a2p
accept
access
acct
addftinfo
addr2line
adjtime
afmtodit
after
aio_cancel
aio_error
aio_read
aio_return
aio_suspend
aio_waitcomplete
aio_write
alias
aliases
alloc
anvil
append
apply
apropos
ar
array
as
asa
asn1parse
at
atq
atrm
attemptckalloc
attemptckrealloc
authlib
authtest
autopoint
awk
b64decode
b64encode
basename
batch
bc
bdes
bell
bg
bgerror
biff
big5
binary
bind
bindkey
bindtags
bindtextdomain
bio
bitmap
blowfish
bn
bootparams
bootptab
bounce
brandelf
break
breaksw
brk
bsdiff
bsdtar
bsnmpd
bspatch
bthost
btsockstat
buffer
builtin
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button
byacc
bzcat
bzegrep
bzfgrep
bzgrep
bzip2
c2ph
c89
c99
ca
cal
calendar
canvas
cap_mkdb
case
cat
catch
catman
cc
cd
cdcontrol
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chfn
chgrp
chio
chkey
chmod
chown
chpass
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ci
ciphers
ckalloc
ckdist
ckfree
ckrealloc
cksum
cleanup
clear
clipboard
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clock_getres
clock_gettime
clock_settime
close
cmp
co
col
colcrt
colldef
colors
colrm
column
comm
command
compile_et
complete
compress
concat
config
connect
console
continue
core
courierlogger
couriertcpd
cp
cpan
cpio
cpp
creat
crl
crontab
crunchgen
crunchide
crypt
crypto
csh
csplit
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ctm_dequeue
ctm_rmail
ctm_smail
cu
cursor
cursors
cut
cvs
date
dbiprof
dbiproxy
dc
dcgettext
dcngettext
dd
dde
default
defer
deliverquota
des
destroy
devfs
df
dgettext
dgst
dh
dhparam
dialog
diff
diff3
dig
dir
dirent
dirname
dirs
discard
disktab
dngettext
do
domainname
done
dprofpp
dsa
dsaparam
dtmfdecode
du
dup
dup2
eaccess
ec
ecdsa
echo
echotc
ecparam
ed
edit
editrc
ee
egrep
elf
elfdump
elif
else
enc
enc2xs
encoding
end
endif
endsw
engine
enigma
entry
env
envsubst
eof
eqn
err
errno
error
errstr
esac
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euc
eui64
eval
event
evp
ex
exec
execve
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expand
export
exports
expr
extattr
extattr_delete_fd
extattr_delete_file
extattr_get_fd
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extattr_set_fd
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f77
false
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fdwrite
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fg
fgrep
fhopen
fhstat
fhstatfs
fi
file
file2c
fileevent
filename
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find2perl
finger
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flush
fmt
focus
fold
font
fontedit
for
foreach
fork
format
forward
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frame
from
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ftp
ftpchroot
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g711conv
gb2312
gb18030
gbk
gcc
gcore
gcov
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gencat
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gprof
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groups
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h2xs
hash
hashstat
hd
head
help2man
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hexdump
history
host
hostname
hosts
hosts_access
hosts_options
hpftodit
http
hup
i386_get_ioperm
i386_get_ldt
i386_set_ioperm
i386_set_ldt
i386_vm86
iconv
id
ident
idprio
if
ifnames253
ifnames259
image
imapd
incr
indent
indxbib
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infokey
inode
install
instmodsh
interp
intro
introduction
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ipcrm
ipcs
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ippool
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keysyms
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killall
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kldsym
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kse_create
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kse_release
kse_switchin
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kse_wakeup
ktrace
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labelframe
lam
lappend
last
lastcomm
lastlog
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ld
ldap
ldapadd
ldapcompare
ldapdelete
ldapmodify
ldapmodrdn
ldappasswd
ldapsearch
ldapwhoami
ldd
leave
less
lesskey
lex
lgetfh
lhash
libnetcfg
library
limit
limits
lindex
link
linprocfs
linsert
lint
lio_listio
list
listbox
listen
lj4_font
lkbib
llength
lmtp
ln
load
loadfont
local
locale
locate
lock
lockf
log
logger
login
logins
logname
logout
look
lookbib
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lower
lp
lpq
lpr
lprm
lptest
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ls
lsearch
lseek
lset
lsort
lstat
lsvfs
lutimes
lynx
m4
madvise
magic
mail
maildiracl
maildirkw
maildirmake
mailq
mailx
make
makeinfo
makewhatis
man
manpath
master
mc
mcedit
mcview
md2
md4
md5
mdc2
memory
menu
menubar
menubutton
merge
mesg
message
mincore
minherit
minigzip
mkdep
mkdir
mkfifo
mkimapdcert
mklocale
mknod
mkpop3dcert
mkstr
mktemp
mlock
mlockall
mmap
mmroff
modfind
modfnext
modnext
modstat
moduli
more
motd
mount
mprotect
mptable
msdos
msdosfs
msgattrib
msgcat
msgcmp
msgcomm
msgconv
msgen
msgexec
msgfilter
msgfmt
msggrep
msginit
msgmerge
msgs
msgunfmt
msguniq
mskanji
msql2mysql
msync
mt
munlock
munlockall
munmap
mv
myisamchk
myisamlog
myisampack
mysql
mysqlaccess
mysqladmin
mysqlbinlog
mysqlcheck
mysqld
mysqldump
mysqld_multi
mysqld_safe
mysqlhotcopy
mysqlimport
mysqlshow
mysql_config
mysql_fix_privilege_tables
mysql_zap
namespace
nanosleep
nawk
nc
ncal
ncplist
ncplogin
ncplogout
neqn
netconfig
netgroup
netid
netstat
networks
newaliases
newgrp
nex
nfsstat
nfssvc
ngettext
nice
nl
nm
nmount
nohup
nologin
notify
nroff
nseq
nslookup
ntp_adjtime
ntp_gettime
nvi
nview
objcopy
objdump
objformat
ocsp
od
onintr
open
openssl
opieaccess
opieinfo
opiekey
opiekeys
opiepasswd
option
options
oqmgr
pack
package
packagens
pagesize
palette
pam_auth
panedwindow
parray
passwd
paste
patch
pathchk
pathconf
pawd
pax
pbm
pcre
pcreapi
pcrebuild
pcrecallout
pcrecompat
pcrecpp
pcregrep
pcrematching
pcrepartial
pcrepattern
pcreperform
pcreposix
pcreprecompile
pcresample
pcretest
perl
perl56delta
perl58delta
perl561delta
perl570delta
perl571delta
perl572delta
perl573delta
perl581delta
perl582delta
perl583delta
perl584delta
perl585delta
perl586delta
perl587delta
perl588delta
perl5004delta
perl5005delta
perlaix
perlamiga
perlapi
perlapio
perlapollo
perlartistic
perlbeos
perlbook
perlboot
perlbot
perlbs2000
perlbug
perlcall
perlcc
perlce
perlcheat
perlclib
perlcn
perlcompile
perlcygwin
perldata
perldbmfilter
perldebguts
perldebtut
perldebug
perldelta
perldgux
perldiag
perldoc
perldos
perldsc
perlebcdic
perlembed
perlepoc
perlfaq
perlfaq1
perlfaq2
perlfaq3
perlfaq4
perlfaq5
perlfaq6
perlfaq7
perlfaq8
perlfaq9
perlfilter
perlfork
perlform
perlfreebsd
perlfunc
perlglossary
perlgpl
perlguts
perlhack
perlhist
perlhpux
perlhurd
perlintern
perlintro
perliol
perlipc
perlirix
perlivp
perljp
perlko
perllexwarn
perllinux
perllocale
perllol
perlmachten
perlmacos
perlmacosx
perlmint
perlmod
perlmodinstall
perlmodlib
perlmodstyle
perlmpeix
perlnetware
perlnewmod
perlnumber
perlobj
perlop
perlopenbsd
perlopentut
perlos2
perlos390
perlos400
perlothrtut
perlpacktut
perlplan9
perlpod
perlpodspec
perlport
perlqnx
perlre
perlref
perlreftut
perlrequick
perlreref
perlretut
perlrun
perlsec
perlsolaris
perlstyle
perlsub
perlsyn
perlthrtut
perltie
perltoc
perltodo
perltooc
perltoot
perltrap
perltru64
perltw
perlunicode
perluniintro
perlutil
perluts
perlvar
perlvmesa
perlvms
perlvos
perlwin32
perlxs
perlxstut
perror
pfbtops
pftp
pgrep
phones
photo
pic
pickup
piconv
pid
pipe
pkcs7
pkcs8
pkcs12
pkg_add
pkg_check
pkg_create
pkg_delete
pkg_info
pkg_sign
pkg_version
pkill
pl2pm
place
pod2html
pod2latex
pod2man
pod2text
pod2usage
podchecker
podselect
poll
popd
popup
posix_madvise
postalias
postcat
postconf
postdrop
postfix
postkick
postlock
postlog
postmap
postqueue
postsuper
pr
pread
preadv
printcap
printenv
printf
proc
procfs
profil
protocols
prove
proxymap
ps
psed
psroff
pstruct
ptrace
publickey
pushd
puts
pwd
pwrite
pwritev
qmgr
qmqpd
quota
quotactl
radiobutton
raise
rand
ranlib
rcp
rcs
rcsclean
rcsdiff
rcsfile
rcsfreeze
rcsintro
rcsmerge
read
readelf
readlink
readonly
readv
realpath
reboot
recv
recvfrom
recvmsg
red
ree
refer
regexp
registry
regsub
rehash
remote
rename
repeat
replace
req
reset
resolver
resource
return
rev
revoke
rfcomm_sppd
rfork
rhosts
ripemd
ripemd160
rlog
rlogin
rm
rmd160
rmdir
rpc
rpcgen
rs
rsa
rsautl
rsh
rtld
rtprio
rup
ruptime
rusers
rwall
rwho
s2p
safe
sasl
sasldblistusers2
saslpasswd2
sbrk
scache
scale
scan
sched
sched_getparam
sched_getscheduler
sched_get_priority_max
sched_get_priority_min
sched_rr_get_interval
sched_setparam
sched_setscheduler
sched_yield
scon
scp
script
scrollbar
sdiff
sed
seek
select
selection
semctl
semget
semop
send
sendbug
sendfile
sendmail
sendmsg
sendto
services
sess_id
set
setegid
setenv
seteuid
setfacl
setgid
setgroups
setitimer
setlogin
setpgid
setpgrp
setpriority
setregid
setresgid
setresuid
setreuid
setrlimit
setsid
setsockopt
settc
settimeofday
setty
setuid
setvar
sftp
sh
sha
sha1
sha256
shar
shells
shift
shmat
shmctl
shmdt
shmget
showq
shutdown
sigaction
sigaltstack
sigblock
sigmask
sigpause
sigpending
sigprocmask
sigreturn
sigsetmask
sigstack
sigsuspend
sigvec
sigwait
size
slapadd
slapcat
slapd
slapdn
slapindex
slappasswd
slaptest
sleep
slogin
slurpd
smbutil
smime
smtp
smtpd
socket
socketpair
sockstat
soelim
sort
source
spawn
speed
spinbox
spkac
splain
split
squid
squid_ldap_auth
squid_ldap_group
squid_unix_group
sscop
ssh
sshd_config
ssh_config
stab
startslip
stat
statfs
stop
string
strings
strip
stty
su
subst
sum
suspend
swapoff
swapon
switch
symlink
sync
sysarch
syscall
sysconftool
sysconftoolcheck
systat
s_client
s_server
s_time
tabs
tail
talk
tar
tbl
tclsh
tcltest
tclvars
tcopy
tcpdump
tcpslice
tcsh
tee
tell
telltc
telnet
term
termcap
terminfo
test
texindex
texinfo
text
textdomain
tfmtodit
tftp
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threads
time
tip
tk
tkerror
tkvars
tkwait
tlsmgr
tmac
top
toplevel
touch
tput
tr
trace
trafshow
trap
troff
true
truncate
truss
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tsort
tty
ttys
type
tzfile
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ulimit
umask
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uncompress
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unifdefall
uniq
units
unknown
unlimit
unlink
unmount
unset
unsetenv
until
unvis
update
uplevel
uptime
upvar
usbhidaction
usbhidctl
users
utf8
utimes
utmp
utrace
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uuencode
uuidgen
vacation
variable
verify
version
vfork
vgrind
vgrindefs
vi
vidcontrol
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view
virtual
vis
vt220keys
vwait
w
wait
wait3
wait4
waitpid
wall
wc
wget
what
whatis
where
whereis
which
while
who
whoami
whois
window
winfo
wish
wm
write
writev
wtmp
x509
xargs
xgettext
xmlwf
xstr
xsubpp
yacc
yes
ypcat
ypchfn
ypchpass
ypchsh
ypmatch
yppasswd
ypwhich
yyfix
zcat
zcmp
zdiff
zegrep
zfgrep
zforce
zgrep
zmore
znew
_exit
__syscall
 
FreeBSD/Linux/UNIX General Commands Manual
Hypertext Man Pages
gmake
 
MAKE(1L)		      LOCAL USER COMMANDS		      MAKE(1L)



NAME
       make - GNU make utility to maintain groups of programs

SYNOPSIS
       make [ -f makefile ] [ option ] ...  target ...

WARNING
       This  man  page is an extract of the documentation of GNU make .  It is
       updated only occasionally, because the GNU project does not use	nroff.
       For  complete,  current documentation, refer to the Info file make.info
       which is made from the Texinfo source file make.texinfo.

DESCRIPTION
       The purpose of the make utility is  to  determine  automatically  which
       pieces of a large program need to be recompiled, and issue the commands
       to recompile them.  The manual  describes  the  GNU  implementation  of
       make,  which  was  written by Richard Stallman and Roland McGrath.  Our
       examples show C programs, since they are most common, but you  can  use
       make  with  any	programming  language whose compiler can be run with a
       shell command.  In fact, make is not limited to programs.  You can  use
       it  to describe any task where some files must be updated automatically
       from others whenever the others change.

       To prepare to use make, you must write a file called the makefile  that
       describes the relationships among files in your program, and the states
       the commands for updating each file.  In a program, typically the  exe-
       cutable	file  is  updated from object files, which are in turn made by
       compiling source files.

       Once a suitable makefile exists,  each  time  you  change  some	source
       files, this simple shell command:

	      make

       suffices  to  perform  all  necessary recompilations.  The make program
       uses the makefile data base and	the  last-modification	times  of  the
       files  to  decide  which  of the files need to be updated.  For each of
       those files, it issues the commands recorded in the data base.

       make executes commands in the makefile to update  one  or  more	target
       names,  where name is typically a program.  If no -f option is present,
       make will look for the makefiles GNUmakefile, makefile,	and  Makefile,
       in that order.

       Normally  you  should  call  your makefile either makefile or Makefile.
       (We recommend Makefile because it appears prominently near  the	begin-
       ning  of  a directory listing, right near other important files such as
       README.)  The first name checked, GNUmakefile, is not  recommended  for
       most  makefiles.   You should use this name if you have a makefile that
       is specific to GNU make, and will not be understood by  other  versions
       of make.  If makefile is `-', the standard input is read.

       make  updates  a  target  if it depends on prerequisite files that have
       been modified since the target was last modified, or if the target does
       not exist.

OPTIONS
       -b

       -m   These options are ignored for compatibility with other versions of
	    make.

       -C dir
	    Change to directory dir before reading the makefiles or doing any-
	    thing  else.  If multiple -C options are specified, each is inter-
	    preted relative to the previous one: -C / -C etc is equivalent  to
	    -C	/etc.	This  is  typically used with recursive invocations of
	    make.

       -d   Print debugging information in addition to normal processing.  The
	    debugging  information  says  which files are being considered for
	    remaking, which  file-times  are  being  compared  and  with  what
	    results,  which  files  actually need to be remade, which implicit
	    rules are considered and which are applied---everything  interest-
	    ing about how make decides what to do.

       -e   Give  variables  taken  from the environment precedence over vari-
	    ables from makefiles.

       -f file
	    Use file as a makefile.

       -i   Ignore all errors in commands executed to remake files.

       -I dir
	    Specifies a directory dir to search for  included  makefiles.   If
	    several  -I  options  are used to specify several directories, the
	    directories are searched in the order specified.  Unlike the argu-
	    ments  to other flags of make, directories given with -I flags may
	    come directly after the flag: -Idir is allowed, as well as -I dir.
	    This syntax is allowed for compatibility with the C preprocessor's
	    -I flag.

       -j jobs
	    Specifies the number of jobs (commands) to run simultaneously.  If
	    there  is  more than one -j option, the last one is effective.  If
	    the -j option is given without an argument, make  will  not  limit
	    the number of jobs that can run simultaneously.

       -k   Continue  as  much	as  possible after an error.  While the target
	    that failed, and those that depend on it, cannot  be  remade,  the
	    other dependencies of these targets can be processed all the same.

       -l

       -l load
	    Specifies that no new jobs (commands) should be started  if  there
	    are  others  jobs running and the load average is at least load (a
	    floating-point number).  With no argument, removes a previous load
	    limit.

       -n   Print  the	commands  that	would  be executed, but do not execute
	    them.

       -o file
	    Do not remake the file file even if it is older than its dependen-
	    cies,  and	do  not remake anything on account of changes in file.
	    Essentially the file is treated as very  old  and  its  rules  are
	    ignored.

       -p   Print  the data base (rules and variable values) that results from
	    reading the makefiles; then execute as usual or as otherwise spec-
	    ified.   This  also prints the version information given by the -v
	    switch (see below).  To print the  data  base  without  trying  to
	    remake any files, use make -p -f/dev/null.

       -q   ``Question	mode''.   Do  not run any commands, or print anything;
	    just return an exit status that is zero if the  specified  targets
	    are already up to date, nonzero otherwise.

       -r   Eliminate  use of the built-in implicit rules.  Also clear out the
	    default list of suffixes for suffix rules.

       -s   Silent operation; do not print the commands as they are  executed.

       -S   Cancel  the  effect  of  the  -k  option.  This is never necessary
	    except in a recursive make where -k might be  inherited  from  the
	    top-level make via MAKEFLAGS or if you set -k in MAKEFLAGS in your
	    environment.

       -t   Touch files (mark them up to date without  really  changing  them)
	    instead  of  running their commands.  This is used to pretend that
	    the commands were done, in order to  fool  future  invocations  of
	    make.

       -v   Print  the version of the make program plus a copyright, a list of
	    authors and a notice that there is no warranty.

       -w   Print a message containing the working directory before and  after
	    other  processing.	 This  may  be useful for tracking down errors
	    from complicated nests of recursive make commands.

       -W file
	    Pretend that the target file has just been	modified.   When  used
	    with  the -n flag, this shows you what would happen if you were to
	    modify that file.  Without -n, it is almost the same as running  a
	    touch  command  on the given file before running make, except that
	    the modification time is changed only in the imagination of  make.

SEE ALSO
       The GNU Make Manual

BUGS
       See the chapter `Problems and Bugs' in The GNU Make Manual .

AUTHOR
       This  manual  page  contributed by Dennis Morse of Stanford University.
       It has been reworked by Roland McGrath.



GNU				22 August 1989			      MAKE(1L)
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