplogout
neqn
netconfig
netgroup
netid
netstat
networks
newaliases
newgrp
nex
nfsstat
nfssvc
ngettext
nice
nl
nm
nmount
nohup
nologin
notify
nroff
nseq
nslookup
ntp_adjtime
ntp_gettime
nvi
nview
objcopy
objdump
objformat
ocsp
od
onintr
open
openssl
opieaccess
opieinfo
opiekey
opiekeys
opiepasswd
option
options
oqmgr
pack
package
packagens
pagesize
palette
pam_auth
panedwindow
parray
passwd
paste
patch
pathchk
pathconf
pawd
pax
pbm
pcre
pcreapi
pcrebuild
pcrecallout
pcrecompat
pcrecpp
pcregrep
pcrematching
pcrepartial
pcrepattern
pcreperform
pcreposix
pcreprecompile
pcresample
pcretest
perl
perl56delta
perl58delta
perl561delta
perl570delta
perl571delta
perl572delta
perl573delta
perl581delta
perl582delta
perl583delta
perl584delta
perl585delta
perl586delta
perl587delta
perl588delta
perl5004delta
perl5005delta
perlaix
perlamiga
perlapi
perlapio
perlapollo
perlartistic
perlbeos
perlbook
perlboot
perlbot
perlbs2000
perlbug
perlcall
perlcc
perlce
perlcheat
perlclib
perlcn
perlcompile
perlcygwin
perldata
perldbmfilter
perldebguts
perldebtut
perldebug
perldelta
perldgux
perldiag
perldoc
perldos
perldsc
perlebcdic
perlembed
perlepoc
perlfaq
perlfaq1
perlfaq2
perlfaq3
perlfaq4
perlfaq5
perlfaq6
perlfaq7
perlfaq8
perlfaq9
perlfilter
perlfork
perlform
perlfreebsd
perlfunc
perlglossary
perlgpl
perlguts
perlhack
perlhist
perlhpux
perlhurd
perlintern
perlintro
perliol
perlipc
perlirix
perlivp
perljp
perlko
perllexwarn
perllinux
perllocale
perllol
perlmachten
perlmacos
perlmacosx
perlmint
perlmod
perlmodinstall
perlmodlib
perlmodstyle
perlmpeix
perlnetware
perlnewmod
perlnumber
perlobj
perlop
perlopenbsd
perlopentut
perlos2
perlos390
perlos400
perlothrtut
perlpacktut
perlplan9
perlpod
perlpodspec
perlport
perlqnx
perlre
perlref
perlreftut
perlrequick
perlreref
perlretut
perlrun
perlsec
perlsolaris
perlstyle
perlsub
perlsyn
perlthrtut
perltie
perltoc
perltodo
perltooc
perltoot
perltrap
perltru64
perltw
perlunicode
perluniintro
perlutil
perluts
perlvar
perlvmesa
perlvms
perlvos
perlwin32
perlxs
perlxstut
perror
pfbtops
pftp
pgrep
phones
photo
pic
pickup
piconv
pid
pipe
pkcs7
pkcs8
pkcs12
pkg_add
pkg_check
pkg_create
pkg_delete
pkg_info
pkg_sign
pkg_version
pkill
pl2pm
place
pod2html
pod2latex
pod2man
pod2text
pod2usage
podchecker
podselect
poll
popd
popup
posix_madvise
postalias
postcat
postconf
postdrop
postfix
postkick
postlock
postlog
postmap
postqueue
postsuper
pr
pread
preadv
printcap
printenv
printf
proc
procfs
profil
protocols
prove
proxymap
ps
psed
psroff
pstruct
ptrace
publickey
pushd
puts
pwd
pwrite
pwritev
qmgr
qmqpd
quota
quotactl
radiobutton
raise
rand
ranlib
rcp
rcs
rcsclean
rcsdiff
rcsfile
rcsfreeze
rcsintro
rcsmerge
read
readelf
readlink
readonly
readv
realpath
reboot
recv
recvfrom
recvmsg
red
ree
refer
regexp
registry
regsub
rehash
remote
rename
repeat
replace
req
reset
resolver
resource
return
rev
revoke
rfcomm_sppd
rfork
rhosts
ripemd
ripemd160
rlog
rlogin
rm
rmd160
rmdir
rpc
rpcgen
rs
rsa
rsautl
rsh
rtld
rtprio
rup
ruptime
rusers
rwall
rwho
s2p
safe
sasl
sasldblistusers2
saslpasswd2
sbrk
scache
scale
scan
sched
sched_getparam
sched_getscheduler
sched_get_priority_max
sched_get_priority_min
sched_rr_get_interval
sched_setparam
sched_setscheduler
sched_yield
scon
scp
script
scrollbar
sdiff
sed
seek
select
selection
semctl
semget
semop
send
sendbug
sendfile
sendmail
sendmsg
sendto
services
sess_id
set
setegid
setenv
seteuid
setfacl
setgid
setgroups
setitimer
setlogin
setpgid
setpgrp
setpriority
setregid
setresgid
setresuid
setreuid
setrlimit
setsid
setsockopt
settc
settimeofday
setty
setuid
setvar
sftp
sh
sha
sha1
sha256
shar
shells
shift
shmat
shmctl
shmdt
shmget
showq
shutdown
sigaction
sigaltstack
sigblock
sigmask
sigpause
sigpending
sigprocmask
sigreturn
sigsetmask
sigstack
sigsuspend
sigvec
sigwait
size
slapadd
slapcat
slapd
slapdn
slapindex
slappasswd
slaptest
sleep
slogin
slurpd
smbutil
smime
smtp
smtpd
socket
socketpair
sockstat
soelim
sort
source
spawn
speed
spinbox
spkac
splain
split
squid
squid_ldap_auth
squid_ldap_group
squid_unix_group
sscop
ssh
sshd_config
ssh_config
stab
startslip
stat
statfs
stop
string
strings
strip
stty
su
subst
sum
suspend
swapoff
swapon
switch
symlink
sync
sysarch
syscall
sysconftool
sysconftoolcheck
systat
s_client
s_server
s_time
tabs
tail
talk
tar
tbl
tclsh
tcltest
tclvars
tcopy
tcpdump
tcpslice
tcsh
tee
tell
telltc
telnet
term
termcap
terminfo
test
texindex
texinfo
text
textdomain
tfmtodit
tftp
then
threads
time
tip
tk
tkerror
tkvars
tkwait
tlsmgr
tmac
top
toplevel
touch
tput
tr
trace
trafshow
trap
troff
true
truncate
truss
tset
tsort
tty
ttys
type
tzfile
ui
ul
ulimit
umask
unalias
uname
uncomplete
uncompress
undelete
unexpand
unhash
unifdef
unifdefall
uniq
units
unknown
unlimit
unlink
unmount
unset
unsetenv
until
unvis
update
uplevel
uptime
upvar
usbhidaction
usbhidctl
users
utf8
utimes
utmp
utrace
uudecode
uuencode
uuidgen
vacation
variable
verify
version
vfork
vgrind
vgrindefs
vi
vidcontrol
vidfont
view
virtual
vis
vt220keys
vwait
w
wait
wait3
wait4
waitpid
wall
wc
wget
what
whatis
where
whereis
which
while
who
whoami
whois
window
winfo
wish
wm
write
writev
wtmp
x509
xargs
xgettext
xmlwf
xstr
xsubpp
yacc
yes
ypcat
ypchfn
ypchpass
ypchsh
ypmatch
yppasswd
ypwhich
yyfix
zcat
zcmp
zdiff
zegrep
zfgrep
zforce
zgrep
zmore
znew
_exit
__syscall
 
FreeBSD/Linux/UNIX General Commands Manual
Hypertext Man Pages
ci
 
CI(1)									 CI(1)



NAME
       ci - check in RCS revisions

SYNOPSIS
       ci [options] file ...

DESCRIPTION
       ci  stores new revisions into RCS files.  Each pathname matching an RCS
       suffix is taken to be an RCS file.  All others are assumed to be  work-
       ing  files  containing new revisions.  ci deposits the contents of each
       working file into the corresponding RCS file.  If only a  working  file
       is  given, ci tries to find the corresponding RCS file in an RCS subdi-
       rectory and then in the working file's directory.   For	more  details,
       see FILE NAMING below.

       For  ci	to work, the caller's login must be on the access list, except
       if the access list is empty or the caller is the superuser or the owner
       of  the	file.  To append a new revision to an existing branch, the tip
       revision on that branch must be locked by the caller.  Otherwise,  only
       a  new branch can be created.  This restriction is not enforced for the
       owner of the file if non-strict locking is used (see rcs(1)).   A  lock
       held by someone else can be broken with the rcs command.

       Unless  the  -f	option	is given, ci checks whether the revision to be
       deposited differs from the preceding one.  If not, instead of  creating
       a new revision ci reverts to the preceding one.	To revert, ordinary ci
       removes the working file and any lock; ci -l keeps  and	ci -u  removes
       any  lock,  and	then  they both generate a new working file much as if
       co -l or co -u had  been  applied  to  the  preceding  revision.   When
       reverting, any -n and -s options apply to the preceding revision.

       For  each  revision  deposited,	ci prompts for a log message.  The log
       message should summarize the change and must be terminated  by  end-of-
       file or by a line containing . by itself.  If several files are checked
       in ci asks whether to reuse the previous log message.  If the  standard
       input is not a terminal, ci suppresses the prompt and uses the same log
       message for all files.  See also -m.

       If the RCS file does not exist, ci creates it and deposits the contents
       of the working file as the initial revision (default number: 1.1).  The
       access list is initialized to empty.  Instead of the  log  message,  ci
       requests descriptive text (see -t below).

       The  number  rev  of  the deposited revision can be given by any of the
       options -f, -i, -I, -j, -k, -l, -M, -q, -r, or -u.   rev  can  be  sym-
       bolic,  numeric,  or  mixed.   Symbolic	names  in  rev must already be
       defined; see the -n and -N options for assigning names during  checkin.
       If  rev	is $, ci determines the revision number from keyword values in
       the working file.

       If rev begins with a period, then  the  default	branch	(normally  the
       trunk)  is  prepended  to  it.  If rev is a branch number followed by a
       period, then the latest revision on that branch is used.

       If rev is a revision number, it must be higher than the latest  one  on
       the branch to which rev belongs, or must start a new branch.

       If  rev	is a branch rather than a revision number, the new revision is
       appended to that branch.  The level number is obtained by  incrementing
       the  tip revision number of that branch.  If rev indicates a non-exist-
       ing branch, that branch is created with the initial  revision  numbered
       rev.1.

       If  rev is omitted, ci tries to derive the new revision number from the
       caller's last lock.  If the caller has locked the  tip  revision  of  a
       branch,	the new revision is appended to that branch.  The new revision
       number is obtained by incrementing the tip  revision  number.   If  the
       caller locked a non-tip revision, a new branch is started at that revi-
       sion by incrementing the highest branch number at that  revision.   The
       default initial branch and level numbers are 1.

       If  rev	is  omitted  and the caller has no lock, but owns the file and
       locking is not set to strict, then the  revision  is  appended  to  the
       default branch (normally the trunk; see the -b option of rcs(1)).

       Exception:  On the trunk, revisions can be appended to the end, but not
       inserted.

OPTIONS
       -rrev  Check in revision rev.

       -r     The bare -r option (without any revision) has an unusual meaning
	      in  ci.  With other RCS commands, a bare -r option specifies the
	      most recent revision on the default branch, but with ci, a  bare
	      -r option reestablishes the default behavior of releasing a lock
	      and removing the working file,  and  is  used  to  override  any
	      default  -l  or  -u  options  established  by  shell  aliases or
	      scripts.

       -l[rev]
	      works like -r, except it performs an additional  co -l  for  the
	      deposited revision.  Thus, the deposited revision is immediately
	      checked out again and locked.  This is useful for saving a revi-
	      sion  although  one  wants  to  continue	editing  it  after the
	      checkin.

       -u[rev]
	      works like -l, except that the deposited revision is not locked.
	      This lets one read the working file immediately after checkin.

	      The  -l,	bare  -r,  and	-u  options are mutually exclusive and
	      silently override each other.  For example, ci -u -r is  equiva-
	      lent to ci -r because bare -r overrides -u.

       -f[rev]
	      forces  a  deposit; the new revision is deposited even it is not
	      different from the preceding one.

       -k[rev]
	      searches the working file for keyword values  to	determine  its
	      revision	number,  creation date, state, and author (see co(1)),
	      and assigns these values to the deposited revision, rather  than
	      computing  them locally.	It also generates a default login mes-
	      sage noting the login of the caller and the actual checkin date.
	      This  option  is	useful	for software distribution.  A revision
	      that is sent to several sites should be checked in with  the  -k
	      option  at  these  sites	to preserve the original number, date,
	      author, and state.  The extracted keyword values and the default
	      log  message  can be overridden with the options -d, -m, -s, -w,
	      and any option that carries a revision number.

       -q[rev]
	      quiet mode; diagnostic output is not printed.  A	revision  that
	      is not different from the preceding one is not deposited, unless
	      -f is given.

       -i[rev]
	      initial checkin; report an error if the RCS file already exists.
	      This avoids race conditions in certain applications.

       -j[rev]
	      just  checkin  and do not initialize; report an error if the RCS
	      file does not already exist.

       -I[rev]
	      interactive mode; the user is prompted and  questioned  even  if
	      the standard input is not a terminal.

       -d[date]
	      uses  date for the checkin date and time.  The date is specified
	      in free format as explained in co(1).  This is useful for  lying
	      about  the checkin date, and for -k if no date is available.  If
	      date is empty, the working file's time of last  modification  is
	      used.

       -M[rev]
	      Set the modification time on any new working file to be the date
	      of the retrieved revision.  For example, ci -d -M -u f does  not
	      alter  f's modification time, even if f's contents change due to
	      keyword substitution.  Use this option with care; it can confuse
	      make(1).

       -mmsg  uses the string msg as the log message for all revisions checked
	      in.  By convention, log messages that start with # are  comments
	      and  are ignored by programs like GNU Emacs's vc package.  Also,
	      log messages that start  with  {clumpname}  (followed  by  white
	      space)  are  meant  to  be clumped together if possible, even if
	      they are associated with different files; the {clumpname}  label
	      is  used	only for clumping, and is not considered to be part of
	      the log message itself.

       -nname assigns the symbolic name name to the number of  the  checked-in
	      revision.   ci  prints  an  error  message  if  name  is already
	      assigned to another number.

       -Nname same as -n, except that it overrides a  previous	assignment  of
	      name.

       -sstate
	      sets  the  state	of  the  checked-in revision to the identifier
	      state.  The default state is Exp.

       -tfile writes descriptive text from the contents of the named file into
	      the RCS file, deleting the existing text.  The file cannot begin
	      with -.

       -t-string
	      Write descriptive text from the string into the RCS file, delet-
	      ing the existing text.

	      The -t option, in both its forms, has effect only during an ini-
	      tial checkin; it is silently ignored otherwise.

	      During the initial checkin, if -t is not given, ci  obtains  the
	      text from standard input, terminated by end-of-file or by a line
	      containing . by itself.  The user is prompted for  the  text  if
	      interaction is possible; see -I.

	      For backward compatibility with older versions of RCS, a bare -t
	      option is ignored.

       -T     Set the RCS file's modification time to the new revision's  time
	      if  the  former precedes the latter and there is a new revision;
	      preserve the RCS file's modification  time  otherwise.   If  you
	      have  locked a revision, ci usually updates the RCS file's modi-
	      fication time to the current time, because the lock is stored in
	      the  RCS	file  and  removing the lock requires changing the RCS
	      file.  This can create an RCS file newer than the  working  file
	      in  one of two ways: first, ci -M can create a working file with
	      a date before the current time; second, when  reverting  to  the
	      previous revision the RCS file can change while the working file
	      remains unchanged.  These two cases can cause excessive recompi-
	      lation caused by a make(1) dependency of the working file on the
	      RCS file.  The -T option inhibits this  recompilation  by  lying
	      about  the  RCS  file's date.  Use this option with care; it can
	      suppress recompilation even when a checkin of one  working  file
	      should  affect another working file associated with the same RCS
	      file.  For example, suppose the RCS file's time  is  01:00,  the
	      (changed)  working  file's time is 02:00, some other copy of the
	      working file has a time of 03:00, and the current time is 04:00.
	      Then  ci -d -T  sets the RCS file's time to 02:00 instead of the
	      usual 04:00; this causes make(1) to think (incorrectly) that the
	      other copy is newer than the RCS file.

       -wlogin
	      uses login for the author field of the deposited revision.  Use-
	      ful for lying about the author, and  for	-k  if	no  author  is
	      available.

       -V     Print RCS's version number.

       -Vn    Emulate RCS version n.  See co(1) for details.

       -xsuffixes
	      specifies the suffixes for RCS files.  A nonempty suffix matches
	      any pathname ending in the suffix.  An empty suffix matches  any
	      pathname of the form RCS/path or path1/RCS/path2.  The -x option
	      can specify a list of suffixes separated	by  /.	 For  example,
	      -x,v/  specifies	two suffixes: ,v and the empty suffix.	If two
	      or more suffixes are specified, they are	tried  in  order  when
	      looking  for  an	RCS file; the first one that works is used for
	      that file.  If no RCS file is found but an RCS file can be  cre-
	      ated,  the  suffixes are tried in order to determine the new RCS
	      file's name.  The default for  suffixes  is  installation-depen-
	      dent;  normally it is ,v/ for hosts like Unix that permit commas
	      in filenames, and is empty (i.e.	just  the  empty  suffix)  for
	      other hosts.

       -zzone specifies  the  date  output format in keyword substitution, and
	      specifies the default time zone for date in the  -ddate  option.
	      The  zone  should be empty, a numeric UTC offset, or the special
	      string LT for local time.  The default is an empty  zone,  which
	      uses  the  traditional  RCS  format of UTC without any time zone
	      indication and with slashes separating the parts	of  the  date;
	      otherwise,  times  are  output in ISO 8601 format with time zone
	      indication.  For example, if local time is January 11, 1990, 8pm
	      Pacific Standard Time, eight hours west of UTC, then the time is
	      output as follows:

		     option    time output
		     -z        1990/01/12 04:00:00	  (default)
		     -zLT      1990-01-11 20:00:00-08
		     -z+05:30  1990-01-12 09:30:00+05:30

	      The -z option does not affect dates stored in RCS  files,  which
	      are always UTC.

FILE NAMING
       Pairs  of  RCS  files  and working files can be specified in three ways
       (see also the example section).

       1) Both the RCS file and the working file are given.  The RCS  pathname
       is  of the form path1/workfileX and the working pathname is of the form
       path2/workfile where path1/  and  path2/  are  (possibly  different  or
       empty)  paths, workfile is a filename, and X is an RCS suffix.  If X is
       empty, path1/ must start with RCS/ or must contain /RCS/.

       2) Only the RCS file is given.  Then the working file is created in the
       current directory and its name is derived from the name of the RCS file
       by removing path1/ and the suffix X.

       3) Only the working file is given.  Then ci considers each RCS suffix X
       in turn, looking for an RCS file of the form path2/RCS/workfileX or (if
       the former is not found and X is nonempty) path2/workfileX.

       If the RCS file is specified without a path in 1) and 2), ci looks  for
       the  RCS  file  first  in  the  directory ./RCS and then in the current
       directory.

       ci reports an error if an attempt to open an  RCS  file	fails  for  an
       unusual	reason, even if the RCS file's pathname is just one of several
       possibilities.  For example, to suppress  use  of  RCS  commands  in  a
       directory  d, create a regular file named d/RCS so that casual attempts
       to use RCS commands in d fail because d/RCS is not a directory.

EXAMPLES
       Suppose ,v is an RCS suffix and the current directory contains a subdi-
       rectory	RCS  with an RCS file io.c,v.  Then each of the following com-
       mands check in a copy of io.c into RCS/io.c,v as the  latest  revision,
       removing io.c.

	      ci  io.c;    ci  RCS/io.c,v;   ci  io.c,v;
	      ci  io.c	RCS/io.c,v;    ci  io.c  io.c,v;
	      ci  RCS/io.c,v  io.c;    ci  io.c,v  io.c;

       Suppose	instead that the empty suffix is an RCS suffix and the current
       directory contains a subdirectory RCS with an RCS file io.c.  The  each
       of the following commands checks in a new revision.

	      ci  io.c;    ci  RCS/io.c;
	      ci  io.c	RCS/io.c;
	      ci  RCS/io.c  io.c;

FILE MODES
       An  RCS	file  created  by ci inherits the read and execute permissions
       from the working file.  If the RCS file exists  already,  ci  preserves
       its  read  and execute permissions.  ci always turns off all write per-
       missions of RCS files.

FILES
       Temporary files are created in the  directory  containing  the  working
       file,  and  also  in the temporary directory (see TMPDIR under ENVIRON-
       MENT).  A semaphore file or files are created in the directory contain-
       ing  the  RCS  file.  With a nonempty suffix, the semaphore names begin
       with the first character of the suffix; therefore, do  not  specify  an
       suffix whose first character could be that of a working filename.  With
       an empty suffix, the semaphore names end with _	so  working  filenames
       should not end in _.

       ci never changes an RCS or working file.  Normally, ci unlinks the file
       and creates a new one; but instead of breaking a chain of one  or  more
       symbolic links to an RCS file, it unlinks the destination file instead.
       Therefore, ci breaks any hard or symbolic links to any working file  it
       changes;  and  hard  links  to  RCS files are ineffective, but symbolic
       links to RCS files are preserved.

       The effective user must be able to search and write the directory  con-
       taining the RCS file.  Normally, the real user must be able to read the
       RCS and working files and to search and write the directory  containing
       the  working  file;  however,  some  older  hosts  cannot easily switch
       between real and effective users, so on these hosts the effective  user
       is  used  for all accesses.  The effective user is the same as the real
       user unless your copies of  ci  and  co	have  setuid  privileges.   As
       described in the next section, these privileges yield extra security if
       the effective user owns all RCS files and directories, and if only  the
       effective user can write RCS directories.

       Users can control access to RCS files by setting the permissions of the
       directory containing the files; only users with	write  access  to  the
       directory  can  use RCS commands to change its RCS files.  For example,
       in hosts that allow a user to belong to several groups, one can make  a
       group's	RCS  directories  writable  to that group only.  This approach
       suffices for informal projects, but it means that any group member  can
       arbitrarily  change  the  group's  RCS  files, and can even remove them
       entirely.  Hence more formal projects sometimes distinguish between  an
       RCS  administrator,  who  can  change  the RCS files at will, and other
       project members, who can check in new revisions	but  cannot  otherwise
       change the RCS files.

SETUID USE
       To prevent anybody but their RCS administrator from deleting revisions,
       a set of users can employ setuid privileges as follows.

       o Check that the host supports RCS setuid use.  Consult	a  trustworthy
	 expert  if  there  are  any doubts.  It is best if the seteuid system
	 call works as described in Posix 1003.1a Draft  5,  because  RCS  can
	 switch  back  and forth easily between real and effective users, even
	 if the real user is root.  If not, the second best is if  the	setuid
	 system call supports saved setuid (the {_POSIX_SAVED_IDS} behavior of
	 Posix 1003.1-1990); this fails only if the real or effective user  is
	 root.	If RCS detects any failure in setuid, it quits immediately.

       o Choose  a  user A to serve as RCS administrator for the set of users.
	 Only A can invoke the rcs command on the users' RCS files.  A	should
	 not  be  root or any other user with special powers.  Mutually suspi-
	 cious sets of users should use different administrators.

       o Choose a pathname B to be a directory of files to be executed by  the
	 users.

       o Have  A  set up B to contain copies of ci and co that are setuid to A
	 by copying the commands from their standard installation directory  D
	 as follows:

	      mkdir  B
	      cp  D/c[io]  B
	      chmod  go-w,u+s  B/c[io]

       o Have each user prepend B to their path as follows:

	      PATH=B:$PATH;  export  PATH  # ordinary shell
	      set  path=(B  $path)  # C shell

       o Have  A  create  each	RCS directory R with write access only to A as
	 follows:

	      mkdir  R
	      chmod  go-w  R

       o If you want to let only certain users read the  RCS  files,  put  the
	 users into a group G, and have A further protect the RCS directory as
	 follows:

	      chgrp  G	R
	      chmod  g-w,o-rwx	R

       o Have A copy old RCS files (if any) into R,  to  ensure  that  A  owns
	 them.

       o An RCS file's access list limits who can check in and lock revisions.
	 The default access list is empty, which grants checkin access to any-
	 one  who  can	read  the RCS file.  If you want limit checkin access,
	 have A invoke	rcs -a	on  the  file;	see  rcs(1).   In  particular,
	 rcs -e -aA limits access to just A.

       o Have  A  initialize  any  new	RCS  files  with rcs -i before initial
	 checkin, adding the -a option if you want to limit checkin access.

       o Give setuid privileges only to ci, co, and rcsclean; do not give them
	 to rcs or to any other command.

       o Do  not  use  other setuid commands to invoke RCS commands; setuid is
	 trickier than you think!

ENVIRONMENT
       RCSINIT
	      options prepended to the argument list, separated by spaces.   A
	      backslash  escapes spaces within an option.  The RCSINIT options
	      are prepended to the argument lists of most RCS commands.   Use-
	      ful RCSINIT options include -q, -V, -x, and -z.

       TMPDIR Name  of	the  temporary directory.  If not set, the environment
	      variables TMP and TEMP are inspected instead and the first value
	      found  is  taken;  if  none  of  them  are set, a host-dependent
	      default is used, typically /tmp.

DIAGNOSTICS
       For each revision, ci prints the RCS file, the working  file,  and  the
       number of both the deposited and the preceding revision.  The exit sta-
       tus is zero if and only if all operations were successful.

IDENTIFICATION
       Author: Walter F. Tichy.
       Manual Page Revision: 1.6; Release Date: 1999/08/27.
       Copyright (C) 1982, 1988, 1989 Walter F. Tichy.
       Copyright (C) 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995 Paul Eggert.

SEE ALSO
       co(1), ident(1), make(1), rcs(1), rcsclean(1), rcsdiff(1), rcsintro(1),
       rcsmerge(1), rlog(1), setuid(2), rcsfile(5)
       Walter  F. Tichy, RCS--A System for Version Control, Software--Practice
       & Experience 15, 7 (July 1985), 637-654.



GNU				  1999/08/27				 CI(1)
=192068
+185
(49)