a2p
accept
access
acct
addftinfo
addr2line
adjtime
afmtodit
after
aio_cancel
aio_error
aio_read
aio_return
aio_suspend
aio_waitcomplete
aio_write
alias
aliases
alloc
anvil
append
apply
apropos
ar
array
as
asa
asn1parse
at
atq
atrm
attemptckalloc
attemptckrealloc
authlib
authtest
autopoint
awk
b64decode
b64encode
basename
batch
bc
bdes
bell
bg
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biff
big5
binary
bind
bindkey
bindtags
bindtextdomain
bio
bitmap
blowfish
bn
bootparams
bootptab
bounce
brandelf
break
breaksw
brk
bsdiff
bsdtar
bsnmpd
bspatch
bthost
btsockstat
buffer
builtin
builtins
bunzip2
button
byacc
bzcat
bzegrep
bzfgrep
bzgrep
bzip2
c2ph
c89
c99
ca
cal
calendar
canvas
cap_mkdb
case
cat
catch
catman
cc
cd
cdcontrol
chdir
checkbutton
checknr
chflags
chfn
chgrp
chio
chkey
chmod
chown
chpass
chroot
chsh
ci
ciphers
ckalloc
ckdist
ckfree
ckrealloc
cksum
cleanup
clear
clipboard
clock
clock_getres
clock_gettime
clock_settime
close
cmp
co
col
colcrt
colldef
colors
colrm
column
comm
command
compile_et
complete
compress
concat
config
connect
console
continue
core
courierlogger
couriertcpd
cp
cpan
cpio
cpp
creat
crl
crontab
crunchgen
crunchide
crypt
crypto
csh
csplit
ctags
ctm
ctm_dequeue
ctm_rmail
ctm_smail
cu
cursor
cursors
cut
cvs
date
dbiprof
dbiproxy
dc
dcgettext
dcngettext
dd
dde
default
defer
deliverquota
des
destroy
devfs
df
dgettext
dgst
dh
dhparam
dialog
diff
diff3
dig
dir
dirent
dirname
dirs
discard
disktab
dngettext
do
domainname
done
dprofpp
dsa
dsaparam
dtmfdecode
du
dup
dup2
eaccess
ec
ecdsa
echo
echotc
ecparam
ed
edit
editrc
ee
egrep
elf
elfdump
elif
else
enc
enc2xs
encoding
end
endif
endsw
engine
enigma
entry
env
envsubst
eof
eqn
err
errno
error
errstr
esac
ethers
euc
eui64
eval
event
evp
ex
exec
execve
exit
expand
export
exports
expr
extattr
extattr_delete_fd
extattr_delete_file
extattr_get_fd
extattr_get_file
extattr_set_fd
extattr_set_file
f77
false
famm
famx
fblocked
fbtab
fc
fchdir
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fchmod
fchown
fcntl
fconfigure
fcopy
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fdformat
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fdwrite
fetch
fg
fgrep
fhopen
fhstat
fhstatfs
fi
file
file2c
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filetest
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find2perl
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flock
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fontedit
for
foreach
fork
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fs
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g711conv
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getpgrp
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gettytab
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glob
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grab
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grid
grn
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groff
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hup
i386_get_ioperm
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ident
idprio
if
ifnames253
ifnames259
image
imapd
incr
indent
indxbib
info
infokey
inode
install
instmodsh
interp
intro
introduction
ioctl
ipcrm
ipcs
ipf
ipftest
ipnat
ippool
ipresend
issetugid
jail
jail_attach
jobid
jobs
join
jot
kbdcontrol
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kevent
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label
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lastcomm
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ld
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lex
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libnetcfg
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link
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list
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ln
load
loadfont
local
locale
locate
lock
lockf
log
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lp
lpq
lpr
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nice
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nview
objcopy
objdump
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ocsp
od
onintr
open
openssl
opieaccess
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option
options
oqmgr
pack
package
packagens
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passwd
paste
patch
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pawd
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perl
perl56delta
perl58delta
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perl581delta
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FreeBSD/Linux/UNIX General Commands Manual
Hypertext Man Pages
perlapi
 
PERLAPI(1)	       Perl Programmers Reference Guide 	    PERLAPI(1)



NAME
       perlapi - autogenerated documentation for the perl public API

DESCRIPTION
       This file contains the documentation of the perl public API generated
       by embed.pl, specifically a listing of functions, macros, flags, and
       variables that may be used by extension writers.  The interfaces of any
       functions that are not listed here are subject to change without
       notice.	For this reason, blindly using functions listed in proto.h is
       to be avoided when writing extensions.

       Note that all Perl API global variables must be referenced with the
       "PL_" prefix.  Some macros are provided for compatibility with the
       older, unadorned names, but this support may be disabled in a future
       release.

       The listing is alphabetical, case insensitive.

"Gimme" Values
       GIMME   A backward-compatible version of "GIMME_V" which can only
	       return "G_SCALAR" or "G_ARRAY"; in a void context, it returns
	       "G_SCALAR".  Deprecated.  Use "GIMME_V" instead.

		       U32     GIMME

       GIMME_V The XSUB-writer's equivalent to Perl's "wantarray".  Returns
	       "G_VOID", "G_SCALAR" or "G_ARRAY" for void, scalar or list con-
	       text, respectively.

		       U32     GIMME_V

       G_ARRAY Used to indicate list context.  See "GIMME_V", "GIMME" and
	       perlcall.

       G_DISCARD
	       Indicates that arguments returned from a callback should be
	       discarded.  See perlcall.

       G_EVAL  Used to force a Perl "eval" wrapper around a callback.  See
	       perlcall.

       G_NOARGS
	       Indicates that no arguments are being sent to a callback.  See
	       perlcall.

       G_SCALAR
	       Used to indicate scalar context.  See "GIMME_V", "GIMME", and
	       perlcall.

       G_VOID  Used to indicate void context.  See "GIMME_V" and perlcall.

Array Manipulation Functions
       AvFILL  Same as "av_len()".  Deprecated, use "av_len()" instead.

		       int     AvFILL(AV* av)

       av_clear
	       Clears an array, making it empty.  Does not free the memory
	       used by the array itself.

		       void    av_clear(AV* ar)

       av_delete
	       Deletes the element indexed by "key" from the array.  Returns
	       the deleted element. If "flags" equals "G_DISCARD", the element
	       is freed and null is returned.

		       SV*     av_delete(AV* ar, I32 key, I32 flags)

       av_exists
	       Returns true if the element indexed by "key" has been initial-
	       ized.

	       This relies on the fact that uninitialized array elements are
	       set to &PL_sv_undef.

		       bool    av_exists(AV* ar, I32 key)

       av_extend
	       Pre-extend an array.  The "key" is the index to which the array
	       should be extended.

		       void    av_extend(AV* ar, I32 key)

       av_fetch
	       Returns the SV at the specified index in the array.  The "key"
	       is the index.  If "lval" is set then the fetch will be part of
	       a store.  Check that the return value is non-null before deref-
	       erencing it to a "SV*".

	       See "Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays" in
	       perlguts for more information on how to use this function on
	       tied arrays.

		       SV**    av_fetch(AV* ar, I32 key, I32 lval)

       av_fill Ensure than an array has a given number of elements, equivalent
	       to Perl's "$#array = $fill;".

		       void    av_fill(AV* ar, I32 fill)

       av_len  Returns the highest index in the array.	Returns -1 if the
	       array is empty.

		       I32     av_len(AV* ar)

       av_make Creates a new AV and populates it with a list of SVs.  The SVs
	       are copied into the array, so they may be freed after the call
	       to av_make.  The new AV will have a reference count of 1.

		       AV*     av_make(I32 size, SV** svp)

       av_pop  Pops an SV off the end of the array.  Returns &PL_sv_undef if
	       the array is empty.

		       SV*     av_pop(AV* ar)

       av_push Pushes an SV onto the end of the array.	The array will grow
	       automatically to accommodate the addition.

		       void    av_push(AV* ar, SV* val)

       av_shift
	       Shifts an SV off the beginning of the array.

		       SV*     av_shift(AV* ar)

       av_store
	       Stores an SV in an array.  The array index is specified as
	       "key".  The return value will be NULL if the operation failed
	       or if the value did not need to be actually stored within the
	       array (as in the case of tied arrays). Otherwise it can be
	       dereferenced to get the original "SV*".	Note that the caller
	       is responsible for suitably incrementing the reference count of
	       "val" before the call, and decrementing it if the function
	       returned NULL.

	       See "Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays" in
	       perlguts for more information on how to use this function on
	       tied arrays.

		       SV**    av_store(AV* ar, I32 key, SV* val)

       av_undef
	       Undefines the array.  Frees the memory used by the array
	       itself.

		       void    av_undef(AV* ar)

       av_unshift
	       Unshift the given number of "undef" values onto the beginning
	       of the array.  The array will grow automatically to accommodate
	       the addition.  You must then use "av_store" to assign values to
	       these new elements.

		       void    av_unshift(AV* ar, I32 num)

       get_av  Returns the AV of the specified Perl array.  If "create" is set
	       and the Perl variable does not exist then it will be created.
	       If "create" is not set and the variable does not exist then
	       NULL is returned.

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       AV*     get_av(const char* name, I32 create)

       newAV   Creates a new AV.  The reference count is set to 1.

		       AV*     newAV()

       sortsv  Sort an array. Here is an example:

		   sortsv(AvARRAY(av), av_len(av)+1, Perl_sv_cmp_locale);

	       See lib/sort.pm for details about controlling the sorting algo-
	       rithm.

		       void    sortsv(SV** array, size_t num_elts, SVCOMPARE_t cmp)

Callback Functions
       call_argv
	       Performs a callback to the specified Perl sub.  See perlcall.

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       I32     call_argv(const char* sub_name, I32 flags, char** argv)

       call_method
	       Performs a callback to the specified Perl method.  The blessed
	       object must be on the stack.  See perlcall.

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       I32     call_method(const char* methname, I32 flags)

       call_pv Performs a callback to the specified Perl sub.  See perlcall.

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       I32     call_pv(const char* sub_name, I32 flags)

       call_sv Performs a callback to the Perl sub whose name is in the SV.
	       See perlcall.

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       I32     call_sv(SV* sv, I32 flags)

       ENTER   Opening bracket on a callback.  See "LEAVE" and perlcall.

			       ENTER;

       eval_pv Tells Perl to "eval" the given string and return an SV* result.

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       SV*     eval_pv(const char* p, I32 croak_on_error)

       eval_sv Tells Perl to "eval" the string in the SV.

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       I32     eval_sv(SV* sv, I32 flags)

       FREETMPS
	       Closing bracket for temporaries on a callback.  See "SAVETMPS"
	       and perlcall.

			       FREETMPS;

       LEAVE   Closing bracket on a callback.  See "ENTER" and perlcall.

			       LEAVE;

       SAVETMPS
	       Opening bracket for temporaries on a callback.  See "FREETMPS"
	       and perlcall.

			       SAVETMPS;

Character classes
       isALNUM Returns a boolean indicating whether the C "char" is an ASCII
	       alphanumeric character (including underscore) or digit.

		       bool    isALNUM(char ch)

       isALPHA Returns a boolean indicating whether the C "char" is an ASCII
	       alphabetic character.

		       bool    isALPHA(char ch)

       isDIGIT Returns a boolean indicating whether the C "char" is an ASCII
	       digit.

		       bool    isDIGIT(char ch)

       isLOWER Returns a boolean indicating whether the C "char" is a lower-
	       case character.

		       bool    isLOWER(char ch)

       isSPACE Returns a boolean indicating whether the C "char" is white-
	       space.

		       bool    isSPACE(char ch)

       isUPPER Returns a boolean indicating whether the C "char" is an upper-
	       case character.

		       bool    isUPPER(char ch)

       toLOWER Converts the specified character to lowercase.

		       char    toLOWER(char ch)

       toUPPER Converts the specified character to uppercase.

		       char    toUPPER(char ch)

Cloning an interpreter
       perl_clone
	       Create and return a new interpreter by cloning the current one.

	       perl_clone takes these flags as parameters:

	       CLONEf_COPY_STACKS - is used to, well, copy the stacks also,
	       without it we only clone the data and zero the stacks, with it
	       we copy the stacks and the new perl interpreter is ready to run
	       at the exact same point as the previous one.  The pseudo-fork
	       code uses COPY_STACKS while the threads->new doesn't.

	       CLONEf_KEEP_PTR_TABLE perl_clone keeps a ptr_table with the
	       pointer of the old variable as a key and the new variable as a
	       value, this allows it to check if something has been cloned and
	       not clone it again but rather just use the value and increase
	       the refcount. If KEEP_PTR_TABLE is not set then perl_clone will
	       kill the ptr_table using the function "ptr_ta-
	       ble_free(PL_ptr_table); PL_ptr_table = NULL;", reason to keep
	       it around is if you want to dup some of your own variable who
	       are outside the graph perl scans, example of this code is in
	       threads.xs create

	       CLONEf_CLONE_HOST This is a win32 thing, it is ignored on unix,
	       it tells perls win32host code (which is c++) to clone itself,
	       this is needed on win32 if you want to run two threads at the
	       same time, if you just want to do some stuff in a separate perl
	       interpreter and then throw it away and return to the original
	       one, you don't need to do anything.

		       PerlInterpreter*        perl_clone(PerlInterpreter* interp, UV flags)

CV Manipulation Functions
       CvSTASH Returns the stash of the CV.

		       HV*     CvSTASH(CV* cv)

       get_cv  Returns the CV of the specified Perl subroutine.  If "create"
	       is set and the Perl subroutine does not exist then it will be
	       declared (which has the same effect as saying "sub name;").  If
	       "create" is not set and the subroutine does not exist then NULL
	       is returned.

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       CV*     get_cv(const char* name, I32 create)

Embedding Functions
       cv_undef
	       Clear out all the active components of a CV. This can happen
	       either by an explicit "undef &foo", or by the reference count
	       going to zero.  In the former case, we keep the CvOUTSIDE
	       pointer, so that any anonymous children can still follow the
	       full lexical scope chain.

		       void    cv_undef(CV* cv)

       load_module
	       Loads the module whose name is pointed to by the string part of
	       name.  Note that the actual module name, not its filename,
	       should be given.  Eg, "Foo::Bar" instead of "Foo/Bar.pm".
	       flags can be any of PERL_LOADMOD_DENY, PERL_LOADMOD_NOIMPORT,
	       or PERL_LOADMOD_IMPORT_OPS (or 0 for no flags). ver, if speci-
	       fied, provides version semantics similar to "use Foo::Bar VER-
	       SION".  The optional trailing SV* arguments can be used to
	       specify arguments to the module's import() method, similar to
	       "use Foo::Bar VERSION LIST".

		       void    load_module(U32 flags, SV* name, SV* ver, ...)

       nothreadhook
	       Stub that provides thread hook for perl_destruct when there are
	       no threads.

		       int     nothreadhook()

       perl_alloc
	       Allocates a new Perl interpreter.  See perlembed.

		       PerlInterpreter*        perl_alloc()

       perl_construct
	       Initializes a new Perl interpreter.  See perlembed.

		       void    perl_construct(PerlInterpreter* interp)

       perl_destruct
	       Shuts down a Perl interpreter.  See perlembed.

		       int     perl_destruct(PerlInterpreter* interp)

       perl_free
	       Releases a Perl interpreter.  See perlembed.

		       void    perl_free(PerlInterpreter* interp)

       perl_parse
	       Tells a Perl interpreter to parse a Perl script.  See perlem-
	       bed.

		       int     perl_parse(PerlInterpreter* interp, XSINIT_t xsinit, int argc, char** argv, char** env)

       perl_run
	       Tells a Perl interpreter to run.  See perlembed.

		       int     perl_run(PerlInterpreter* interp)

       require_pv
	       Tells Perl to "require" the file named by the string argument.
	       It is analogous to the Perl code "eval "require '$file'"".
	       It's even implemented that way; consider using load_module
	       instead.

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       void    require_pv(const char* pv)

Functions in file pp_pack.c
       packlist
	       The engine implementing pack() Perl function.

		       void    packlist(SV *cat, char *pat, char *patend, SV **beglist, SV **endlist)

       pack_cat
	       The engine implementing pack() Perl function. Note: parameters
	       next_in_list and flags are not used. This call should not be
	       used; use packlist instead.

		       void    pack_cat(SV *cat, char *pat, char *patend, SV **beglist, SV **endlist, SV ***next_in_list, U32 flags)

       unpackstring
	       The engine implementing unpack() Perl function. "unpackstring"
	       puts the extracted list items on the stack and returns the num-
	       ber of elements.  Issue "PUTBACK" before and "SPAGAIN" after
	       the call to this function.

		       I32     unpackstring(char *pat, char *patend, char *s, char *strend, U32 flags)

       unpack_str
	       The engine implementing unpack() Perl function. Note: parame-
	       ters strbeg, new_s and ocnt are not used. This call should not
	       be used, use unpackstring instead.

		       I32     unpack_str(char *pat, char *patend, char *s, char *strbeg, char *strend, char **new_s, I32 ocnt, U32 flags)

Global Variables
       PL_modglobal
	       "PL_modglobal" is a general purpose, interpreter global HV for
	       use by extensions that need to keep information on a per-inter-
	       preter basis.  In a pinch, it can also be used as a symbol ta-
	       ble for extensions to share data among each other.  It is a
	       good idea to use keys prefixed by the package name of the
	       extension that owns the data.

		       HV*     PL_modglobal

       PL_na   A convenience variable which is typically used with "SvPV" when
	       one doesn't care about the length of the string.  It is usually
	       more efficient to either declare a local variable and use that
	       instead or to use the "SvPV_nolen" macro.

		       STRLEN  PL_na

       PL_sv_no
	       This is the "false" SV.	See "PL_sv_yes".  Always refer to this
	       as &PL_sv_no.

		       SV      PL_sv_no

       PL_sv_undef
	       This is the "undef" SV.	Always refer to this as &PL_sv_undef.

		       SV      PL_sv_undef

       PL_sv_yes
	       This is the "true" SV.  See "PL_sv_no".	Always refer to this
	       as &PL_sv_yes.

		       SV      PL_sv_yes

GV Functions
       GvSV    Return the SV from the GV.

		       SV*     GvSV(GV* gv)

       gv_fetchmeth
	       Returns the glob with the given "name" and a defined subroutine
	       or "NULL".  The glob lives in the given "stash", or in the
	       stashes accessible via @ISA and UNIVERSAL::.

	       The argument "level" should be either 0 or -1.  If "level==0",
	       as a side-effect creates a glob with the given "name" in the
	       given "stash" which in the case of success contains an alias
	       for the subroutine, and sets up caching info for this glob.
	       Similarly for all the searched stashes.

	       This function grants "SUPER" token as a postfix of the stash
	       name. The GV returned from "gv_fetchmeth" may be a method cache
	       entry, which is not visible to Perl code.  So when calling
	       "call_sv", you should not use the GV directly; instead, you
	       should use the method's CV, which can be obtained from the GV
	       with the "GvCV" macro.

		       GV*     gv_fetchmeth(HV* stash, const char* name, STRLEN len, I32 level)

       gv_fetchmethod
	       See gv_fetchmethod_autoload.

		       GV*     gv_fetchmethod(HV* stash, const char* name)

       gv_fetchmethod_autoload
	       Returns the glob which contains the subroutine to call to
	       invoke the method on the "stash".  In fact in the presence of
	       autoloading this may be the glob for "AUTOLOAD".  In this case
	       the corresponding variable $AUTOLOAD is already setup.

	       The third parameter of "gv_fetchmethod_autoload" determines
	       whether AUTOLOAD lookup is performed if the given method is not
	       present: non-zero means yes, look for AUTOLOAD; zero means no,
	       don't look for AUTOLOAD.  Calling "gv_fetchmethod" is equiva-
	       lent to calling "gv_fetchmethod_autoload" with a non-zero
	       "autoload" parameter.

	       These functions grant "SUPER" token as a prefix of the method
	       name. Note that if you want to keep the returned glob for a
	       long time, you need to check for it being "AUTOLOAD", since at
	       the later time the call may load a different subroutine due to
	       $AUTOLOAD changing its value. Use the glob created via a side
	       effect to do this.

	       These functions have the same side-effects and as "gv_fetch-
	       meth" with "level==0".  "name" should be writable if contains
	       ':' or "' ''". The warning against passing the GV returned by
	       "gv_fetchmeth" to "call_sv" apply equally to these functions.

		       GV*     gv_fetchmethod_autoload(HV* stash, const char* name, I32 autoload)

       gv_fetchmeth_autoload
	       Same as gv_fetchmeth(), but looks for autoloaded subroutines
	       too.  Returns a glob for the subroutine.

	       For an autoloaded subroutine without a GV, will create a GV
	       even if "level < 0".  For an autoloaded subroutine without a
	       stub, GvCV() of the result may be zero.

		       GV*     gv_fetchmeth_autoload(HV* stash, const char* name, STRLEN len, I32 level)

       gv_stashpv
	       Returns a pointer to the stash for a specified package.	"name"
	       should be a valid UTF-8 string and must be null-terminated.  If
	       "create" is set then the package will be created if it does not
	       already exist.  If "create" is not set and the package does not
	       exist then NULL is returned.

		       HV*     gv_stashpv(const char* name, I32 create)

       gv_stashpvn
	       Returns a pointer to the stash for a specified package.	"name"
	       should be a valid UTF-8 string.	The "namelen" parameter indi-
	       cates the length of the "name", in bytes.  If "create" is set
	       then the package will be created if it does not already exist.
	       If "create" is not set and the package does not exist then NULL
	       is returned.

		       HV*     gv_stashpvn(const char* name, U32 namelen, I32 create)

       gv_stashsv
	       Returns a pointer to the stash for a specified package, which
	       must be a valid UTF-8 string.  See "gv_stashpv".

		       HV*     gv_stashsv(SV* sv, I32 create)

Handy Values
       Nullav  Null AV pointer.

       Nullch  Null character pointer.

       Nullcv  Null CV pointer.

       Nullhv  Null HV pointer.

       Nullsv  Null SV pointer.

Hash Manipulation Functions
       get_hv  Returns the HV of the specified Perl hash.  If "create" is set
	       and the Perl variable does not exist then it will be created.
	       If "create" is not set and the variable does not exist then
	       NULL is returned.

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       HV*     get_hv(const char* name, I32 create)

       HEf_SVKEY
	       This flag, used in the length slot of hash entries and magic
	       structures, specifies the structure contains an "SV*" pointer
	       where a "char*" pointer is to be expected. (For information
	       only--not to be used).

       HeHASH  Returns the computed hash stored in the hash entry.

		       U32     HeHASH(HE* he)

       HeKEY   Returns the actual pointer stored in the key slot of the hash
	       entry. The pointer may be either "char*" or "SV*", depending on
	       the value of "HeKLEN()".  Can be assigned to.  The "HePV()" or
	       "HeSVKEY()" macros are usually preferable for finding the value
	       of a key.

		       void*   HeKEY(HE* he)

       HeKLEN  If this is negative, and amounts to "HEf_SVKEY", it indicates
	       the entry holds an "SV*" key.  Otherwise, holds the actual
	       length of the key.  Can be assigned to. The "HePV()" macro is
	       usually preferable for finding key lengths.

		       STRLEN  HeKLEN(HE* he)

       HePV    Returns the key slot of the hash entry as a "char*" value,
	       doing any necessary dereferencing of possibly "SV*" keys.  The
	       length of the string is placed in "len" (this is a macro, so do
	       not use &len).  If you do not care about what the length of the
	       key is, you may use the global variable "PL_na", though this is
	       rather less efficient than using a local variable.  Remember
	       though, that hash keys in perl are free to contain embedded
	       nulls, so using "strlen()" or similar is not a good way to find
	       the length of hash keys. This is very similar to the "SvPV()"
	       macro described elsewhere in this document.

		       char*   HePV(HE* he, STRLEN len)

       HeSVKEY Returns the key as an "SV*", or "Nullsv" if the hash entry does
	       not contain an "SV*" key.

		       SV*     HeSVKEY(HE* he)

       HeSVKEY_force
	       Returns the key as an "SV*".  Will create and return a tempo-
	       rary mortal "SV*" if the hash entry contains only a "char*"
	       key.

		       SV*     HeSVKEY_force(HE* he)

       HeSVKEY_set
	       Sets the key to a given "SV*", taking care to set the appropri-
	       ate flags to indicate the presence of an "SV*" key, and returns
	       the same "SV*".

		       SV*     HeSVKEY_set(HE* he, SV* sv)

       HeVAL   Returns the value slot (type "SV*") stored in the hash entry.

		       SV*     HeVAL(HE* he)

       HvNAME  Returns the package name of a stash.  See "SvSTASH", "CvSTASH".

		       char*   HvNAME(HV* stash)

       hv_clear
	       Clears a hash, making it empty.

		       void    hv_clear(HV* tb)

       hv_clear_placeholders
	       Clears any placeholders from a hash.  If a restricted hash has
	       any of its keys marked as readonly and the key is subsequently
	       deleted, the key is not actually deleted but is marked by
	       assigning it a value of &PL_sv_placeholder.  This tags it so it
	       will be ignored by future operations such as iterating over the
	       hash, but will still allow the hash to have a value reassigned
	       to the key at some future point.  This function clears any such
	       placeholder keys from the hash.	See Hash::Util::lock_keys()
	       for an example of its use.

		       void    hv_clear_placeholders(HV* hb)

       hv_delete
	       Deletes a key/value pair in the hash.  The value SV is removed
	       from the hash and returned to the caller.  The "klen" is the
	       length of the key.  The "flags" value will normally be zero; if
	       set to G_DISCARD then NULL will be returned.

		       SV*     hv_delete(HV* tb, const char* key, I32 klen, I32 flags)

       hv_delete_ent
	       Deletes a key/value pair in the hash.  The value SV is removed
	       from the hash and returned to the caller.  The "flags" value
	       will normally be zero; if set to G_DISCARD then NULL will be
	       returned.  "hash" can be a valid precomputed hash value, or 0
	       to ask for it to be computed.

		       SV*     hv_delete_ent(HV* tb, SV* key, I32 flags, U32 hash)

       hv_exists
	       Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified hash key
	       exists.	The "klen" is the length of the key.

		       bool    hv_exists(HV* tb, const char* key, I32 klen)

       hv_exists_ent
	       Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified hash key
	       exists. "hash" can be a valid precomputed hash value, or 0 to
	       ask for it to be computed.

		       bool    hv_exists_ent(HV* tb, SV* key, U32 hash)

       hv_fetch
	       Returns the SV which corresponds to the specified key in the
	       hash.  The "klen" is the length of the key.  If "lval" is set
	       then the fetch will be part of a store.	Check that the return
	       value is non-null before dereferencing it to an "SV*".

	       See "Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays" in
	       perlguts for more information on how to use this function on
	       tied hashes.

		       SV**    hv_fetch(HV* tb, const char* key, I32 klen, I32 lval)

       hv_fetch_ent
	       Returns the hash entry which corresponds to the specified key
	       in the hash.  "hash" must be a valid precomputed hash number
	       for the given "key", or 0 if you want the function to compute
	       it.  IF "lval" is set then the fetch will be part of a store.
	       Make sure the return value is non-null before accessing it.
	       The return value when "tb" is a tied hash is a pointer to a
	       static location, so be sure to make a copy of the structure if
	       you need to store it somewhere.

	       See "Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays" in
	       perlguts for more information on how to use this function on
	       tied hashes.

		       HE*     hv_fetch_ent(HV* tb, SV* key, I32 lval, U32 hash)

       hv_iterinit
	       Prepares a starting point to traverse a hash table.  Returns
	       the number of keys in the hash (i.e. the same as "HvKEYS(tb)").
	       The return value is currently only meaningful for hashes with-
	       out tie magic.

	       NOTE: Before version 5.004_65, "hv_iterinit" used to return the
	       number of hash buckets that happen to be in use.  If you still
	       need that esoteric value, you can get it through the macro
	       "HvFILL(tb)".

		       I32     hv_iterinit(HV* tb)

       hv_iterkey
	       Returns the key from the current position of the hash iterator.
	       See "hv_iterinit".

		       char*   hv_iterkey(HE* entry, I32* retlen)

       hv_iterkeysv
	       Returns the key as an "SV*" from the current position of the
	       hash iterator.  The return value will always be a mortal copy
	       of the key.  Also see "hv_iterinit".

		       SV*     hv_iterkeysv(HE* entry)

       hv_iternext
	       Returns entries from a hash iterator.  See "hv_iterinit".

	       You may call "hv_delete" or "hv_delete_ent" on the hash entry
	       that the iterator currently points to, without losing your
	       place or invalidating your iterator.  Note that in this case
	       the current entry is deleted from the hash with your iterator
	       holding the last reference to it.  Your iterator is flagged to
	       free the entry on the next call to "hv_iternext", so you must
	       not discard your iterator immediately else the entry will leak
	       - call "hv_iternext" to trigger the resource deallocation.

		       HE*     hv_iternext(HV* tb)

       hv_iternextsv
	       Performs an "hv_iternext", "hv_iterkey", and "hv_iterval" in
	       one operation.

		       SV*     hv_iternextsv(HV* hv, char** key, I32* retlen)

       hv_iternext_flags
	       Returns entries from a hash iterator.  See "hv_iterinit" and
	       "hv_iternext".  The "flags" value will normally be zero; if
	       HV_ITERNEXT_WANTPLACEHOLDERS is set the placeholders keys (for
	       restricted hashes) will be returned in addition to normal keys.
	       By default placeholders are automatically skipped over.	Cur-
	       rently a placeholder is implemented with a value that is
	       &Perl_sv_placeholder. Note that the implementation of place-
	       holders and restricted hashes may change, and the implementa-
	       tion currently is insufficiently abstracted for any change to
	       be tidy.

	       NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be
	       removed without notice.

		       HE*     hv_iternext_flags(HV* tb, I32 flags)

       hv_iterval
	       Returns the value from the current position of the hash itera-
	       tor.  See "hv_iterkey".

		       SV*     hv_iterval(HV* tb, HE* entry)

       hv_magic
	       Adds magic to a hash.  See "sv_magic".

		       void    hv_magic(HV* hv, GV* gv, int how)

       hv_scalar
	       Evaluates the hash in scalar context and returns the result.
	       Handles magic when the hash is tied.

		       SV*     hv_scalar(HV* hv)

       hv_store
	       Stores an SV in a hash.	The hash key is specified as "key" and
	       "klen" is the length of the key.  The "hash" parameter is the
	       precomputed hash value; if it is zero then Perl will compute
	       it.  The return value will be NULL if the operation failed or
	       if the value did not need to be actually stored within the hash
	       (as in the case of tied hashes).  Otherwise it can be derefer-
	       enced to get the original "SV*".  Note that the caller is
	       responsible for suitably incrementing the reference count of
	       "val" before the call, and decrementing it if the function
	       returned NULL.  Effectively a successful hv_store takes owner-
	       ship of one reference to "val".	This is usually what you want;
	       a newly created SV has a reference count of one, so if all your
	       code does is create SVs then store them in a hash, hv_store
	       will own the only reference to the new SV, and your code
	       doesn't need to do anything further to tidy up.	hv_store is
	       not implemented as a call to hv_store_ent, and does not create
	       a temporary SV for the key, so if your key data is not already
	       in SV form then use hv_store in preference to hv_store_ent.

	       See "Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays" in
	       perlguts for more information on how to use this function on
	       tied hashes.

		       SV**    hv_store(HV* tb, const char* key, I32 klen, SV* val, U32 hash)

       hv_store_ent
	       Stores "val" in a hash.	The hash key is specified as "key".
	       The "hash" parameter is the precomputed hash value; if it is
	       zero then Perl will compute it.	The return value is the new
	       hash entry so created.  It will be NULL if the operation failed
	       or if the value did not need to be actually stored within the
	       hash (as in the case of tied hashes).  Otherwise the contents
	       of the return value can be accessed using the "He?" macros
	       described here.	Note that the caller is responsible for suit-
	       ably incrementing the reference count of "val" before the call,
	       and decrementing it if the function returned NULL.  Effectively
	       a successful hv_store_ent takes ownership of one reference to
	       "val".  This is usually what you want; a newly created SV has a
	       reference count of one, so if all your code does is create SVs
	       then store them in a hash, hv_store will own the only reference
	       to the new SV, and your code doesn't need to do anything fur-
	       ther to tidy up.  Note that hv_store_ent only reads the "key";
	       unlike "val" it does not take ownership of it, so maintaining
	       the correct reference count on "key" is entirely the caller's
	       responsibility.	hv_store is not implemented as a call to
	       hv_store_ent, and does not create a temporary SV for the key,
	       so if your key data is not already in SV form then use hv_store
	       in preference to hv_store_ent.

	       See "Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays" in
	       perlguts for more information on how to use this function on
	       tied hashes.

		       HE*     hv_store_ent(HV* tb, SV* key, SV* val, U32 hash)

       hv_undef
	       Undefines the hash.

		       void    hv_undef(HV* tb)

       newHV   Creates a new HV.  The reference count is set to 1.

		       HV*     newHV()

Magical Functions
       mg_clear
	       Clear something magical that the SV represents.	See
	       "sv_magic".

		       int     mg_clear(SV* sv)

       mg_copy Copies the magic from one SV to another.  See "sv_magic".

		       int     mg_copy(SV* sv, SV* nsv, const char* key, I32 klen)

       mg_find Finds the magic pointer for type matching the SV.  See
	       "sv_magic".

		       MAGIC*  mg_find(SV* sv, int type)

       mg_free Free any magic storage used by the SV.  See "sv_magic".

		       int     mg_free(SV* sv)

       mg_get  Do magic after a value is retrieved from the SV.  See
	       "sv_magic".

		       int     mg_get(SV* sv)

       mg_length
	       Report on the SV's length.  See "sv_magic".

		       U32     mg_length(SV* sv)

       mg_magical
	       Turns on the magical status of an SV.  See "sv_magic".

		       void    mg_magical(SV* sv)

       mg_set  Do magic after a value is assigned to the SV.  See "sv_magic".

		       int     mg_set(SV* sv)

       SvGETMAGIC
	       Invokes "mg_get" on an SV if it has 'get' magic.  This macro
	       evaluates its argument more than once.

		       void    SvGETMAGIC(SV* sv)

       SvLOCK  Arranges for a mutual exclusion lock to be obtained on sv if a
	       suitable module has been loaded.

		       void    SvLOCK(SV* sv)

       SvSETMAGIC
	       Invokes "mg_set" on an SV if it has 'set' magic.  This macro
	       evaluates its argument more than once.

		       void    SvSETMAGIC(SV* sv)

       SvSetMagicSV
	       Like "SvSetSV", but does any set magic required afterwards.

		       void    SvSetMagicSV(SV* dsb, SV* ssv)

       SvSetMagicSV_nosteal
	       Like "SvSetSV_nosteal", but does any set magic required after-
	       wards.

		       void    SvSetMagicSV_nosteal(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)

       SvSetSV Calls "sv_setsv" if dsv is not the same as ssv.	May evaluate
	       arguments more than once.

		       void    SvSetSV(SV* dsb, SV* ssv)

       SvSetSV_nosteal
	       Calls a non-destructive version of "sv_setsv" if dsv is not the
	       same as ssv. May evaluate arguments more than once.

		       void    SvSetSV_nosteal(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)

       SvSHARE Arranges for sv to be shared between threads if a suitable mod-
	       ule has been loaded.

		       void    SvSHARE(SV* sv)

       SvUNLOCK
	       Releases a mutual exclusion lock on sv if a suitable module has
	       been loaded.

		       void    SvUNLOCK(SV* sv)

Memory Management
       Copy    The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "memcpy" function.	The
	       "src" is the source, "dest" is the destination, "nitems" is the
	       number of items, and "type" is the type.  May fail on overlap-
	       ping copies.  See also "Move".

		       void    Copy(void* src, void* dest, int nitems, type)

       CopyD   Like "Copy" but returns dest. Useful for encouraging compilers
	       to tail-call optimise.

		       void *  CopyD(void* src, void* dest, int nitems, type)

       Move    The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "memmove" function.  The
	       "src" is the source, "dest" is the destination, "nitems" is the
	       number of items, and "type" is the type.  Can do overlapping
	       moves.  See also "Copy".

		       void    Move(void* src, void* dest, int nitems, type)

       MoveD   Like "Move" but returns dest. Useful for encouraging compilers
	       to tail-call optimise.

		       void *  MoveD(void* src, void* dest, int nitems, type)

       Newx    The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "malloc" function.

		       void    Newx(void* ptr, int nitems, type)

       Newxc   The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "malloc" function, with
	       cast.

		       void    Newxc(void* ptr, int nitems, type, cast)

       Newxz   The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "malloc" function.	The
	       allocated memory is zeroed with "memzero".

	       In 5.9.3, we removed the 1st parameter, a debug aid, from the
	       api.  It was used to uniquely identify each usage of these
	       allocation functions, but was deemed unnecessary with the
	       availability of better memory tracking tools, valgrind for
	       example.

		       void    Newxz(void* ptr, int nitems, type)

       Poison  Fill up memory with a pattern (byte 0xAB over and over again)
	       that hopefully catches attempts to access uninitialized memory.

		       void    Poison(void* dest, int nitems, type)

       Renew   The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "realloc" function.

		       void    Renew(void* ptr, int nitems, type)

       Renewc  The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "realloc" function, with
	       cast.

		       void    Renewc(void* ptr, int nitems, type, cast)

       Safefree
	       The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "free" function.

		       void    Safefree(void* ptr)

       savepv  Perl's version of "strdup()". Returns a pointer to a newly
	       allocated string which is a duplicate of "pv". The size of the
	       string is determined by "strlen()". The memory allocated for
	       the new string can be freed with the "Safefree()" function.

		       char*   savepv(const char* pv)

       savepvn Perl's version of what "strndup()" would be if it existed.
	       Returns a pointer to a newly allocated string which is a dupli-
	       cate of the first "len" bytes from "pv". The memory allocated
	       for the new string can be freed with the "Safefree()" function.

		       char*   savepvn(const char* pv, I32 len)

       savesharedpv
	       A version of "savepv()" which allocates the duplicate string in
	       memory which is shared between threads.

		       char*   savesharedpv(const char* pv)

       savesvpv
	       A version of "savepv()"/"savepvn()" which gets the string to
	       duplicate from the passed in SV using "SvPV()"

		       char*   savesvpv(SV* sv)

       StructCopy
	       This is an architecture-independent macro to copy one structure
	       to another.

		       void    StructCopy(type src, type dest, type)

       Zero    The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "memzero" function.  The
	       "dest" is the destination, "nitems" is the number of items, and
	       "type" is the type.

		       void    Zero(void* dest, int nitems, type)

       ZeroD   Like "Zero" but returns dest. Useful for encouraging compilers
	       to tail-call optimise.

		       void *  ZeroD(void* dest, int nitems, type)

Miscellaneous Functions
       fbm_compile
	       Analyses the string in order to make fast searches on it using
	       fbm_instr() -- the Boyer-Moore algorithm.

		       void    fbm_compile(SV* sv, U32 flags)

       fbm_instr
	       Returns the location of the SV in the string delimited by "str"
	       and "strend".  It returns "Nullch" if the string can't be
	       found.  The "sv" does not have to be fbm_compiled, but the
	       search will not be as fast then.

		       char*   fbm_instr(unsigned char* big, unsigned char* bigend, SV* littlesv, U32 flags)

       form    Takes a sprintf-style format pattern and conventional (non-SV)
	       arguments and returns the formatted string.

		   (char *) Perl_form(pTHX_ const char* pat, ...)

	       can be used any place a string (char *) is required:

		   char * s = Perl_form("%d.%d",major,minor);

	       Uses a single private buffer so if you want to format several
	       strings you must explicitly copy the earlier strings away (and
	       free the copies when you are done).

		       char*   form(const char* pat, ...)

       getcwd_sv
	       Fill the sv with current working directory

		       int     getcwd_sv(SV* sv)

       strEQ   Test two strings to see if they are equal.  Returns true or
	       false.

		       bool    strEQ(char* s1, char* s2)

       strGE   Test two strings to see if the first, "s1", is greater than or
	       equal to the second, "s2".  Returns true or false.

		       bool    strGE(char* s1, char* s2)

       strGT   Test two strings to see if the first, "s1", is greater than the
	       second, "s2".  Returns true or false.

		       bool    strGT(char* s1, char* s2)

       strLE   Test two strings to see if the first, "s1", is less than or
	       equal to the second, "s2".  Returns true or false.

		       bool    strLE(char* s1, char* s2)

       strLT   Test two strings to see if the first, "s1", is less than the
	       second, "s2".  Returns true or false.

		       bool    strLT(char* s1, char* s2)

       strNE   Test two strings to see if they are different.  Returns true or
	       false.

		       bool    strNE(char* s1, char* s2)

       strnEQ  Test two strings to see if they are equal.  The "len" parameter
	       indicates the number of bytes to compare.  Returns true or
	       false. (A wrapper for "strncmp").

		       bool    strnEQ(char* s1, char* s2, STRLEN len)

       strnNE  Test two strings to see if they are different.  The "len"
	       parameter indicates the number of bytes to compare.  Returns
	       true or false. (A wrapper for "strncmp").

		       bool    strnNE(char* s1, char* s2, STRLEN len)

       sv_nolocking
	       Dummy routine which "locks" an SV when there is no locking mod-
	       ule present.  Exists to avoid test for a NULL function pointer
	       and because it could potentially warn under some level of
	       strict-ness.

		       void    sv_nolocking(SV *)

       sv_nosharing
	       Dummy routine which "shares" an SV when there is no sharing
	       module present.	Exists to avoid test for a NULL function
	       pointer and because it could potentially warn under some level
	       of strict-ness.

		       void    sv_nosharing(SV *)

       sv_nounlocking
	       Dummy routine which "unlocks" an SV when there is no locking
	       module present.	Exists to avoid test for a NULL function
	       pointer and because it could potentially warn under some level
	       of strict-ness.

		       void    sv_nounlocking(SV *)

Numeric functions
       grok_bin
	       converts a string representing a binary number to numeric form.

	       On entry start and *len give the string to scan, *flags gives
	       conversion flags, and result should be NULL or a pointer to an
	       NV.  The scan stops at the end of the string, or the first
	       invalid character.  Unless "PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT" is set
	       in *flags, encountering an invalid character will also trigger
	       a warning.  On return *len is set to the length of the scanned
	       string, and *flags gives output flags.

	       If the value is <= "UV_MAX" it is returned as a UV, the output
	       flags are clear, and nothing is written to *result. If the
	       value is > UV_MAX "grok_bin" returns UV_MAX, sets
	       "PERL_SCAN_GREATER_THAN_UV_MAX" in the output flags, and writes
	       the value to *result (or the value is discarded if result is
	       NULL).

	       The binary number may optionally be prefixed with "0b" or "b"
	       unless "PERL_SCAN_DISALLOW_PREFIX" is set in *flags on entry.
	       If "PERL_SCAN_ALLOW_UNDERSCORES" is set in *flags then the
	       binary number may use '_' characters to separate digits.

		       UV      grok_bin(char* start, STRLEN* len, I32* flags, NV *result)

       grok_hex
	       converts a string representing a hex number to numeric form.

	       On entry start and *len give the string to scan, *flags gives
	       conversion flags, and result should be NULL or a pointer to an
	       NV.  The scan stops at the end of the string, or the first
	       invalid character.  Unless "PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT" is set
	       in *flags, encountering an invalid character will also trigger
	       a warning.  On return *len is set to the length of the scanned
	       string, and *flags gives output flags.

	       If the value is <= UV_MAX it is returned as a UV, the output
	       flags are clear, and nothing is written to *result. If the
	       value is > UV_MAX "grok_hex" returns UV_MAX, sets
	       "PERL_SCAN_GREATER_THAN_UV_MAX" in the output flags, and writes
	       the value to *result (or the value is discarded if result is
	       NULL).

	       The hex number may optionally be prefixed with "0x" or "x"
	       unless "PERL_SCAN_DISALLOW_PREFIX" is set in *flags on entry.
	       If "PERL_SCAN_ALLOW_UNDERSCORES" is set in *flags then the hex
	       number may use '_' characters to separate digits.

		       UV      grok_hex(char* start, STRLEN* len, I32* flags, NV *result)

       grok_number
	       Recognise (or not) a number.  The type of the number is
	       returned (0 if unrecognised), otherwise it is a bit-ORed combi-
	       nation of IS_NUMBER_IN_UV, IS_NUMBER_GREATER_THAN_UV_MAX,
	       IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT, IS_NUMBER_NEG, IS_NUMBER_INFINITY, IS_NUM-
	       BER_NAN (defined in perl.h).

	       If the value of the number can fit an in UV, it is returned in
	       the *valuep IS_NUMBER_IN_UV will be set to indicate that *val-
	       uep is valid, IS_NUMBER_IN_UV will never be set unless *valuep
	       is valid, but *valuep may have been assigned to during process-
	       ing even though IS_NUMBER_IN_UV is not set on return.  If val-
	       uep is NULL, IS_NUMBER_IN_UV will be set for the same cases as
	       when valuep is non-NULL, but no actual assignment (or SEGV)
	       will occur.

	       IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT will be set with IS_NUMBER_IN_UV if trailing
	       decimals were seen (in which case *valuep gives the true value
	       truncated to an integer), and IS_NUMBER_NEG if the number is
	       negative (in which case *valuep holds the absolute value).
	       IS_NUMBER_IN_UV is not set if e notation was used or the number
	       is larger than a UV.

		       int     grok_number(const char *pv, STRLEN len, UV *valuep)

       grok_numeric_radix
	       Scan and skip for a numeric decimal separator (radix).

		       bool    grok_numeric_radix(const char **sp, const char *send)

       grok_oct
	       converts a string representing an octal number to numeric form.

	       On entry start and *len give the string to scan, *flags gives
	       conversion flags, and result should be NULL or a pointer to an
	       NV.  The scan stops at the end of the string, or the first
	       invalid character.  Unless "PERL_SCAN_SILENT_ILLDIGIT" is set
	       in *flags, encountering an invalid character will also trigger
	       a warning.  On return *len is set to the length of the scanned
	       string, and *flags gives output flags.

	       If the value is <= UV_MAX it is returned as a UV, the output
	       flags are clear, and nothing is written to *result. If the
	       value is > UV_MAX "grok_oct" returns UV_MAX, sets
	       "PERL_SCAN_GREATER_THAN_UV_MAX" in the output flags, and writes
	       the value to *result (or the value is discarded if result is
	       NULL).

	       If "PERL_SCAN_ALLOW_UNDERSCORES" is set in *flags then the
	       octal number may use '_' characters to separate digits.

		       UV      grok_oct(char* start, STRLEN* len_p, I32* flags, NV *result)

       scan_bin
	       For backwards compatibility. Use "grok_bin" instead.

		       NV      scan_bin(char* start, STRLEN len, STRLEN* retlen)

       scan_hex
	       For backwards compatibility. Use "grok_hex" instead.

		       NV      scan_hex(char* start, STRLEN len, STRLEN* retlen)

       scan_oct
	       For backwards compatibility. Use "grok_oct" instead.

		       NV      scan_oct(char* start, STRLEN len, STRLEN* retlen)

Optree Manipulation Functions
       cv_const_sv
	       If "cv" is a constant sub eligible for inlining. returns the
	       constant value returned by the sub.  Otherwise, returns NULL.

	       Constant subs can be created with "newCONSTSUB" or as described
	       in "Constant Functions" in perlsub.

		       SV*     cv_const_sv(CV* cv)

       newCONSTSUB
	       Creates a constant sub equivalent to Perl "sub FOO () { 123 }"
	       which is eligible for inlining at compile-time.

		       CV*     newCONSTSUB(HV* stash, char* name, SV* sv)

       newXS   Used by "xsubpp" to hook up XSUBs as Perl subs.

Pad Data Structures
       pad_sv  Get the value at offset po in the current pad.  Use macro
	       PAD_SV instead of calling this function directly.

		       SV*     pad_sv(PADOFFSET po)

Stack Manipulation Macros
       dMARK   Declare a stack marker variable, "mark", for the XSUB.  See
	       "MARK" and "dORIGMARK".

			       dMARK;

       dORIGMARK
	       Saves the original stack mark for the XSUB.  See "ORIGMARK".

			       dORIGMARK;

       dSP     Declares a local copy of perl's stack pointer for the XSUB,
	       available via the "SP" macro.  See "SP".

			       dSP;

       EXTEND  Used to extend the argument stack for an XSUB's return values.
	       Once used, guarantees that there is room for at least "nitems"
	       to be pushed onto the stack.

		       void    EXTEND(SP, int nitems)

       MARK    Stack marker variable for the XSUB.  See "dMARK".

       mPUSHi  Push an integer onto the stack.	The stack must have room for
	       this element.  Handles 'set' magic.  Does not use "TARG".  See
	       also "PUSHi", "mXPUSHi" and "XPUSHi".

		       void    mPUSHi(IV iv)

       mPUSHn  Push a double onto the stack.  The stack must have room for
	       this element.  Handles 'set' magic.  Does not use "TARG".  See
	       also "PUSHn", "mXPUSHn" and "XPUSHn".

		       void    mPUSHn(NV nv)

       mPUSHp  Push a string onto the stack.  The stack must have room for
	       this element.  The "len" indicates the length of the string.
	       Handles 'set' magic.  Does not use "TARG".  See also "PUSHp",
	       "mXPUSHp" and "XPUSHp".

		       void    mPUSHp(char* str, STRLEN len)

       mPUSHu  Push an unsigned integer onto the stack.  The stack must have
	       room for this element.  Handles 'set' magic.  Does not use
	       "TARG".	See also "PUSHu", "mXPUSHu" and "XPUSHu".

		       void    mPUSHu(UV uv)

       mXPUSHi Push an integer onto the stack, extending the stack if neces-
	       sary.  Handles 'set' magic.  Does not use "TARG".  See also
	       "XPUSHi", "mPUSHi" and "PUSHi".

		       void    mXPUSHi(IV iv)

       mXPUSHn Push a double onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary.
	       Handles 'set' magic.  Does not use "TARG".  See also "XPUSHn",
	       "mPUSHn" and "PUSHn".

		       void    mXPUSHn(NV nv)

       mXPUSHp Push a string onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary.
	       The "len" indicates the length of the string.  Handles 'set'
	       magic.  Does not use "TARG".  See also "XPUSHp", "mPUSHp" and
	       "PUSHp".

		       void    mXPUSHp(char* str, STRLEN len)

       mXPUSHu Push an unsigned integer onto the stack, extending the stack if
	       necessary.  Handles 'set' magic.  Does not use "TARG".  See
	       also "XPUSHu", "mPUSHu" and "PUSHu".

		       void    mXPUSHu(UV uv)

       ORIGMARK
	       The original stack mark for the XSUB.  See "dORIGMARK".

       POPi    Pops an integer off the stack.

		       IV      POPi

       POPl    Pops a long off the stack.

		       long    POPl

       POPn    Pops a double off the stack.

		       NV      POPn

       POPp    Pops a string off the stack. Deprecated. New code should use
	       POPpx.

		       char*   POPp

       POPpbytex
	       Pops a string off the stack which must consist of bytes i.e.
	       characters < 256.

		       char*   POPpbytex

       POPpx   Pops a string off the stack.

		       char*   POPpx

       POPs    Pops an SV off the stack.

		       SV*     POPs

       PUSHi   Push an integer onto the stack.	The stack must have room for
	       this element.  Handles 'set' magic.  Uses "TARG", so "dTARGET"
	       or "dXSTARG" should be called to declare it.  Do not call mul-
	       tiple "TARG"-oriented macros to return lists from XSUB's - see
	       "mPUSHi" instead.  See also "XPUSHi" and "mXPUSHi".

		       void    PUSHi(IV iv)

       PUSHMARK
	       Opening bracket for arguments on a callback.  See "PUTBACK" and
	       perlcall.

		       void    PUSHMARK(SP)

       PUSHmortal
	       Push a new mortal SV onto the stack.  The stack must have room
	       for this element.  Does not handle 'set' magic.	Does not use
	       "TARG".	See also "PUSHs", "XPUSHmortal" and "XPUSHs".

		       void    PUSHmortal()

       PUSHn   Push a double onto the stack.  The stack must have room for
	       this element.  Handles 'set' magic.  Uses "TARG", so "dTARGET"
	       or "dXSTARG" should be called to declare it.  Do not call mul-
	       tiple "TARG"-oriented macros to return lists from XSUB's - see
	       "mPUSHn" instead.  See also "XPUSHn" and "mXPUSHn".

		       void    PUSHn(NV nv)

       PUSHp   Push a string onto the stack.  The stack must have room for
	       this element.  The "len" indicates the length of the string.
	       Handles 'set' magic.  Uses "TARG", so "dTARGET" or "dXSTARG"
	       should be called to declare it.	Do not call multiple
	       "TARG"-oriented macros to return lists from XSUB's - see
	       "mPUSHp" instead.  See also "XPUSHp" and "mXPUSHp".

		       void    PUSHp(char* str, STRLEN len)

       PUSHs   Push an SV onto the stack.  The stack must have room for this
	       element.  Does not handle 'set' magic.  Does not use "TARG".
	       See also "PUSHmortal", "XPUSHs" and "XPUSHmortal".

		       void    PUSHs(SV* sv)

       PUSHu   Push an unsigned integer onto the stack.  The stack must have
	       room for this element.  Handles 'set' magic.  Uses "TARG", so
	       "dTARGET" or "dXSTARG" should be called to declare it.  Do not
	       call multiple "TARG"-oriented macros to return lists from
	       XSUB's - see "mPUSHu" instead.  See also "XPUSHu" and
	       "mXPUSHu".

		       void    PUSHu(UV uv)

       PUTBACK Closing bracket for XSUB arguments.  This is usually handled by
	       "xsubpp".  See "PUSHMARK" and perlcall for other uses.

			       PUTBACK;

       SP      Stack pointer.  This is usually handled by "xsubpp".  See "dSP"
	       and "SPAGAIN".

       SPAGAIN Refetch the stack pointer.  Used after a callback.  See perl-
	       call.

			       SPAGAIN;

       XPUSHi  Push an integer onto the stack, extending the stack if neces-
	       sary.  Handles 'set' magic.  Uses "TARG", so "dTARGET" or "dXS-
	       TARG" should be called to declare it.  Do not call multiple
	       "TARG"-oriented macros to return lists from XSUB's - see
	       "mXPUSHi" instead.  See also "PUSHi" and "mPUSHi".

		       void    XPUSHi(IV iv)

       XPUSHmortal
	       Push a new mortal SV onto the stack, extending the stack if
	       necessary.  Does not handle 'set' magic.  Does not use "TARG".
	       See also "XPUSHs", "PUSHmortal" and "PUSHs".

		       void    XPUSHmortal()

       XPUSHn  Push a double onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary.
	       Handles 'set' magic.  Uses "TARG", so "dTARGET" or "dXSTARG"
	       should be called to declare it.	Do not call multiple
	       "TARG"-oriented macros to return lists from XSUB's - see
	       "mXPUSHn" instead.  See also "PUSHn" and "mPUSHn".

		       void    XPUSHn(NV nv)

       XPUSHp  Push a string onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary.
	       The "len" indicates the length of the string.  Handles 'set'
	       magic.  Uses "TARG", so "dTARGET" or "dXSTARG" should be called
	       to declare it.  Do not call multiple "TARG"-oriented macros to
	       return lists from XSUB's - see "mXPUSHp" instead.  See also
	       "PUSHp" and "mPUSHp".

		       void    XPUSHp(char* str, STRLEN len)

       XPUSHs  Push an SV onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary.
	       Does not handle 'set' magic.  Does not use "TARG".  See also
	       "XPUSHmortal", "PUSHs" and "PUSHmortal".

		       void    XPUSHs(SV* sv)

       XPUSHu  Push an unsigned integer onto the stack, extending the stack if
	       necessary.  Handles 'set' magic.  Uses "TARG", so "dTARGET" or
	       "dXSTARG" should be called to declare it.  Do not call multiple
	       "TARG"-oriented macros to return lists from XSUB's - see
	       "mXPUSHu" instead.  See also "PUSHu" and "mPUSHu".

		       void    XPUSHu(UV uv)

       XSRETURN
	       Return from XSUB, indicating number of items on the stack.
	       This is usually handled by "xsubpp".

		       void    XSRETURN(int nitems)

       XSRETURN_EMPTY
	       Return an empty list from an XSUB immediately.

			       XSRETURN_EMPTY;

       XSRETURN_IV
	       Return an integer from an XSUB immediately.  Uses "XST_mIV".

		       void    XSRETURN_IV(IV iv)

       XSRETURN_NO
	       Return &PL_sv_no from an XSUB immediately.  Uses "XST_mNO".

			       XSRETURN_NO;

       XSRETURN_NV
	       Return a double from an XSUB immediately.  Uses "XST_mNV".

		       void    XSRETURN_NV(NV nv)

       XSRETURN_PV
	       Return a copy of a string from an XSUB immediately.  Uses
	       "XST_mPV".

		       void    XSRETURN_PV(char* str)

       XSRETURN_UNDEF
	       Return &PL_sv_undef from an XSUB immediately.  Uses
	       "XST_mUNDEF".

			       XSRETURN_UNDEF;

       XSRETURN_UV
	       Return an integer from an XSUB immediately.  Uses "XST_mUV".

		       void    XSRETURN_UV(IV uv)

       XSRETURN_YES
	       Return &PL_sv_yes from an XSUB immediately.  Uses "XST_mYES".

			       XSRETURN_YES;

       XST_mIV Place an integer into the specified position "pos" on the
	       stack.  The value is stored in a new mortal SV.

		       void    XST_mIV(int pos, IV iv)

       XST_mNO Place &PL_sv_no into the specified position "pos" on the stack.

		       void    XST_mNO(int pos)

       XST_mNV Place a double into the specified position "pos" on the stack.
	       The value is stored in a new mortal SV.

		       void    XST_mNV(int pos, NV nv)

       XST_mPV Place a copy of a string into the specified position "pos" on
	       the stack.  The value is stored in a new mortal SV.

		       void    XST_mPV(int pos, char* str)

       XST_mUNDEF
	       Place &PL_sv_undef into the specified position "pos" on the
	       stack.

		       void    XST_mUNDEF(int pos)

       XST_mYES
	       Place &PL_sv_yes into the specified position "pos" on the
	       stack.

		       void    XST_mYES(int pos)

SV Flags
       svtype  An enum of flags for Perl types.  These are found in the file
	       sv.h in the "svtype" enum.  Test these flags with the "SvTYPE"
	       macro.

       SVt_IV  Integer type flag for scalars.  See "svtype".

       SVt_NV  Double type flag for scalars.  See "svtype".

       SVt_PV  Pointer type flag for scalars.  See "svtype".

       SVt_PVAV
	       Type flag for arrays.  See "svtype".

       SVt_PVCV
	       Type flag for code refs.  See "svtype".

       SVt_PVHV
	       Type flag for hashes.  See "svtype".

       SVt_PVMG
	       Type flag for blessed scalars.  See "svtype".

SV Manipulation Functions
       get_sv  Returns the SV of the specified Perl scalar.  If "create" is
	       set and the Perl variable does not exist then it will be cre-
	       ated.  If "create" is not set and the variable does not exist
	       then NULL is returned.

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       SV*     get_sv(const char* name, I32 create)

       looks_like_number
	       Test if the content of an SV looks like a number (or is a num-
	       ber).  "Inf" and "Infinity" are treated as numbers (so will not
	       issue a non-numeric warning), even if your atof() doesn't grok
	       them.

		       I32     looks_like_number(SV* sv)

       newRV_inc
	       Creates an RV wrapper for an SV.  The reference count for the
	       original SV is incremented.

		       SV*     newRV_inc(SV* sv)

       newRV_noinc
	       Creates an RV wrapper for an SV.  The reference count for the
	       original SV is not incremented.

		       SV*     newRV_noinc(SV *sv)

       NEWSV   Creates a new SV.  A non-zero "len" parameter indicates the
	       number of bytes of preallocated string space the SV should
	       have.  An extra byte for a tailing NUL is also reserved.
	       (SvPOK is not set for the SV even if string space is allo-
	       cated.)	The reference count for the new SV is set to 1.  "id"
	       is an integer id between 0 and 1299 (used to identify leaks).

		       SV*     NEWSV(int id, STRLEN len)

       newSV   Create a new null SV, or if len > 0, create a new empty SVt_PV
	       type SV with an initial PV allocation of len+1. Normally
	       accessed via the "NEWSV" macro.

		       SV*     newSV(STRLEN len)

       newSVhek
	       Creates a new SV from the hash key structure.  It will generate
	       scalars that point to the shared string table where possible.
	       Returns a new (undefined) SV if the hek is NULL.

		       SV*     newSVhek(const HEK *hek)

       newSViv Creates a new SV and copies an integer into it.	The reference
	       count for the SV is set to 1.

		       SV*     newSViv(IV i)

       newSVnv Creates a new SV and copies a floating point value into it.
	       The reference count for the SV is set to 1.

		       SV*     newSVnv(NV n)

       newSVpv Creates a new SV and copies a string into it.  The reference
	       count for the SV is set to 1.  If "len" is zero, Perl will com-
	       pute the length using strlen().	For efficiency, consider using
	       "newSVpvn" instead.

		       SV*     newSVpv(const char* s, STRLEN len)

       newSVpvf
	       Creates a new SV and initializes it with the string formatted
	       like "sprintf".

		       SV*     newSVpvf(const char* pat, ...)

       newSVpvn
	       Creates a new SV and copies a string into it.  The reference
	       count for the SV is set to 1.  Note that if "len" is zero, Perl
	       will create a zero length string.  You are responsible for
	       ensuring that the source string is at least "len" bytes long.
	       If the "s" argument is NULL the new SV will be undefined.

		       SV*     newSVpvn(const char* s, STRLEN len)

       newSVpvn_share
	       Creates a new SV with its SvPVX_const pointing to a shared
	       string in the string table. If the string does not already
	       exist in the table, it is created first.  Turns on READONLY and
	       FAKE.  The string's hash is stored in the UV slot of the SV; if
	       the "hash" parameter is non-zero, that value is used; otherwise
	       the hash is computed.  The idea here is that as the string ta-
	       ble is used for shared hash keys these strings will have
	       SvPVX_const == HeKEY and hash lookup will avoid string compare.

		       SV*     newSVpvn_share(const char* s, I32 len, U32 hash)

       newSVrv Creates a new SV for the RV, "rv", to point to.	If "rv" is not
	       an RV then it will be upgraded to one.  If "classname" is non-
	       null then the new SV will be blessed in the specified package.
	       The new SV is returned and its reference count is 1.

		       SV*     newSVrv(SV* rv, const char* classname)

       newSVsv Creates a new SV which is an exact duplicate of the original
	       SV.  (Uses "sv_setsv").

		       SV*     newSVsv(SV* old)

       newSVuv Creates a new SV and copies an unsigned integer into it.  The
	       reference count for the SV is set to 1.

		       SV*     newSVuv(UV u)

       SvCUR   Returns the length of the string which is in the SV.  See
	       "SvLEN".

		       STRLEN  SvCUR(SV* sv)

       SvCUR_set
	       Set the current length of the string which is in the SV.  See
	       "SvCUR" and "SvIV_set".

		       void    SvCUR_set(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvEND   Returns a pointer to the last character in the string which is
	       in the SV.  See "SvCUR".  Access the character as *(SvEND(sv)).

		       char*   SvEND(SV* sv)

       SvGROW  Expands the character buffer in the SV so that it has room for
	       the indicated number of bytes (remember to reserve space for an
	       extra trailing NUL character).  Calls "sv_grow" to perform the
	       expansion if necessary.	Returns a pointer to the character
	       buffer.

		       char *  SvGROW(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvIOK   Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains an inte-
	       ger.

		       bool    SvIOK(SV* sv)

       SvIOKp  Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains an inte-
	       ger.  Checks the private setting.  Use "SvIOK".

		       bool    SvIOKp(SV* sv)

       SvIOK_notUV
	       Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains a signed
	       integer.

		       bool    SvIOK_notUV(SV* sv)

       SvIOK_off
	       Unsets the IV status of an SV.

		       void    SvIOK_off(SV* sv)

       SvIOK_on
	       Tells an SV that it is an integer.

		       void    SvIOK_on(SV* sv)

       SvIOK_only
	       Tells an SV that it is an integer and disables all other OK
	       bits.

		       void    SvIOK_only(SV* sv)

       SvIOK_only_UV
	       Tells and SV that it is an unsigned integer and disables all
	       other OK bits.

		       void    SvIOK_only_UV(SV* sv)

       SvIOK_UV
	       Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains an
	       unsigned integer.

		       bool    SvIOK_UV(SV* sv)

       SvIsCOW Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV is Copy-On-Write.
	       (either shared hash key scalars, or full Copy On Write scalars
	       if 5.9.0 is configured for COW)

		       bool    SvIsCOW(SV* sv)

       SvIsCOW_shared_hash
	       Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV is Copy-On-Write
	       shared hash key scalar.

		       bool    SvIsCOW_shared_hash(SV* sv)

       SvIV    Coerces the given SV to an integer and returns it. See  "SvIVx"
	       for a version which guarantees to evaluate sv only once.

		       IV      SvIV(SV* sv)

       SvIVX   Returns the raw value in the SV's IV slot, without checks or
	       conversions.  Only use when you are sure SvIOK is true. See
	       also "SvIV()".

		       IV      SvIVX(SV* sv)

       SvIVx   Coerces the given SV to an integer and returns it. Guarantees
	       to evaluate sv only once. Use the more efficient "SvIV" other-
	       wise.

		       IV      SvIVx(SV* sv)

       SvIV_set
	       Set the value of the IV pointer in sv to val.  It is possible
	       to perform the same function of this macro with an lvalue
	       assignment to "SvIVX".  With future Perls, however, it will be
	       more efficient to use "SvIV_set" instead of the lvalue assign-
	       ment to "SvIVX".

		       void    SvIV_set(SV* sv, IV val)

       SvLEN   Returns the size of the string buffer in the SV, not including
	       any part attributable to "SvOOK".  See "SvCUR".

		       STRLEN  SvLEN(SV* sv)

       SvLEN_set
	       Set the actual length of the string which is in the SV.	See
	       "SvIV_set".

		       void    SvLEN_set(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvMAGIC_set
	       Set the value of the MAGIC pointer in sv to val.  See
	       "SvIV_set".

		       void    SvMAGIC_set(SV* sv, MAGIC* val)

       SvNIOK  Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains a number,
	       integer or double.

		       bool    SvNIOK(SV* sv)

       SvNIOKp Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains a number,
	       integer or double.  Checks the private setting.	Use "SvNIOK".

		       bool    SvNIOKp(SV* sv)

       SvNIOK_off
	       Unsets the NV/IV status of an SV.

		       void    SvNIOK_off(SV* sv)

       SvNOK   Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains a double.

		       bool    SvNOK(SV* sv)

       SvNOKp  Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains a double.
	       Checks the private setting.  Use "SvNOK".

		       bool    SvNOKp(SV* sv)

       SvNOK_off
	       Unsets the NV status of an SV.

		       void    SvNOK_off(SV* sv)

       SvNOK_on
	       Tells an SV that it is a double.

		       void    SvNOK_on(SV* sv)

       SvNOK_only
	       Tells an SV that it is a double and disables all other OK bits.

		       void    SvNOK_only(SV* sv)

       SvNV    Coerce the given SV to a double and return it. See  "SvNVx" for
	       a version which guarantees to evaluate sv only once.

		       NV      SvNV(SV* sv)

       SvNVX   Returns the raw value in the SV's NV slot, without checks or
	       conversions.  Only use when you are sure SvNOK is true. See
	       also "SvNV()".

		       NV      SvNVX(SV* sv)

       SvNVx   Coerces the given SV to a double and returns it. Guarantees to
	       evaluate sv only once. Use the more efficient "SvNV" otherwise.

		       NV      SvNVx(SV* sv)

       SvNV_set
	       Set the value of the NV pointer in sv to val.  See "SvIV_set".

		       void    SvNV_set(SV* sv, NV val)

       SvOK    Returns a boolean indicating whether the value is an SV. It
	       also tells whether the value is defined or not.

		       bool    SvOK(SV* sv)

       SvOOK   Returns a boolean indicating whether the SvIVX is a valid off-
	       set value for the SvPVX.  This hack is used internally to speed
	       up removal of characters from the beginning of a SvPV.  When
	       SvOOK is true, then the start of the allocated string buffer is
	       really (SvPVX - SvIVX).

		       bool    SvOOK(SV* sv)

       SvPOK   Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains a charac-
	       ter string.

		       bool    SvPOK(SV* sv)

       SvPOKp  Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains a charac-
	       ter string.  Checks the private setting.  Use "SvPOK".

		       bool    SvPOKp(SV* sv)

       SvPOK_off
	       Unsets the PV status of an SV.

		       void    SvPOK_off(SV* sv)

       SvPOK_on
	       Tells an SV that it is a string.

		       void    SvPOK_on(SV* sv)

       SvPOK_only
	       Tells an SV that it is a string and disables all other OK bits.
	       Will also turn off the UTF-8 status.

		       void    SvPOK_only(SV* sv)

       SvPOK_only_UTF8
	       Tells an SV that it is a string and disables all other OK bits,
	       and leaves the UTF-8 status as it was.

		       void    SvPOK_only_UTF8(SV* sv)

       SvPV    Returns a pointer to the string in the SV, or a stringified
	       form of the SV if the SV does not contain a string.  The SV may
	       cache the stringified version becoming "SvPOK".	Handles 'get'
	       magic. See also "SvPVx" for a version which guarantees to eval-
	       uate sv only once.

		       char*   SvPV(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVbyte
	       Like "SvPV", but converts sv to byte representation first if
	       necessary.

		       char*   SvPVbyte(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVbytex
	       Like "SvPV", but converts sv to byte representation first if
	       necessary.  Guarantees to evaluate sv only once; use the more
	       efficient "SvPVbyte" otherwise.

		       char*   SvPVbytex(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVbytex_force
	       Like "SvPV_force", but converts sv to byte representation first
	       if necessary.  Guarantees to evaluate sv only once; use the
	       more efficient "SvPVbyte_force" otherwise.

		       char*   SvPVbytex_force(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVbyte_force
	       Like "SvPV_force", but converts sv to byte representation first
	       if necessary.

		       char*   SvPVbyte_force(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVbyte_nolen
	       Like "SvPV_nolen", but converts sv to byte representation first
	       if necessary.

		       char*   SvPVbyte_nolen(SV* sv)

       SvPVutf8
	       Like "SvPV", but converts sv to utf8 first if necessary.

		       char*   SvPVutf8(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVutf8x
	       Like "SvPV", but converts sv to utf8 first if necessary.  Guar-
	       antees to evaluate sv only once; use the more efficient
	       "SvPVutf8" otherwise.

		       char*   SvPVutf8x(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVutf8x_force
	       Like "SvPV_force", but converts sv to utf8 first if necessary.
	       Guarantees to evaluate sv only once; use the more efficient
	       "SvPVutf8_force" otherwise.

		       char*   SvPVutf8x_force(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVutf8_force
	       Like "SvPV_force", but converts sv to utf8 first if necessary.

		       char*   SvPVutf8_force(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVutf8_nolen
	       Like "SvPV_nolen", but converts sv to utf8 first if necessary.

		       char*   SvPVutf8_nolen(SV* sv)

       SvPVX   Returns a pointer to the physical string in the SV.  The SV
	       must contain a string.

		       char*   SvPVX(SV* sv)

       SvPVx   A version of "SvPV" which guarantees to evaluate sv only once.

		       char*   SvPVx(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPV_force
	       Like "SvPV" but will force the SV into containing just a string
	       ("SvPOK_only").	You want force if you are going to update the
	       "SvPVX" directly.

		       char*   SvPV_force(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPV_force_nomg
	       Like "SvPV" but will force the SV into containing just a string
	       ("SvPOK_only").	You want force if you are going to update the
	       "SvPVX" directly. Doesn't process magic.

		       char*   SvPV_force_nomg(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPV_nolen
	       Returns a pointer to the string in the SV, or a stringified
	       form of the SV if the SV does not contain a string.  The SV may
	       cache the stringified form becoming "SvPOK".  Handles 'get'
	       magic.

		       char*   SvPV_nolen(SV* sv)

       SvPV_set
	       Set the value of the PV pointer in sv to val.  See "SvIV_set".

		       void    SvPV_set(SV* sv, char* val)

       SvREFCNT
	       Returns the value of the object's reference count.

		       U32     SvREFCNT(SV* sv)

       SvREFCNT_dec
	       Decrements the reference count of the given SV.

		       void    SvREFCNT_dec(SV* sv)

       SvREFCNT_inc
	       Increments the reference count of the given SV.

		       SV*     SvREFCNT_inc(SV* sv)

       SvROK   Tests if the SV is an RV.

		       bool    SvROK(SV* sv)

       SvROK_off
	       Unsets the RV status of an SV.

		       void    SvROK_off(SV* sv)

       SvROK_on
	       Tells an SV that it is an RV.

		       void    SvROK_on(SV* sv)

       SvRV    Dereferences an RV to return the SV.

		       SV*     SvRV(SV* sv)

       SvRV_set
	       Set the value of the RV pointer in sv to val.  See "SvIV_set".

		       void    SvRV_set(SV* sv, SV* val)

       SvSTASH Returns the stash of the SV.

		       HV*     SvSTASH(SV* sv)

       SvSTASH_set
	       Set the value of the STASH pointer in sv to val.  See
	       "SvIV_set".

		       void    SvSTASH_set(SV* sv, STASH* val)

       SvTAINT Taints an SV if tainting is enabled.

		       void    SvTAINT(SV* sv)

       SvTAINTED
	       Checks to see if an SV is tainted. Returns TRUE if it is, FALSE
	       if not.

		       bool    SvTAINTED(SV* sv)

       SvTAINTED_off
	       Untaints an SV. Be very careful with this routine, as it short-
	       circuits some of Perl's fundamental security features. XS mod-
	       ule authors should not use this function unless they fully
	       understand all the implications of unconditionally untainting
	       the value. Untainting should be done in the standard perl fash-
	       ion, via a carefully crafted regexp, rather than directly
	       untainting variables.

		       void    SvTAINTED_off(SV* sv)

       SvTAINTED_on
	       Marks an SV as tainted if tainting is enabled.

		       void    SvTAINTED_on(SV* sv)

       SvTRUE  Returns a boolean indicating whether Perl would evaluate the SV
	       as true or false, defined or undefined.	Does not handle 'get'
	       magic.

		       bool    SvTRUE(SV* sv)

       SvTYPE  Returns the type of the SV.  See "svtype".

		       svtype  SvTYPE(SV* sv)

       SvUOK   Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains an
	       unsigned integer.

		       void    SvUOK(SV* sv)

       SvUPGRADE
	       Used to upgrade an SV to a more complex form.  Uses
	       "sv_upgrade" to perform the upgrade if necessary.  See
	       "svtype".

		       void    SvUPGRADE(SV* sv, svtype type)

       SvUTF8  Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains UTF-8
	       encoded data.

		       bool    SvUTF8(SV* sv)

       SvUTF8_off
	       Unsets the UTF-8 status of an SV.

		       void    SvUTF8_off(SV *sv)

       SvUTF8_on
	       Turn on the UTF-8 status of an SV (the data is not changed,
	       just the flag).	Do not use frivolously.

		       void    SvUTF8_on(SV *sv)

       SvUV    Coerces the given SV to an unsigned integer and returns it.
	       See "SvUVx" for a version which guarantees to evaluate sv only
	       once.

		       UV      SvUV(SV* sv)

       SvUVX   Returns the raw value in the SV's UV slot, without checks or
	       conversions.  Only use when you are sure SvIOK is true. See
	       also "SvUV()".

		       UV      SvUVX(SV* sv)

       SvUVx   Coerces the given SV to an unsigned integer and returns it.
	       Guarantees to evaluate sv only once. Use the more efficient
	       "SvUV" otherwise.

		       UV      SvUVx(SV* sv)

       SvUV_set
	       Set the value of the UV pointer in sv to val.  See "SvIV_set".

		       void    SvUV_set(SV* sv, UV val)

       sv_2bool
	       This function is only called on magical items, and is only used
	       by sv_true() or its macro equivalent.

		       bool    sv_2bool(SV* sv)

       sv_2cv  Using various gambits, try to get a CV from an SV; in addition,
	       try if possible to set *st and *gvp to the stash and GV associ-
	       ated with it.

		       CV*     sv_2cv(SV* sv, HV** st, GV** gvp, I32 lref)

       sv_2io  Using various gambits, try to get an IO from an SV: the IO slot
	       if its a GV; or the recursive result if we're an RV; or the IO
	       slot of the symbol named after the PV if we're a string.

		       IO*     sv_2io(SV* sv)

       sv_2iv  Return the integer value of an SV, doing any necessary string
	       conversion, magic etc. Normally used via the "SvIV(sv)" and
	       "SvIVx(sv)" macros.

		       IV      sv_2iv(SV* sv)

       sv_2mortal
	       Marks an existing SV as mortal.	The SV will be destroyed
	       "soon", either by an explicit call to FREETMPS, or by an
	       implicit call at places such as statement boundaries.  SvTEMP()
	       is turned on which means that the SV's string buffer can be
	       "stolen" if this SV is copied. See also "sv_newmortal" and
	       "sv_mortalcopy".

		       SV*     sv_2mortal(SV* sv)

       sv_2nv  Return the num value of an SV, doing any necessary string or
	       integer conversion, magic etc. Normally used via the "SvNV(sv)"
	       and "SvNVx(sv)" macros.

		       NV      sv_2nv(SV* sv)

       sv_2pvbyte
	       Return a pointer to the byte-encoded representation of the SV,
	       and set *lp to its length.  May cause the SV to be downgraded
	       from UTF-8 as a side-effect.

	       Usually accessed via the "SvPVbyte" macro.

		       char*   sv_2pvbyte(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp)

       sv_2pvbyte_nolen
	       Return a pointer to the byte-encoded representation of the SV.
	       May cause the SV to be downgraded from UTF-8 as a side-effect.

	       Usually accessed via the "SvPVbyte_nolen" macro.

		       char*   sv_2pvbyte_nolen(SV* sv)

       sv_2pvutf8
	       Return a pointer to the UTF-8-encoded representation of the SV,
	       and set *lp to its length.  May cause the SV to be upgraded to
	       UTF-8 as a side-effect.

	       Usually accessed via the "SvPVutf8" macro.

		       char*   sv_2pvutf8(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp)

       sv_2pvutf8_nolen
	       Return a pointer to the UTF-8-encoded representation of the SV.
	       May cause the SV to be upgraded to UTF-8 as a side-effect.

	       Usually accessed via the "SvPVutf8_nolen" macro.

		       char*   sv_2pvutf8_nolen(SV* sv)

       sv_2pv_flags
	       Returns a pointer to the string value of an SV, and sets *lp to
	       its length.  If flags includes SV_GMAGIC, does an mg_get()
	       first. Coerces sv to a string if necessary.  Normally invoked
	       via the "SvPV_flags" macro. "sv_2pv()" and "sv_2pv_nomg" usu-
	       ally end up here too.

		       char*   sv_2pv_flags(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp, I32 flags)

       sv_2pv_nolen
	       Like "sv_2pv()", but doesn't return the length too. You should
	       usually use the macro wrapper "SvPV_nolen(sv)" instead.
		    char*     sv_2pv_nolen(SV* sv)

       sv_2uv  Return the unsigned integer value of an SV, doing any necessary
	       string conversion, magic etc. Normally used via the "SvUV(sv)"
	       and "SvUVx(sv)" macros.

		       UV      sv_2uv(SV* sv)

       sv_backoff
	       Remove any string offset. You should normally use the
	       "SvOOK_off" macro wrapper instead.

		       int     sv_backoff(SV* sv)

       sv_bless
	       Blesses an SV into a specified package.	The SV must be an RV.
	       The package must be designated by its stash (see
	       "gv_stashpv()").  The reference count of the SV is unaffected.

		       SV*     sv_bless(SV* sv, HV* stash)

       sv_catpv
	       Concatenates the string onto the end of the string which is in
	       the SV.	If the SV has the UTF-8 status set, then the bytes
	       appended should be valid UTF-8.	Handles 'get' magic, but not
	       'set' magic.  See "sv_catpv_mg".

		       void    sv_catpv(SV* sv, const char* ptr)

       sv_catpvf
	       Processes its arguments like "sprintf" and appends the format-
	       ted output to an SV.  If the appended data contains "wide"
	       characters (including, but not limited to, SVs with a UTF-8 PV
	       formatted with %s, and characters >255 formatted with %c), the
	       original SV might get upgraded to UTF-8.  Handles 'get' magic,
	       but not 'set' magic.  See "sv_catpvf_mg". If the original SV
	       was UTF-8, the pattern should be valid UTF-8; if the original
	       SV was bytes, the pattern should be too.

		       void    sv_catpvf(SV* sv, const char* pat, ...)

       sv_catpvf_mg
	       Like "sv_catpvf", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_catpvf_mg(SV *sv, const char* pat, ...)

       sv_catpvn
	       Concatenates the string onto the end of the string which is in
	       the SV.	The "len" indicates number of bytes to copy.  If the
	       SV has the UTF-8 status set, then the bytes appended should be
	       valid UTF-8.  Handles 'get' magic, but not 'set' magic.	See
	       "sv_catpvn_mg".

		       void    sv_catpvn(SV* sv, const char* ptr, STRLEN len)

       sv_catpvn_flags
	       Concatenates the string onto the end of the string which is in
	       the SV.	The "len" indicates number of bytes to copy.  If the
	       SV has the UTF-8 status set, then the bytes appended should be
	       valid UTF-8.  If "flags" has "SV_GMAGIC" bit set, will "mg_get"
	       on "dsv" if appropriate, else not. "sv_catpvn" and "sv_cat-
	       pvn_nomg" are implemented in terms of this function.

		       void    sv_catpvn_flags(SV* sv, const char* ptr, STRLEN len, I32 flags)

       sv_catpvn_mg
	       Like "sv_catpvn", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_catpvn_mg(SV *sv, const char *ptr, STRLEN len)

       sv_catpvn_nomg
	       Like "sv_catpvn" but doesn't process magic.

		       void    sv_catpvn_nomg(SV* sv, const char* ptr, STRLEN len)

       sv_catpv_mg
	       Like "sv_catpv", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_catpv_mg(SV *sv, const char *ptr)

       sv_catsv
	       Concatenates the string from SV "ssv" onto the end of the
	       string in SV "dsv".  Modifies "dsv" but not "ssv".  Handles
	       'get' magic, but not 'set' magic.  See "sv_catsv_mg".

		       void    sv_catsv(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)

       sv_catsv_flags
	       Concatenates the string from SV "ssv" onto the end of the
	       string in SV "dsv".  Modifies "dsv" but not "ssv".  If "flags"
	       has "SV_GMAGIC" bit set, will "mg_get" on the SVs if appropri-
	       ate, else not. "sv_catsv" and "sv_catsv_nomg" are implemented
	       in terms of this function.

		       void    sv_catsv_flags(SV* dsv, SV* ssv, I32 flags)

       sv_catsv_mg
	       Like "sv_catsv", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_catsv_mg(SV *dstr, SV *sstr)

       sv_catsv_nomg
	       Like "sv_catsv" but doesn't process magic.

		       void    sv_catsv_nomg(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)

       sv_chop Efficient removal of characters from the beginning of the
	       string buffer.  SvPOK(sv) must be true and the "ptr" must be a
	       pointer to somewhere inside the string buffer.  The "ptr"
	       becomes the first character of the adjusted string. Uses the
	       "OOK hack".  Beware: after this function returns, "ptr" and
	       SvPVX_const(sv) may no longer refer to the same chunk of data.

		       void    sv_chop(SV* sv, char* ptr)

       sv_clear
	       Clear an SV: call any destructors, free up any memory used by
	       the body, and free the body itself. The SV's head is not freed,
	       although its type is set to all 1's so that it won't inadver-
	       tently be assumed to be live during global destruction etc.
	       This function should only be called when REFCNT is zero. Most
	       of the time you'll want to call "sv_free()" (or its macro wrap-
	       per "SvREFCNT_dec") instead.

		       void    sv_clear(SV* sv)

       sv_cmp  Compares the strings in two SVs.  Returns -1, 0, or 1 indicat-
	       ing whether the string in "sv1" is less than, equal to, or
	       greater than the string in "sv2". Is UTF-8 and 'use bytes'
	       aware, handles get magic, and will coerce its args to strings
	       if necessary.  See also "sv_cmp_locale".

		       I32     sv_cmp(SV* sv1, SV* sv2)

       sv_cmp_locale
	       Compares the strings in two SVs in a locale-aware manner. Is
	       UTF-8 and 'use bytes' aware, handles get magic, and will coerce
	       its args to strings if necessary.  See also "sv_cmp_locale".
	       See also "sv_cmp".

		       I32     sv_cmp_locale(SV* sv1, SV* sv2)

       sv_collxfrm
	       Add Collate Transform magic to an SV if it doesn't already have
	       it.

	       Any scalar variable may carry PERL_MAGIC_collxfrm magic that
	       contains the scalar data of the variable, but transformed to
	       such a format that a normal memory comparison can be used to
	       compare the data according to the locale settings.

		       char*   sv_collxfrm(SV* sv, STRLEN* nxp)

       sv_copypv
	       Copies a stringified representation of the source SV into the
	       destination SV.	Automatically performs any necessary mg_get
	       and coercion of numeric values into strings.  Guaranteed to
	       preserve UTF-8 flag even from overloaded objects.  Similar in
	       nature to sv_2pv[_flags] but operates directly on an SV instead
	       of just the string.  Mostly uses sv_2pv_flags to do its work,
	       except when that would lose the UTF-8'ness of the PV.

		       void    sv_copypv(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)

       sv_dec  Auto-decrement of the value in the SV, doing string to numeric
	       conversion if necessary. Handles 'get' magic.

		       void    sv_dec(SV* sv)

       sv_derived_from
	       Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV is derived from the
	       specified class.  This is the function that implements "UNIVER-
	       SAL::isa".  It works for class names as well as for objects.

		       bool    sv_derived_from(SV* sv, const char* name)

       sv_eq   Returns a boolean indicating whether the strings in the two SVs
	       are identical. Is UTF-8 and 'use bytes' aware, handles get
	       magic, and will coerce its args to strings if necessary.

		       I32     sv_eq(SV* sv1, SV* sv2)

       sv_force_normal
	       Undo various types of fakery on an SV: if the PV is a shared
	       string, make a private copy; if we're a ref, stop refing; if
	       we're a glob, downgrade to an xpvmg. See also "sv_force_nor-
	       mal_flags".

		       void    sv_force_normal(SV *sv)

       sv_force_normal_flags
	       Undo various types of fakery on an SV: if the PV is a shared
	       string, make a private copy; if we're a ref, stop refing; if
	       we're a glob, downgrade to an xpvmg. The "flags" parameter gets
	       passed to  "sv_unref_flags()" when unrefing. "sv_force_normal"
	       calls this function with flags set to 0.

		       void    sv_force_normal_flags(SV *sv, U32 flags)

       sv_free Decrement an SV's reference count, and if it drops to zero,
	       call "sv_clear" to invoke destructors and free up any memory
	       used by the body; finally, deallocate the SV's head itself.
	       Normally called via a wrapper macro "SvREFCNT_dec".

		       void    sv_free(SV* sv)

       sv_gets Get a line from the filehandle and store it into the SV,
	       optionally appending to the currently-stored string.

		       char*   sv_gets(SV* sv, PerlIO* fp, I32 append)

       sv_grow Expands the character buffer in the SV.	If necessary, uses
	       "sv_unref" and upgrades the SV to "SVt_PV".  Returns a pointer
	       to the character buffer.  Use the "SvGROW" wrapper instead.

		       char*   sv_grow(SV* sv, STRLEN newlen)

       sv_inc  Auto-increment of the value in the SV, doing string to numeric
	       conversion if necessary. Handles 'get' magic.

		       void    sv_inc(SV* sv)

       sv_insert
	       Inserts a string at the specified offset/length within the SV.
	       Similar to the Perl substr() function.

		       void    sv_insert(SV* bigsv, STRLEN offset, STRLEN len, char* little, STRLEN littlelen)

       sv_isa  Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV is blessed into the
	       specified class.  This does not check for subtypes; use
	       "sv_derived_from" to verify an inheritance relationship.

		       int     sv_isa(SV* sv, const char* name)

       sv_isobject
	       Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV is an RV pointing
	       to a blessed object.  If the SV is not an RV, or if the object
	       is not blessed, then this will return false.

		       int     sv_isobject(SV* sv)

       sv_iv   A private implementation of the "SvIVx" macro for compilers
	       which can't cope with complex macro expressions. Always use the
	       macro instead.

		       IV      sv_iv(SV* sv)

       sv_len  Returns the length of the string in the SV. Handles magic and
	       type coercion.  See also "SvCUR", which gives raw access to the
	       xpv_cur slot.

		       STRLEN  sv_len(SV* sv)

       sv_len_utf8
	       Returns the number of characters in the string in an SV, count-
	       ing wide UTF-8 bytes as a single character. Handles magic and
	       type coercion.

		       STRLEN  sv_len_utf8(SV* sv)

       sv_magic
	       Adds magic to an SV. First upgrades "sv" to type "SVt_PVMG" if
	       necessary, then adds a new magic item of type "how" to the head
	       of the magic list.

	       See "sv_magicext" (which "sv_magic" now calls) for a descrip-
	       tion of the handling of the "name" and "namlen" arguments.

	       You need to use "sv_magicext" to add magic to SvREADONLY SVs
	       and also to add more than one instance of the same 'how'.

		       void    sv_magic(SV* sv, SV* obj, int how, const char* name, I32 namlen)

       sv_magicext
	       Adds magic to an SV, upgrading it if necessary. Applies the
	       supplied vtable and returns a pointer to the magic added.

	       Note that "sv_magicext" will allow things that "sv_magic" will
	       not.  In particular, you can add magic to SvREADONLY SVs, and
	       add more than one instance of the same 'how'.

	       If "namlen" is greater than zero then a "savepvn" copy of
	       "name" is stored, if "namlen" is zero then "name" is stored as-
	       is and - as another special case - if "(name && namlen ==
	       HEf_SVKEY)" then "name" is assumed to contain an "SV*" and is
	       stored as-is with its REFCNT incremented.

	       (This is now used as a subroutine by "sv_magic".)

		       MAGIC * sv_magicext(SV* sv, SV* obj, int how, MGVTBL *vtbl, const char* name, I32 namlen)

       sv_mortalcopy
	       Creates a new SV which is a copy of the original SV (using
	       "sv_setsv").  The new SV is marked as mortal. It will be
	       destroyed "soon", either by an explicit call to FREETMPS, or by
	       an implicit call at places such as statement boundaries.  See
	       also "sv_newmortal" and "sv_2mortal".

		       SV*     sv_mortalcopy(SV* oldsv)

       sv_newmortal
	       Creates a new null SV which is mortal.  The reference count of
	       the SV is set to 1. It will be destroyed "soon", either by an
	       explicit call to FREETMPS, or by an implicit call at places
	       such as statement boundaries.  See also "sv_mortalcopy" and
	       "sv_2mortal".

		       SV*     sv_newmortal()

       sv_newref
	       Increment an SV's reference count. Use the "SvREFCNT_inc()"
	       wrapper instead.

		       SV*     sv_newref(SV* sv)

       sv_nv   A private implementation of the "SvNVx" macro for compilers
	       which can't cope with complex macro expressions. Always use the
	       macro instead.

		       NV      sv_nv(SV* sv)

       sv_pos_b2u
	       Converts the value pointed to by offsetp from a count of bytes
	       from the start of the string, to a count of the equivalent num-
	       ber of UTF-8 chars.  Handles magic and type coercion.

		       void    sv_pos_b2u(SV* sv, I32* offsetp)

       sv_pos_u2b
	       Converts the value pointed to by offsetp from a count of UTF-8
	       chars from the start of the string, to a count of the equiva-
	       lent number of bytes; if lenp is non-zero, it does the same to
	       lenp, but this time starting from the offset, rather than from
	       the start of the string. Handles magic and type coercion.

		       void    sv_pos_u2b(SV* sv, I32* offsetp, I32* lenp)

       sv_pv   Use the "SvPV_nolen" macro instead

		       char*   sv_pv(SV *sv)

       sv_pvbyte
	       Use "SvPVbyte_nolen" instead.

		       char*   sv_pvbyte(SV *sv)

       sv_pvbyten
	       A private implementation of the "SvPVbyte" macro for compilers
	       which can't cope with complex macro expressions. Always use the
	       macro instead.

		       char*   sv_pvbyten(SV *sv, STRLEN *len)

       sv_pvbyten_force
	       A private implementation of the "SvPVbytex_force" macro for
	       compilers which can't cope with complex macro expressions.
	       Always use the macro instead.

		       char*   sv_pvbyten_force(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp)

       sv_pvn  A private implementation of the "SvPV" macro for compilers
	       which can't cope with complex macro expressions. Always use the
	       macro instead.

		       char*   sv_pvn(SV *sv, STRLEN *len)

       sv_pvn_force
	       Get a sensible string out of the SV somehow.  A private imple-
	       mentation of the "SvPV_force" macro for compilers which can't
	       cope with complex macro expressions. Always use the macro
	       instead.

		       char*   sv_pvn_force(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp)

       sv_pvn_force_flags
	       Get a sensible string out of the SV somehow.  If "flags" has
	       "SV_GMAGIC" bit set, will "mg_get" on "sv" if appropriate, else
	       not. "sv_pvn_force" and "sv_pvn_force_nomg" are implemented in
	       terms of this function.	You normally want to use the various
	       wrapper macros instead: see "SvPV_force" and "SvPV_force_nomg"

		       char*   sv_pvn_force_flags(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp, I32 flags)

       sv_pvutf8
	       Use the "SvPVutf8_nolen" macro instead

		       char*   sv_pvutf8(SV *sv)

       sv_pvutf8n
	       A private implementation of the "SvPVutf8" macro for compilers
	       which can't cope with complex macro expressions. Always use the
	       macro instead.

		       char*   sv_pvutf8n(SV *sv, STRLEN *len)

       sv_pvutf8n_force
	       A private implementation of the "SvPVutf8_force" macro for com-
	       pilers which can't cope with complex macro expressions. Always
	       use the macro instead.

		       char*   sv_pvutf8n_force(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp)

       sv_reftype
	       Returns a string describing what the SV is a reference to.

		       char*   sv_reftype(SV* sv, int ob)

       sv_replace
	       Make the first argument a copy of the second, then delete the
	       original.  The target SV physically takes over ownership of the
	       body of the source SV and inherits its flags; however, the tar-
	       get keeps any magic it owns, and any magic in the source is
	       discarded.  Note that this is a rather specialist SV copying
	       operation; most of the time you'll want to use "sv_setsv" or
	       one of its many macro front-ends.

		       void    sv_replace(SV* sv, SV* nsv)

       sv_report_used
	       Dump the contents of all SVs not yet freed. (Debugging aid).

		       void    sv_report_used()

       sv_reset
	       Underlying implementation for the "reset" Perl function.  Note
	       that the perl-level function is vaguely deprecated.

		       void    sv_reset(char* s, HV* stash)

       sv_rvweaken
	       Weaken a reference: set the "SvWEAKREF" flag on this RV; give
	       the referred-to SV "PERL_MAGIC_backref" magic if it hasn't
	       already; and push a back-reference to this RV onto the array of
	       backreferences associated with that magic.

		       SV*     sv_rvweaken(SV *sv)

       sv_setiv
	       Copies an integer into the given SV, upgrading first if neces-
	       sary.  Does not handle 'set' magic.  See also "sv_setiv_mg".

		       void    sv_setiv(SV* sv, IV num)

       sv_setiv_mg
	       Like "sv_setiv", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_setiv_mg(SV *sv, IV i)

       sv_setnv
	       Copies a double into the given SV, upgrading first if neces-
	       sary.  Does not handle 'set' magic.  See also "sv_setnv_mg".

		       void    sv_setnv(SV* sv, NV num)

       sv_setnv_mg
	       Like "sv_setnv", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_setnv_mg(SV *sv, NV num)

       sv_setpv
	       Copies a string into an SV.  The string must be null-termi-
	       nated.  Does not handle 'set' magic.  See "sv_setpv_mg".

		       void    sv_setpv(SV* sv, const char* ptr)

       sv_setpvf
	       Works like "sv_catpvf" but copies the text into the SV instead
	       of appending it.  Does not handle 'set' magic.  See "sv_set-
	       pvf_mg".

		       void    sv_setpvf(SV* sv, const char* pat, ...)

       sv_setpvf_mg
	       Like "sv_setpvf", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_setpvf_mg(SV *sv, const char* pat, ...)

       sv_setpviv
	       Copies an integer into the given SV, also updating its string
	       value.  Does not handle 'set' magic.  See "sv_setpviv_mg".

		       void    sv_setpviv(SV* sv, IV num)

       sv_setpviv_mg
	       Like "sv_setpviv", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_setpviv_mg(SV *sv, IV iv)

       sv_setpvn
	       Copies a string into an SV.  The "len" parameter indicates the
	       number of bytes to be copied.  If the "ptr" argument is NULL
	       the SV will become undefined.  Does not handle 'set' magic.
	       See "sv_setpvn_mg".

		       void    sv_setpvn(SV* sv, const char* ptr, STRLEN len)

       sv_setpvn_mg
	       Like "sv_setpvn", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_setpvn_mg(SV *sv, const char *ptr, STRLEN len)

       sv_setpv_mg
	       Like "sv_setpv", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_setpv_mg(SV *sv, const char *ptr)

       sv_setref_iv
	       Copies an integer into a new SV, optionally blessing the SV.
	       The "rv" argument will be upgraded to an RV.  That RV will be
	       modified to point to the new SV.  The "classname" argument
	       indicates the package for the blessing.	Set "classname" to
	       "Nullch" to avoid the blessing.	The new SV will have a refer-
	       ence count of 1, and the RV will be returned.

		       SV*     sv_setref_iv(SV* rv, const char* classname, IV iv)

       sv_setref_nv
	       Copies a double into a new SV, optionally blessing the SV.  The
	       "rv" argument will be upgraded to an RV.  That RV will be modi-
	       fied to point to the new SV.  The "classname" argument indi-
	       cates the package for the blessing.  Set "classname" to
	       "Nullch" to avoid the blessing.	The new SV will have a refer-
	       ence count of 1, and the RV will be returned.

		       SV*     sv_setref_nv(SV* rv, const char* classname, NV nv)

       sv_setref_pv
	       Copies a pointer into a new SV, optionally blessing the SV.
	       The "rv" argument will be upgraded to an RV.  That RV will be
	       modified to point to the new SV.  If the "pv" argument is NULL
	       then "PL_sv_undef" will be placed into the SV.  The "classname"
	       argument indicates the package for the blessing.  Set "class-
	       name" to "Nullch" to avoid the blessing.  The new SV will have
	       a reference count of 1, and the RV will be returned.

	       Do not use with other Perl types such as HV, AV, SV, CV,
	       because those objects will become corrupted by the pointer copy
	       process.

	       Note that "sv_setref_pvn" copies the string while this copies
	       the pointer.

		       SV*     sv_setref_pv(SV* rv, const char* classname, void* pv)

       sv_setref_pvn
	       Copies a string into a new SV, optionally blessing the SV.  The
	       length of the string must be specified with "n".  The "rv"
	       argument will be upgraded to an RV.  That RV will be modified
	       to point to the new SV.	The "classname" argument indicates the
	       package for the blessing.  Set "classname" to "Nullch" to avoid
	       the blessing.  The new SV will have a reference count of 1, and
	       the RV will be returned.

	       Note that "sv_setref_pv" copies the pointer while this copies
	       the string.

		       SV*     sv_setref_pvn(SV* rv, const char* classname, char* pv, STRLEN n)

       sv_setref_uv
	       Copies an unsigned integer into a new SV, optionally blessing
	       the SV.	The "rv" argument will be upgraded to an RV.  That RV
	       will be modified to point to the new SV.  The "classname" argu-
	       ment indicates the package for the blessing.  Set "classname"
	       to "Nullch" to avoid the blessing.  The new SV will have a ref-
	       erence count of 1, and the RV will be returned.

		       SV*     sv_setref_uv(SV* rv, const char* classname, UV uv)

       sv_setsv
	       Copies the contents of the source SV "ssv" into the destination
	       SV "dsv".  The source SV may be destroyed if it is mortal, so
	       don't use this function if the source SV needs to be reused.
	       Does not handle 'set' magic.  Loosely speaking, it performs a
	       copy-by-value, obliterating any previous content of the desti-
	       nation.

	       You probably want to use one of the assortment of wrappers,
	       such as "SvSetSV", "SvSetSV_nosteal", "SvSetMagicSV" and
	       "SvSetMagicSV_nosteal".

		       void    sv_setsv(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)

       sv_setsv_flags
	       Copies the contents of the source SV "ssv" into the destination
	       SV "dsv".  The source SV may be destroyed if it is mortal, so
	       don't use this function if the source SV needs to be reused.
	       Does not handle 'set' magic.  Loosely speaking, it performs a
	       copy-by-value, obliterating any previous content of the desti-
	       nation.	If the "flags" parameter has the "SV_GMAGIC" bit set,
	       will "mg_get" on "ssv" if appropriate, else not. If the "flags"
	       parameter has the "NOSTEAL" bit set then the buffers of temps
	       will not be stolen.  and "sv_setsv_nomg" are imple-
	       mented in terms of this function.

	       You probably want to use one of the assortment of wrappers,
	       such as "SvSetSV", "SvSetSV_nosteal", "SvSetMagicSV" and
	       "SvSetMagicSV_nosteal".

	       This is the primary function for copying scalars, and most
	       other copy-ish functions and macros use this underneath.

		       void    sv_setsv_flags(SV* dsv, SV* ssv, I32 flags)

       sv_setsv_mg
	       Like "sv_setsv", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_setsv_mg(SV *dstr, SV *sstr)

       sv_setsv_nomg
	       Like "sv_setsv" but doesn't process magic.

		       void    sv_setsv_nomg(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)

       sv_setuv
	       Copies an unsigned integer into the given SV, upgrading first
	       if necessary.  Does not handle 'set' magic.  See also
	       "sv_setuv_mg".

		       void    sv_setuv(SV* sv, UV num)

       sv_setuv_mg
	       Like "sv_setuv", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_setuv_mg(SV *sv, UV u)

       sv_taint
	       Taint an SV. Use "SvTAINTED_on" instead.
		    void sv_taint(SV* sv)

       sv_tainted
	       Test an SV for taintedness. Use "SvTAINTED" instead.
		    bool sv_tainted(SV* sv)

       sv_true Returns true if the SV has a true value by Perl's rules.  Use
	       the "SvTRUE" macro instead, which may call "sv_true()" or may
	       instead use an in-line version.

		       I32     sv_true(SV *sv)

       sv_unmagic
	       Removes all magic of type "type" from an SV.

		       int     sv_unmagic(SV* sv, int type)

       sv_unref
	       Unsets the RV status of the SV, and decrements the reference
	       count of whatever was being referenced by the RV.  This can
	       almost be thought of as a reversal of "newSVrv".  This is
	       "sv_unref_flags" with the "flag" being zero.  See "SvROK_off".

		       void    sv_unref(SV* sv)

       sv_unref_flags
	       Unsets the RV status of the SV, and decrements the reference
	       count of whatever was being referenced by the RV.  This can
	       almost be thought of as a reversal of "newSVrv".  The "cflags"
	       argument can contain "SV_IMMEDIATE_UNREF" to force the refer-
	       ence count to be decremented (otherwise the decrementing is
	       conditional on the reference count being different from one or
	       the reference being a readonly SV).  See "SvROK_off".

		       void    sv_unref_flags(SV* sv, U32 flags)

       sv_untaint
	       Untaint an SV. Use "SvTAINTED_off" instead.
		    void sv_untaint(SV* sv)

       sv_upgrade
	       Upgrade an SV to a more complex form.  Generally adds a new
	       body type to the SV, then copies across as much information as
	       possible from the old body.  You generally want to use the
	       "SvUPGRADE" macro wrapper. See also "svtype".

		       bool    sv_upgrade(SV* sv, U32 mt)

       sv_usepvn
	       Tells an SV to use "ptr" to find its string value.  Normally
	       the string is stored inside the SV but sv_usepvn allows the SV
	       to use an outside string.  The "ptr" should point to memory
	       that was allocated by "malloc".	The string length, "len", must
	       be supplied.  This function will realloc the memory pointed to
	       by "ptr", so that pointer should not be freed or used by the
	       programmer after giving it to sv_usepvn.  Does not handle 'set'
	       magic.  See "sv_usepvn_mg".

		       void    sv_usepvn(SV* sv, char* ptr, STRLEN len)

       sv_usepvn_mg
	       Like "sv_usepvn", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_usepvn_mg(SV *sv, char *ptr, STRLEN len)

       sv_utf8_decode
	       If the PV of the SV is an octet sequence in UTF-8 and contains
	       a multiple-byte character, the "SvUTF8" flag is turned on so
	       that it looks like a character. If the PV contains only single-
	       byte characters, the "SvUTF8" flag stays being off.  Scans PV
	       for validity and returns false if the PV is invalid UTF-8.

	       NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be
	       removed without notice.

		       bool    sv_utf8_decode(SV *sv)

       sv_utf8_downgrade
	       Attempts to convert the PV of an SV from characters to bytes.
	       If the PV contains a character beyond byte, this conversion
	       will fail; in this case, either returns false or, if "fail_ok"
	       is not true, croaks.

	       This is not as a general purpose Unicode to byte encoding
	       interface: use the Encode extension for that.

	       NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be
	       removed without notice.

		       bool    sv_utf8_downgrade(SV *sv, bool fail_ok)

       sv_utf8_encode
	       Converts the PV of an SV to UTF-8, but then turns the "SvUTF8"
	       flag off so that it looks like octets again.

		       void    sv_utf8_encode(SV *sv)

       sv_utf8_upgrade
	       Converts the PV of an SV to its UTF-8-encoded form.  Forces the
	       SV to string form if it is not already.	Always sets the SvUTF8
	       flag to avoid future validity checks even if all the bytes have
	       hibit clear.

	       This is not as a general purpose byte encoding to Unicode
	       interface: use the Encode extension for that.

		       STRLEN  sv_utf8_upgrade(SV *sv)

       sv_utf8_upgrade_flags
	       Converts the PV of an SV to its UTF-8-encoded form.  Forces the
	       SV to string form if it is not already.	Always sets the SvUTF8
	       flag to avoid future validity checks even if all the bytes have
	       hibit clear. If "flags" has "SV_GMAGIC" bit set, will "mg_get"
	       on "sv" if appropriate, else not. "sv_utf8_upgrade" and
	       "sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg" are implemented in terms of this func-
	       tion.

	       This is not as a general purpose byte encoding to Unicode
	       interface: use the Encode extension for that.

		       STRLEN  sv_utf8_upgrade_flags(SV *sv, I32 flags)

       sv_uv   A private implementation of the "SvUVx" macro for compilers
	       which can't cope with complex macro expressions. Always use the
	       macro instead.

		       UV      sv_uv(SV* sv)

       sv_vcatpvf
	       Processes its arguments like "vsprintf" and appends the format-
	       ted output to an SV.  Does not handle 'set' magic.  See
	       "sv_vcatpvf_mg".

	       Usually used via its frontend "sv_catpvf".

		       void    sv_vcatpvf(SV* sv, const char* pat, va_list* args)

       sv_vcatpvfn
	       Processes its arguments like "vsprintf" and appends the format-
	       ted output to an SV.  Uses an array of SVs if the C style vari-
	       able argument list is missing (NULL).  When running with taint
	       checks enabled, indicates via "maybe_tainted" if results are
	       untrustworthy (often due to the use of locales).

	       XXX Except that it maybe_tainted is never assigned to.

	       Usually used via one of its frontends "sv_vcatpvf" and
	       "sv_vcatpvf_mg".

		       void    sv_vcatpvfn(SV* sv, const char* pat, STRLEN patlen, va_list* args, SV** svargs, I32 svmax, bool *maybe_tainted)

       sv_vcatpvf_mg
	       Like "sv_vcatpvf", but also handles 'set' magic.

	       Usually used via its frontend "sv_catpvf_mg".

		       void    sv_vcatpvf_mg(SV* sv, const char* pat, va_list* args)

       sv_vsetpvf
	       Works like "sv_vcatpvf" but copies the text into the SV instead
	       of appending it.  Does not handle 'set' magic.  See "sv_vset-
	       pvf_mg".

	       Usually used via its frontend "sv_setpvf".

		       void    sv_vsetpvf(SV* sv, const char* pat, va_list* args)

       sv_vsetpvfn
	       Works like "sv_vcatpvfn" but copies the text into the SV
	       instead of appending it.

	       Usually used via one of its frontends "sv_vsetpvf" and
	       "sv_vsetpvf_mg".

		       void    sv_vsetpvfn(SV* sv, const char* pat, STRLEN patlen, va_list* args, SV** svargs, I32 svmax, bool *maybe_tainted)

       sv_vsetpvf_mg
	       Like "sv_vsetpvf", but also handles 'set' magic.

	       Usually used via its frontend "sv_setpvf_mg".

		       void    sv_vsetpvf_mg(SV* sv, const char* pat, va_list* args)

Unicode Support
       bytes_from_utf8
	       Converts a string "s" of length "len" from UTF-8 into byte
	       encoding.  Unlike "utf8_to_bytes" but like "bytes_to_utf8",
	       returns a pointer to the newly-created string, and updates
	       "len" to contain the new length.  Returns the original string
	       if no conversion occurs, "len" is unchanged. Do nothing if
	       "is_utf8" points to 0. Sets "is_utf8" to 0 if "s" is converted
	       or contains all 7bit characters.

	       NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be
	       removed without notice.

		       U8*     bytes_from_utf8(U8 *s, STRLEN *len, bool *is_utf8)

       bytes_to_utf8
	       Converts a string "s" of length "len" from ASCII into UTF-8
	       encoding.  Returns a pointer to the newly-created string, and
	       sets "len" to reflect the new length.

	       If you want to convert to UTF-8 from other encodings than
	       ASCII, see sv_recode_to_utf8().

	       NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be
	       removed without notice.

		       U8*     bytes_to_utf8(U8 *s, STRLEN *len)

       ibcmp_utf8
	       Return true if the strings s1 and s2 differ case-insensitively,
	       false if not (if they are equal case-insensitively).  If u1 is
	       true, the string s1 is assumed to be in UTF-8-encoded Unicode.
	       If u2 is true, the string s2 is assumed to be in UTF-8-encoded
	       Unicode.  If u1 or u2 are false, the respective string is
	       assumed to be in native 8-bit encoding.

	       If the pe1 and pe2 are non-NULL, the scanning pointers will be
	       copied in there (they will point at the beginning of the next
	       character).  If the pointers behind pe1 or pe2 are non-NULL,
	       they are the end pointers beyond which scanning will not con-
	       tinue under any circumstances.  If the byte lengths l1 and l2
	       are non-zero, s1+l1 and s2+l2 will be used as goal end pointers
	       that will also stop the scan, and which qualify towards defin-
	       ing a successful match: all the scans that define an explicit
	       length must reach their goal pointers for a match to succeed).

	       For case-insensitiveness, the "casefolding" of Unicode is used
	       instead of upper/lowercasing both the characters, see
	       http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr21/ (Case Mappings).

		       I32     ibcmp_utf8(const char* a, char **pe1, UV l1, bool u1, const char* b, char **pe2, UV l2, bool u2)

       is_utf8_char
	       Tests if some arbitrary number of bytes begins in a valid UTF-8
	       character.  Note that an INVARIANT (i.e. ASCII) character is a
	       valid UTF-8 character.  The actual number of bytes in the UTF-8
	       character will be returned if it is valid, otherwise 0.

		       STRLEN  is_utf8_char(U8 *p)

       is_utf8_string
	       Returns true if first "len" bytes of the given string form a
	       valid UTF-8 string, false otherwise.  Note that 'a valid UTF-8
	       string' does not mean 'a string that contains code points above
	       0x7F encoded in UTF-8' because a valid ASCII string is a valid
	       UTF-8 string.

	       See also is_utf8_string_loclen() and is_utf8_string_loc().

		       bool    is_utf8_string(U8 *s, STRLEN len)

       is_utf8_string_loc
	       Like is_utf8_string() but stores the location of the failure
	       (in the case of "utf8ness failure") or the location s+len (in
	       the case of "utf8ness success") in the "ep".

	       See also is_utf8_string_loclen() and is_utf8_string().

		       bool    is_utf8_string_loc(U8 *s, STRLEN len, U8 **p)

       is_utf8_string_loclen
	       Like is_utf8_string() but stores the location of the failure
	       (in the case of "utf8ness failure") or the location s+len (in
	       the case of "utf8ness success") in the "ep", and the number of
	       UTF-8 encoded characters in the "el".

	       See also is_utf8_string_loc() and is_utf8_string().

		       bool    is_utf8_string_loclen(const U8 *s, STRLEN len, const U8 **ep, STRLEN *el)

       pv_uni_display
	       Build to the scalar dsv a displayable version of the string
	       spv, length len, the displayable version being at most pvlim
	       bytes long (if longer, the rest is truncated and "..." will be
	       appended).

	       The flags argument can have UNI_DISPLAY_ISPRINT set to display
	       isPRINT()able characters as themselves, UNI_DISPLAY_BACKSLASH
	       to display the \\[nrfta\\] as the backslashed versions (like
	       '\n') (UNI_DISPLAY_BACKSLASH is preferred over UNI_DIS-
	       PLAY_ISPRINT for \\).  UNI_DISPLAY_QQ (and its alias UNI_DIS-
	       PLAY_REGEX) have both UNI_DISPLAY_BACKSLASH and UNI_DIS-
	       PLAY_ISPRINT turned on.

	       The pointer to the PV of the dsv is returned.

		       char*   pv_uni_display(SV *dsv, U8 *spv, STRLEN len, STRLEN pvlim, UV flags)

       sv_cat_decode
	       The encoding is assumed to be an Encode object, the PV of the
	       ssv is assumed to be octets in that encoding and decoding the
	       input starts from the position which (PV + *offset) pointed to.
	       The dsv will be concatenated the decoded UTF-8 string from ssv.
	       Decoding will terminate when the string tstr appears in decod-
	       ing output or the input ends on the PV of the ssv. The value
	       which the offset points will be modified to the last input
	       position on the ssv.

	       Returns TRUE if the terminator was found, else returns FALSE.

		       bool    sv_cat_decode(SV* dsv, SV *encoding, SV *ssv, int *offset, char* tstr, int tlen)

       sv_recode_to_utf8
	       The encoding is assumed to be an Encode object, on entry the PV
	       of the sv is assumed to be octets in that encoding, and the sv
	       will be converted into Unicode (and UTF-8).

	       If the sv already is UTF-8 (or if it is not POK), or if the
	       encoding is not a reference, nothing is done to the sv.	If the
	       encoding is not an "Encode::XS" Encoding object, bad things
	       will happen.  (See lib/encoding.pm and Encode).

	       The PV of the sv is returned.

		       char*   sv_recode_to_utf8(SV* sv, SV *encoding)

       sv_uni_display
	       Build to the scalar dsv a displayable version of the scalar sv,
	       the displayable version being at most pvlim bytes long (if
	       longer, the rest is truncated and "..." will be appended).

	       The flags argument is as in pv_uni_display().

	       The pointer to the PV of the dsv is returned.

		       char*   sv_uni_display(SV *dsv, SV *ssv, STRLEN pvlim, UV flags)

       to_utf8_case
	       The "p" contains the pointer to the UTF-8 string encoding the
	       character that is being converted.

	       The "ustrp" is a pointer to the character buffer to put the
	       conversion result to.  The "lenp" is a pointer to the length of
	       the result.

	       The "swashp" is a pointer to the swash to use.

	       Both the special and normal mappings are stored lib/uni-
	       core/To/Foo.pl, and loaded by SWASHGET, using
	       lib/utf8_heavy.pl.  The special (usually, but not always, a
	       multicharacter mapping), is tried first.

	       The "special" is a string like "utf8::ToSpecLower", which means
	       the hash %utf8::ToSpecLower.  The access to the hash is through
	       Perl_to_utf8_case().

	       The "normal" is a string like "ToLower" which means the swash
	       %utf8::ToLower.

		       UV      to_utf8_case(U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp, SV **swashp, char *normal, char *special)

       to_utf8_fold
	       Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at p to its foldcase ver-
	       sion and store that in UTF-8 in ustrp and its length in bytes
	       in lenp.  Note that the ustrp needs to be at least
	       UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since the foldcase version may be
	       longer than the original character (up to three characters).

	       The first character of the foldcased version is returned (but
	       note, as explained above, that there may be more.)

		       UV      to_utf8_fold(U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp)

       to_utf8_lower
	       Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at p to its lowercase ver-
	       sion and store that in UTF-8 in ustrp and its length in bytes
	       in lenp.  Note that the ustrp needs to be at least
	       UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since the lowercase version may be
	       longer than the original character.

	       The first character of the lowercased version is returned (but
	       note, as explained above, that there may be more.)

		       UV      to_utf8_lower(U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp)

       to_utf8_title
	       Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at p to its titlecase ver-
	       sion and store that in UTF-8 in ustrp and its length in bytes
	       in lenp.  Note that the ustrp needs to be at least
	       UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since the titlecase version may be
	       longer than the original character.

	       The first character of the titlecased version is returned (but
	       note, as explained above, that there may be more.)

		       UV      to_utf8_title(U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp)

       to_utf8_upper
	       Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at p to its uppercase ver-
	       sion and store that in UTF-8 in ustrp and its length in bytes
	       in lenp.  Note that the ustrp needs to be at least
	       UTF8_MAXBYTES_CASE+1 bytes since the uppercase version may be
	       longer than the original character.

	       The first character of the uppercased version is returned (but
	       note, as explained above, that there may be more.)

		       UV      to_utf8_upper(U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp)

       utf8n_to_uvchr
	       Returns the native character value of the first character in
	       the string "s" which is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding;
	       "retlen" will be set to the length, in bytes, of that charac-
	       ter.

	       Allows length and flags to be passed to low level routine.

		       UV      utf8n_to_uvchr(U8 *s, STRLEN curlen, STRLEN *retlen, U32 flags)

       utf8n_to_uvuni
	       Bottom level UTF-8 decode routine.  Returns the unicode code
	       point value of the first character in the string "s" which is
	       assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding and no longer than "curlen";
	       "retlen" will be set to the length, in bytes, of that charac-
	       ter.

	       If "s" does not point to a well-formed UTF-8 character, the be-
	       haviour is dependent on the value of "flags": if it contains
	       UTF8_CHECK_ONLY, it is assumed that the caller will raise a
	       warning, and this function will silently just set "retlen" to
	       "-1" and return zero.  If the "flags" does not contain
	       UTF8_CHECK_ONLY, warnings about malformations will be given,
	       "retlen" will be set to the expected length of the UTF-8 char-
	       acter in bytes, and zero will be returned.

	       The "flags" can also contain various flags to allow deviations
	       from the strict UTF-8 encoding (see utf8.h).

	       Most code should use utf8_to_uvchr() rather than call this
	       directly.

		       UV      utf8n_to_uvuni(U8 *s, STRLEN curlen, STRLEN *retlen, U32 flags)

       utf8_distance
	       Returns the number of UTF-8 characters between the UTF-8 point-
	       ers "a" and "b".

	       WARNING: use only if you *know* that the pointers point inside
	       the same UTF-8 buffer.

		       IV      utf8_distance(U8 *a, U8 *b)

       utf8_hop
	       Return the UTF-8 pointer "s" displaced by "off" characters,
	       either forward or backward.

	       WARNING: do not use the following unless you *know* "off" is
	       within the UTF-8 data pointed to by "s" *and* that on entry "s"
	       is aligned on the first byte of character or just after the
	       last byte of a character.

		       U8*     utf8_hop(U8 *s, I32 off)

       utf8_length
	       Return the length of the UTF-8 char encoded string "s" in char-
	       acters.	Stops at "e" (inclusive).  If "e < s" or if the scan
	       would end up past "e", croaks.

		       STRLEN  utf8_length(U8* s, U8 *e)

       utf8_to_bytes
	       Converts a string "s" of length "len" from UTF-8 into byte
	       encoding.  Unlike "bytes_to_utf8", this over-writes the origi-
	       nal string, and updates len to contain the new length.  Returns
	       zero on failure, setting "len" to -1.

	       NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be
	       removed without notice.

		       U8*     utf8_to_bytes(U8 *s, STRLEN *len)

       utf8_to_uvchr
	       Returns the native character value of the first character in
	       the string "s" which is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding;
	       "retlen" will be set to the length, in bytes, of that charac-
	       ter.

	       If "s" does not point to a well-formed UTF-8 character, zero is
	       returned and retlen is set, if possible, to -1.

		       UV      utf8_to_uvchr(U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen)

       utf8_to_uvuni
	       Returns the Unicode code point of the first character in the
	       string "s" which is assumed to be in UTF-8 encoding; "retlen"
	       will be set to the length, in bytes, of that character.

	       This function should only be used when returned UV is consid-
	       ered an index into the Unicode semantic tables (e.g. swashes).

	       If "s" does not point to a well-formed UTF-8 character, zero is
	       returned and retlen is set, if possible, to -1.

		       UV      utf8_to_uvuni(U8 *s, STRLEN *retlen)

       uvchr_to_utf8
	       Adds the UTF-8 representation of the Native codepoint "uv" to
	       the end of the string "d"; "d" should be have at least
	       "UTF8_MAXBYTES+1" free bytes available. The return value is the
	       pointer to the byte after the end of the new character. In
	       other words,

		   d = uvchr_to_utf8(d, uv);

	       is the recommended wide native character-aware way of saying

		   *(d++) = uv;

		       U8*     uvchr_to_utf8(U8 *d, UV uv)

       uvuni_to_utf8_flags
	       Adds the UTF-8 representation of the Unicode codepoint "uv" to
	       the end of the string "d"; "d" should be have at least
	       "UTF8_MAXBYTES+1" free bytes available. The return value is the
	       pointer to the byte after the end of the new character. In
	       other words,

		   d = uvuni_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, flags);

	       or, in most cases,

		   d = uvuni_to_utf8(d, uv);

	       (which is equivalent to)

		   d = uvuni_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, 0);

	       is the recommended Unicode-aware way of saying

		   *(d++) = uv;

		       U8*     uvuni_to_utf8_flags(U8 *d, UV uv, UV flags)

Variables created by "xsubpp" and "xsubpp" internal functions
       ax      Variable which is setup by "xsubpp" to indicate the stack base
	       offset, used by the "ST", "XSprePUSH" and "XSRETURN" macros.
	       The "dMARK" macro must be called prior to setup the "MARK"
	       variable.

		       I32     ax

       CLASS   Variable which is setup by "xsubpp" to indicate the class name
	       for a C++ XS constructor.  This is always a "char*".  See
	       "THIS".

		       char*   CLASS

       dAX     Sets up the "ax" variable.  This is usually handled automati-
	       cally by "xsubpp" by calling "dXSARGS".

			       dAX;

       dAXMARK Sets up the "ax" variable and stack marker variable "mark".
	       This is usually handled automatically by "xsubpp" by calling
	       "dXSARGS".

			       dAXMARK;

       dITEMS  Sets up the "items" variable.  This is usually handled automat-
	       ically by "xsubpp" by calling "dXSARGS".

			       dITEMS;

       dXSARGS Sets up stack and mark pointers for an XSUB, calling dSP and
	       dMARK.  Sets up the "ax" and "items" variables by calling "dAX"
	       and "dITEMS".  This is usually handled automatically by
	       "xsubpp".

			       dXSARGS;

       dXSI32  Sets up the "ix" variable for an XSUB which has aliases.  This
	       is usually handled automatically by "xsubpp".

			       dXSI32;

       items   Variable which is setup by "xsubpp" to indicate the number of
	       items on the stack.  See "Variable-length Parameter Lists" in
	       perlxs.

		       I32     items

       ix      Variable which is setup by "xsubpp" to indicate which of an
	       XSUB's aliases was used to invoke it.  See "The ALIAS: Keyword"
	       in perlxs.

		       I32     ix

       newXSproto
	       Used by "xsubpp" to hook up XSUBs as Perl subs.	Adds Perl pro-
	       totypes to the subs.

       RETVAL  Variable which is setup by "xsubpp" to hold the return value
	       for an XSUB. This is always the proper type for the XSUB. See
	       "The RETVAL Variable" in perlxs.

		       (whatever)      RETVAL

       ST      Used to access elements on the XSUB's stack.

		       SV*     ST(int ix)

       THIS    Variable which is setup by "xsubpp" to designate the object in
	       a C++ XSUB.  This is always the proper type for the C++ object.
	       See "CLASS" and "Using XS With C++" in perlxs.

		       (whatever)      THIS

       XS      Macro to declare an XSUB and its C parameter list.  This is
	       handled by "xsubpp".

       XS_VERSION
	       The version identifier for an XS module.  This is usually han-
	       dled automatically by "ExtUtils::MakeMaker".  See "XS_VER-
	       SION_BOOTCHECK".

       XS_VERSION_BOOTCHECK
	       Macro to verify that a PM module's $VERSION variable matches
	       the XS module's "XS_VERSION" variable.  This is usually handled
	       automatically by "xsubpp".  See "The VERSIONCHECK: Keyword" in
	       perlxs.

			       XS_VERSION_BOOTCHECK;

Warning and Dieing
       croak   This is the XSUB-writer's interface to Perl's "die" function.
	       Normally call this function the same way you call the C
	       "printf" function.  Calling "croak" returns control directly to
	       Perl, sidestepping the normal C order of execution. See "warn".

	       If you want to throw an exception object, assign the object to
	       $@ and then pass "Nullch" to croak():

		  errsv = get_sv("@", TRUE);
		  sv_setsv(errsv, exception_object);
		  croak(Nullch);

		       void    croak(const char* pat, ...)

       warn    This is the XSUB-writer's interface to Perl's "warn" function.
	       Call this function the same way you call the C "printf" func-
	       tion.  See "croak".

		       void    warn(const char* pat, ...)

AUTHORS
       Until May 1997, this document was maintained by Jeff Okamoto
       .  It is now maintained as part of Perl itself.

       With lots of help and suggestions from Dean Roehrich, Malcolm Beattie,
       Andreas Koenig, Paul Hudson, Ilya Zakharevich, Paul Marquess, Neil Bow-
       ers, Matthew Green, Tim Bunce, Spider Boardman, Ulrich Pfeifer, Stephen
       McCamant, and Gurusamy Sarathy.

       API Listing originally by Dean Roehrich .

       Updated to be autogenerated from comments in the source by Benjamin
       Stuhl.

SEE ALSO
       perlguts(1), perlxs(1), perlxstut(1), perlintern(1)



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