a2p
accept
access
acct
addftinfo
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adjtime
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after
aio_cancel
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as
asa
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FreeBSD/Linux/UNIX General Commands Manual
Hypertext Man Pages
canvas
 
canvas(n)		     Tk Built-In Commands		     canvas(n)



NAME
       canvas - Create and manipulate canvas widgets

SYNOPSIS
       canvas  pathName ?options?  -background	  -insertborderwidth  -select-
       borderwidth    -borderwidth   -insertofftime -selectforeground	 -cur-
       sor   -insertontime  -takefocus	      -highlightbackground     -inser-
       twidth	-xscrollcommand  -highlightcolor     -relief   -yscrollcommand
       -highlightthickness -state -insertbackground   -selectbackground

WIDGET-SPECIFIC OPTIONS
       Specifies  a floating-point value indicating how close the mouse cursor
       must be to an item before it is considered to be ``inside''  the  item.
       Defaults  to  1.0.  Specifies a boolean value that indicates whether or
       not it should be allowable to set the canvas's view outside the	region
       defined	by  the  scrollRegion argument.  Defaults to true, which means
       that the view will be constrained within the scroll region.   Specifies
       a  desired window height that the canvas widget should request from its
       geometry manager.  The value may be  specified  in  any	of  the  forms
       described in the COORDINATES section below.  Specifies a list with four
       coordinates describing the left, top, right, and bottom coordinates  of
       a  rectangular  region.	This region is used for scrolling purposes and
       is considered to be the boundary of  the  information  in  the  canvas.
       Each  of  the coordinates may be specified in any of the forms given in
       the COORDINATES section below.  Modifies the default state of the  can-
       vas  where  state  may  be  set to one of: normal, disabled, or hidden.
       Individual canvas objects all have their own  state  option  which  may
       override  the default state.  Many options can take separate specifica-
       tions such that the appearance of the item can be different in  differ-
       ent  situations.  The  options  that  start  with  active  control  the
       appearence when the mouse pointer is over it, while the option starting
       with disabled controls the appearence when the state is disabled.  Can-
       vas items which are disabled will not react to canvas bindings.	Speci-
       fies  a desired window width that the canvas widget should request from
       its geometry manager.  The value may be specified in any of  the  forms
       described in the COORDINATES section below.  Specifies an increment for
       horizontal scrolling, in any of the usual forms	permitted  for	screen
       distances.  If the value of this option is greater than zero, the hori-
       zontal view in the window will be constrained  so  that	the  canvas  x
       coordinate at the left edge of the window is always an even multiple of
       xScrollIncrement;  furthermore, the  units  for	scrolling  (e.g.,  the
       change  in  view  when  the  left  and  right arrows of a scrollbar are
       selected) will also be xScrollIncrement.  If the value of  this	option
       is  less  than  or  equal  to zero, then horizontal scrolling is uncon-
       strained.  Specifies an increment for vertical scrolling, in any of the
       usual  forms  permitted	for  screen  distances.   If the value of this
       option is greater than zero, the vertical view in the  window  will  be
       constrained so that the canvas y coordinate at the top edge of the win-
       dow is always an even multiple of yScrollIncrement;   furthermore,  the
       units  for  scrolling (e.g., the change in view when the top and bottom
       arrows of a scrollbar are selected) will also be yScrollIncrement.   If
       the  value  of this option is less than or equal to zero, then vertical
       scrolling is unconstrained.


INTRODUCTION
       The canvas command creates a new window (given by  the  pathName  argu-
       ment) and makes it into a canvas widget.  Additional options, described
       above, may be specified on the command line or in the  option  database
       to  configure  aspects of the canvas such as its colors and 3-D relief.
       The canvas command returns its pathName argument.   At  the  time  this
       command	is  invoked, there must not exist a window named pathName, but
       pathName's parent must exist.

       Canvas widgets implement structured graphics.  A  canvas  displays  any
       number  of  items, which may be things like rectangles, circles, lines,
       and text.  Items may be manipulated (e.g. moved or re-colored) and com-
       mands  may  be associated with items in much the same way that the bind
       command allows commands to be bound to widgets.	For example, a partic-
       ular  command  may  be associated with the  event so that the
       command is invoked whenever button 1 is pressed with the  mouse	cursor
       over  an  item.	 This  means that items in a canvas can have behaviors
       defined by the Tcl scripts bound to them.

DISPLAY LIST
       The items in a canvas are ordered for purposes  of  display,  with  the
       first  item  in the display list being displayed first, followed by the
       next item in the list, and so on.  Items  later	in  the  display  list
       obscure	those  that  are earlier in the display list and are sometimes
       referred to as being ``on top'' of earlier items.  When a new  item  is
       created	it  is placed at the end of the display list, on top of every-
       thing else.  Widget commands may be used to re-arrange the order of the
       display list.

       Window  items are an exception to the above rules.  The underlying win-
       dow systems require them always to be drawn on top of other items.   In
       addition,  the stacking order of window items is not affected by any of
       the canvas widget commands; you must use the raise and  lower  Tk  com-
       mands instead.

ITEM IDS AND TAGS
       Items  in  a canvas widget may be named in either of two ways: by id or
       by tag.	Each item has a unique identifying number, which  is  assigned
       to  that  item when it is created.  The id of an item never changes and
       id numbers are never re-used within the lifetime of a canvas widget.

       Each item may also have any number of tags associated with it.	A  tag
       is just a string of characters, and it may take any form except that of
       an integer.  For example, ``x123'' is OK but ``123'' isn't.   The  same
       tag may be associated with many different items.  This is commonly done
       to group items in various interesting ways;  for example, all  selected
       items might be given the tag ``selected''.

       The tag all is implicitly associated with every item in the canvas;  it
       may be used to invoke operations on all the items in the canvas.

       The tag current is managed automatically by Tk; it applies to the  cur-
       rent  item, which is the topmost item whose drawn area covers the posi-
       tion of the mouse cursor.  If the mouse is not in the canvas widget  or
       is not over an item, then no item has the current tag.

       When specifying items in canvas widget commands, if the specifier is an
       integer then it is assumed to refer to the single item  with  that  id.
       If  the specifier is not an integer, then it is assumed to refer to all
       of the items in the canvas that have a tag matching the specifier.  The
       symbol  tagOrId	is  used  below to indicate that an argument specifies
       either an id that selects a single item or a tag that selects  zero  or
       more items.

       tagOrId	may  contain a logical expressions of tags by using operators:
       '&&', '||', '^' '!', and parenthesized subexpressions.  For example:
	     .c find withtag {(a&&!b)||(!a&&b)} or equivalently:
	     .c find withtag {a^b} will find only those items with either  "a"
       or "b" tags, but not both.

       Some  widget  commands  only  operate  on  a single item at a time;  if
       tagOrId is specified in a way that names multiple items, then the  nor-
       mal  behavior  is  for  the  command to use the first (lowest) of these
       items in the display list that is suitable for the command.  Exceptions
       are noted in the widget command descriptions below.

COORDINATES
       All  coordinates  related to canvases are stored as floating-point num-
       bers.  Coordinates and distances are specified in screen  units,  which
       are  floating-point  numbers optionally followed by one of several let-
       ters.  If no letter is supplied then the distance is in pixels.	If the
       letter  is  m then the distance is in millimeters on the screen;  if it
       is c then the distance is in centimeters; i means inches, and  p  means
       printers  points  (1/72	inch).	 Larger  y-coordinates refer to points
       lower on the screen;  larger x-coordinates refer to points  farther  to
       the  right.   Coordinates  can be specified either as an even number of
       parameters, or as a single list parameter containing an even number  of
       x and y coordinate values.

TRANSFORMATIONS
       Normally  the  origin  of the canvas coordinate system is at the upper-
       left corner of the window containing the canvas.   It  is  possible  to
       adjust  the origin of the canvas coordinate system relative to the ori-
       gin of the window using the xview and yview widget commands;   this  is
       typically used for scrolling.  Canvases do not support scaling or rota-
       tion of the canvas coordinate system relative to the window  coordinate
       system.

       Individual items may be moved or scaled using widget commands described
       below, but they may not be rotated.

       Note that the default origin of the canvas's visible area is coincident
       with  the  origin for the whole window as that makes bindings using the
       mouse position easier to work with; you only need to  use  the  canvasx
       and  canvasy  widget  commands  if you adjust the origin of the visible
       area.  However, this also means that any focus ring (as	controlled  by
       the -highlightthickness option) and window border (as controlled by the
       -borderwidth option) must be taken into account before you get  to  the
       visible area of the canvas.

INDICES
       Text  items  support  the notion of an index for identifying particular
       positions within the item.  In a  similar  fashion,  line  and  polygon
       items  support index for identifying, inserting and deleting subsets of
       their coordinates.  Indices are used for commands such as inserting  or
       deleting  a  range of characters or coordinates, and setting the inser-
       tion cursor position. An index may be specified in any of a  number  of
       ways,  and  different  types  of  items may support different forms for
       specifying indices.  Text items support	the  following	forms  for  an
       index;	if you define new types of text-like items, it would be advis-
       able to support as many of these forms as practical.  Note that	it  is
       possible  to refer to the character just after the last one in the text
       item;  this is necessary for such tasks as inserting new  text  at  the
       end of the item.  Lines and Polygons don't support the insertion cursor
       and the selection. Their  indices  are  supposed  to  be  even  always,
       because coordinates always appear in pairs.

       number	 A decimal number giving the position of the desired character
		 within the text item.	0 refers to the first character, 1  to
		 the  next  character, and so on. If indexes are odd for lines
		 and polygons, they will be automatically decremented by  one.
		 A  number  less  than	0 is treated as if it were zero, and a
		 number greater than the length of the text item is treated as
		 if  it  were  equal to the length of the text item. For poly-
		 gons, numbers less than 0 or greater then the length  of  the
		 coordinate list will be adjusted by adding or subtracting the
		 length until the result  is  between  zero  and  the  length,
		 inclusive.

       end	 Refers to the character or coordinate just after the last one
		 in the item (same as the number of characters or  coordinates
		 in the item).

       insert	 Refers  to the character just before which the insertion cur-
		 sor is drawn in this item. Not valid for lines and  polygons.

       sel.first Refers  to  the first selected character in the item.	If the
		 selection isn't in this item then this form is illegal.

       sel.last  Refers to the last selected character in the  item.   If  the
		 selection isn't in this item then this form is illegal.

       @x,y	 Refers to the character or coordinate at the point given by x
		 and y, where x and y are specified in the  coordinate	system
		 of  the  canvas.  If x and y lie outside the coordinates cov-
		 ered by the text item, then they refer to the first  or  last
		 character in the line that is closest to the given point.

DASH PATTERNS
       Many items support the notion of a dash pattern for outlines.

       The  first  possible  syntax is a list of integers. Each element repre-
       sents the number of pixels of a line segment. Only the odd segments are
       drawn using the "outline" color. The other segments are drawn transpar-
       ent.

       The second possible syntax is a character list containing only 5 possi-
       ble  characters	[.,-_  ].  The	space can be used to enlarge the space
       between other line elements, and can not occur as the first position in
       the string. Some examples:
	   -dash .    = -dash {2 4}
	   -dash -     = -dash {6 4}
	   -dash -.    = -dash {6 4 2 4}
	   -dash -..   = -dash {6 4 2 4 2 4}
	   -dash {. }  = -dash {2 8}
	   -dash ,    = -dash {4 4}

       The  main  difference  of  this	syntax with the previous is that it is
       shape-conserving. This means that all values in the dash list  will  be
       multiplied by the line width before display. This assures that "." will
       always be displayed as a dot and "-" always as a dash regardless of the
       line width.

       On  systems which support only a limited set of dash patterns, the dash
       pattern will be displayed as the closest dash pattern  that  is	avail-
       able.   For  example, on Windows only the first 4 of the above examples
       are available.  The last 2 examples will be  displayed  identically  to
       the first one.

WIDGET COMMAND
       The  canvas  command  creates a new Tcl command whose name is pathName.
       This command may be used to invoke various operations  on  the  widget.
       It  has	the  following	general  form:	pathName  option ?arg arg ...?
       Option and the args determine the exact behavior of the	command.   The
       following widget commands are possible for canvas widgets:

       pathName addtag tag searchSpec ?arg arg ...?
	      For each item that meets the constraints specified by searchSpec
	      and the args, add tag to the list of tags  associated  with  the
	      item  if	it isn't already present on that list.	It is possible
	      that no items will satisfy the constraints given	by  searchSpec
	      and args, in which case the command has no effect.  This command
	      returns an empty string as result.   SearchSpec  and  arg's  may
	      take any of the following forms:

	      above tagOrId
		     Selects  the  item  just  after  (above) the one given by
		     tagOrId in the display list.   If	tagOrId  denotes  more
		     than  one item, then the last (topmost) of these items in
		     the display list is used.

	      all    Selects all the items in the canvas.

	      below tagOrId
		     Selects the item just before (below)  the	one  given  by
		     tagOrId  in  the  display	list.  If tagOrId denotes more
		     than one item, then the first (lowest) of these items  in
		     the display list is used.

	      closest x y ?halo? ?start?
		     Selects  the  item closest to the point given by x and y.
		     If more than one item is at  the  same  closest  distance
		     (e.g.  two items overlap the point), then the top-most of
		     these items (the last one in the display list)  is  used.
		     If  halo  is  specified,  then  it must be a non-negative
		     value.  Any item closer than halo to the point is consid-
		     ered  to  overlap	it.  The start argument may be used to
		     step circularly through all the closest items.  If  start
		     is  specified,  it names an item using a tag or id (if by
		     tag, it selects the first item in the display  list  with
		     the given tag).  Instead of selecting the topmost closest
		     item, this form will select the topmost closest item that
		     is  below	start  in  the	display list;  if no such item
		     exists, then the selection behaves as if the start  argu-
		     ment had not been specified.

	      enclosed x1 y1 x2 y2
		     Selects  all  the	items  completely  enclosed within the
		     rectangular region given by x1, y1, x2, and y2.  X1  must
		     be  no greater then x2 and y1 must be no greater than y2.

	      overlapping x1 y1 x2 y2
		     Selects all the items that overlap or are enclosed within
		     the  rectangular  region given by x1, y1, x2, and y2.  X1
		     must be no greater then x2 and y1 must be no greater than
		     y2.

	      withtag tagOrId
		     Selects all the items given by tagOrId.

       pathName bbox tagOrId ?tagOrId tagOrId ...?
	      Returns a list with four elements giving an approximate bounding
	      box for all the items named by the tagOrId arguments.  The  list
	      has  the	form  ``x1 y1 x2 y2'' such that the drawn areas of all
	      the named elements are within the region bounded by  x1  on  the
	      left, x2 on the right, y1 on the top, and y2 on the bottom.  The
	      return value may overestimate the actual bounding box by	a  few
	      pixels.	If  no	items match any of the tagOrId arguments or if
	      the matching items have empty bounding  boxes  (i.e.  they  have
	      nothing to display) then an empty string is returned.

       pathName bind tagOrId ?sequence? ?command?
	      This  command  associates  command  with	all the items given by
	      tagOrId such that whenever the event sequence given by  sequence
	      occurs  for  one of the items the command will be invoked.  This
	      widget command is similar to the bind  command  except  that  it
	      operates	on  items in a canvas rather than entire widgets.  See
	      the bind manual entry for complete  details  on  the  syntax  of
	      sequence	and  the  substitutions  performed  on	command before
	      invoking it.  If all arguments are specified then a new  binding
	      is created, replacing any existing binding for the same sequence
	      and tagOrId (if the first character of  command  is  ``+''  then
	      command  augments an existing binding rather than replacing it).
	      In this case the return value is an empty string.  If command is
	      omitted  then  the  command  returns the command associated with
	      tagOrId and sequence (an error occurs if there is no such  bind-
	      ing).  If both command and sequence are omitted then the command
	      returns a list of all the sequences for which bindings have been
	      defined for tagOrId.

	      The  only  events  for which bindings may be specified are those
	      related to the mouse and keyboard (such as Enter, Leave, Button-
	      Press, Motion, and KeyPress) or virtual events.  The handling of
	      events in canvases uses the current item defined in ITEM IDS AND
	      TAGS  above.  Enter and Leave events trigger for an item when it
	      becomes the current item or ceases to be the current item;  note
	      that  these events are different than Enter and Leave events for
	      windows.	Mouse-related events are directed to the current item,
	      if any.  Keyboard-related events are directed to the focus item,
	      if any (see the focus widget command below for  more  on	this).
	      If  a virtual event is used in a binding, that binding can trig-
	      ger only if the virtual event is defined by an underlying mouse-
	      related or keyboard-related event.

	      It  is  possible	for  multiple  bindings  to match a particular
	      event.  This could occur, for example, if one binding is associ-
	      ated  with  the  item's id and another is associated with one of
	      the item's tags.	When this occurs, all of the matching bindings
	      are  invoked.   A binding associated with the all tag is invoked
	      first, followed by one binding for each of the item's  tags  (in
	      order), followed by a binding associated with the item's id.  If
	      there are multiple matching bindings for a single tag, then only
	      the  most  specific binding is invoked.  A continue command in a
	      binding script terminates that script, and a break command  ter-
	      minates  that  script  and  skips  any remaining scripts for the
	      event, just as for the bind command.

	      If bindings have been created for a canvas window using the bind
	      command,	then  they are invoked in addition to bindings created
	      for the canvas's items using the bind widget command.  The bind-
	      ings  for  items	will be invoked before any of the bindings for
	      the window as a whole.

       pathName canvasx screenx ?gridspacing?
	      Given a window x-coordinate in the canvas screenx, this  command
	      returns  the canvas x-coordinate that is displayed at that loca-
	      tion.  If gridspacing is specified, then the  canvas  coordinate
	      is rounded to the nearest multiple of gridspacing units.

       pathName canvasy screeny ?gridspacing?
	      Given  a	window y-coordinate in the canvas screeny this command
	      returns the canvas y-coordinate that is displayed at that  loca-
	      tion.   If  gridspacing is specified, then the canvas coordinate
	      is rounded to the nearest multiple of gridspacing units.

       pathName cget option
	      Returns the current value of the configuration option  given  by
	      option.	Option may have any of the values accepted by the can-
	      vas command.

       pathName configure ?option? ?value? ?option value ...?
	      Query or modify the configuration options of the widget.	If  no
	      option is specified, returns a list describing all of the avail-
	      able options for pathName (see Tk_ConfigureInfo for  information
	      on  the  format  of  this list).	If option is specified with no
	      value, then the command returns a list describing the one  named
	      option (this list will be identical to the corresponding sublist
	      of the value returned if no option is  specified).   If  one  or
	      more option-value pairs are specified, then the command modifies
	      the given widget option(s) to have the given value(s);  in  this
	      case  the  command returns an empty string.  Option may have any
	      of the values accepted by the canvas command.

       pathName coords tagOrId ?x0 y0 ...?

       pathName coords tagOrId ?coordList?
	      Query or modify the coordinates that  define  an	item.	If  no
	      coordinates  are	specified,  this  command returns a list whose
	      elements are the coordinates of the item named by  tagOrId.   If
	      coordinates are specified, then they replace the current coordi-
	      nates for the named item.  If tagOrId refers to multiple	items,
	      then the first one in the display list is used.

       pathName create type x y ?x y ...? ?option value ...?

       pathName create type coordList ?option value ...?
	      Create a new item in pathName of type type.  The exact format of
	      the arguments after type depends on type, but usually they  con-
	      sist  of	the  coordinates  for  one or more points, followed by
	      specifications for zero or more item options.  See  the  subsec-
	      tions  on  individual item types below for more on the syntax of
	      this command.  This command returns the id for the new item.

       pathName dchars tagOrId first ?last?
	      For each item given by tagOrId, delete the characters, or  coor-
	      dinates,	in  the  range given by first and last, inclusive.  If
	      some of the items given by tagOrId don't support indexing opera-
	      tions  then  they ignore dchars.	Text items interpret first and
	      last as indices to a character, line and polygon items interpret
	      them  indices  to  a  coordinate	(an  x,y  pair).   Indices are
	      described in INDICES above.  If last is omitted, it defaults  to
	      first.  This command returns an empty string.

       pathName delete ?tagOrId tagOrId ...?
	      Delete  each  of	the items given by each tagOrId, and return an
	      empty string.

       pathName dtag tagOrId ?tagToDelete?
	      For each of the items given by tagOrId, delete the tag given  by
	      tagToDelete from the list of those associated with the item.  If
	      an item doesn't have the tag tagToDelete then the item is  unaf-
	      fected  by  the  command.   If  tagToDelete  is  omitted then it
	      defaults to tagOrId.  This command returns an empty string.

       pathName find searchCommand ?arg arg ...?
	      This command returns a list consisting of  all  the  items  that
	      meet  the  constraints  specified  by  searchCommand  and arg's.
	      SearchCommand and args have any of the  forms  accepted  by  the
	      addtag  command.	The items are returned in stacking order, with
	      the lowest item first.

       pathName focus ?tagOrId?
	      Set the keyboard focus for the canvas widget to the  item  given
	      by  tagOrId.  If tagOrId refers to several items, then the focus
	      is set to the first such item in the display list that  supports
	      the insertion cursor.  If tagOrId doesn't refer to any items, or
	      if none of them support the insertion  cursor,  then  the  focus
	      isn't  changed.	If  tagOrId is an empty string, then the focus
	      item is reset so that no item has the focus.  If tagOrId is  not
	      specified then the command returns the id for the item that cur-
	      rently has the focus, or an empty string	if  no	item  has  the
	      focus.

	      Once  the  focus	has been set to an item, the item will display
	      the insertion cursor and all keyboard events will be directed to
	      that  item.  The focus item within a canvas and the focus window
	      on the screen (set with the focus command) are totally  indepen-
	      dent:  a given item doesn't actually have the input focus unless
	      (a) its canvas is the focus window and (b) the item is the focus
	      item within the canvas.  In most cases it is advisable to follow
	      the focus widget command with the focus command to set the focus
	      window to the canvas (if it wasn't there already).

       pathName gettags tagOrId
	      Return  a  list  whose elements are the tags associated with the
	      item given by tagOrId.  If tagOrId refers to more than one item,
	      then  the tags are returned from the first such item in the dis-
	      play list.  If tagOrId doesn't refer to any  items,  or  if  the
	      item contains no tags, then an empty string is returned.

       pathName icursor tagOrId index
	      Set  the	position of the insertion cursor for the item(s) given
	      by tagOrId to just before the character whose position is  given
	      by  index.   If  some or all of the items given by tagOrId don't
	      support an insertion cursor then this command has no  effect  on
	      them.   See  INDICES  above for a description of the legal forms
	      for index.  Note:  the insertion cursor is only displayed in  an
	      item if that item currently has the keyboard focus (see the wid-
	      get command focus, below), but the cursor position  may  be  set
	      even when the item doesn't have the focus.  This command returns
	      an empty string.

       pathName index tagOrId index
	      This command returns a decimal string giving the numerical index
	      within  tagOrId  corresponding  to index.  Index gives a textual
	      description of the desired  position  as	described  in  INDICES
	      above.   Text items interpret index as an index to a  character,
	      line and polygon items interpret it as an index to a  coordinate
	      (an  x,y pair).  The return value is guaranteed to lie between 0
	      and the number of characters, or coordinates, within  the  item,
	      inclusive.   If tagOrId refers to multiple items, then the index
	      is processed in the first of these items that supports  indexing
	      operations (in display list order).

       pathName insert tagOrId beforeThis string
	      For  each  of  the  items given by tagOrId, if the item supports
	      text or coordinate, insertion then string is inserted  into  the
	      item's  text  just  before  the  character, or coordinate, whose
	      index is beforeThis.  Text  items  interpret  beforeThis	as  an
	      index to a  character, line and polygon items interpret it as an
	      index to a coordinate (an x,y pair).  For lines and polygons the
	      string  must  be a valid coordinate sequence.  See INDICES above
	      for information about the forms allowed  for  beforeThis.   This
	      command returns an empty string.

       pathName itemcget tagOrId option
	      Returns  the  current  value of the configuration option for the
	      item given by tagOrId whose name is  option.   This  command  is
	      similar  to  the cget widget command except that it applies to a
	      particular item rather than the widget as a whole.   Option  may
	      have  any  of  the  values accepted by the create widget command
	      when the item was created.  If tagOrId is a tag that  refers  to
	      more than one item, the first (lowest) such item is used.

       pathName itemconfigure tagOrId ?option? ?value? ?option value ...?
	      This  command  is similar to the configure widget command except
	      that it modifies item-specific options for the  items  given  by
	      tagOrId instead of modifying options for the overall canvas wid-
	      get.  If no option is specified, returns a list  describing  all
	      of  the  available  options  for the first item given by tagOrId
	      (see Tk_ConfigureInfo for information  on  the  format  of  this
	      list).   If  option is specified with no value, then the command
	      returns a list describing the one named option (this  list  will
	      be  identical to the corresponding sublist of the value returned
	      if no option is specified).  If one or more  option-value  pairs
	      are  specified,  then  the  command  modifies  the  given widget
	      option(s) to have the given value(s) in each of the items  given
	      by  tagOrId;   in this case the command returns an empty string.
	      The options and values are the same as those permissible in  the
	      create  widget  command  when  the item(s) were created; see the
	      sections describing individual item types below for  details  on
	      the legal options.

       pathName lower tagOrId ?belowThis?
	      Move  all of the items given by tagOrId to a new position in the
	      display list just  before  the  item  given  by  belowThis.   If
	      tagOrId  refers to more than one item then all are moved but the
	      relative	order  of  the	moved  items  will  not  be   changed.
	      BelowThis  is  a	tag or id;  if it refers to more than one item
	      then the first (lowest) of these items in the  display  list  is
	      used  as	the  destination  location for the moved items.  Note:
	      this command has no effect on window items.  Window items always
	      obscure other item types, and the stacking order of window items
	      is determined by the raise and lower commands, not the raise and
	      lower  widget  commands  for  canvases.  This command returns an
	      empty string.

       pathName move tagOrId xAmount yAmount
	      Move each of the items given by tagOrId in the canvas coordinate
	      space  by adding xAmount to the x-coordinate of each point asso-
	      ciated with the item and yAmount to  the	y-coordinate  of  each
	      point  associated  with the item.  This command returns an empty
	      string.

       pathName postscript ?option value option value ...?
	      Generate a Postscript representation for part or all of the can-
	      vas.   If  the  -file option is specified then the Postscript is
	      written to a file and an empty string  is  returned;   otherwise
	      the Postscript is returned as the result of the command.	If the
	      interpreter that owns the canvas is marked as safe,  the	opera-
	      tion  will  fail	because  safe  interpreters are not allowed to
	      write files.  If the -channel option is specified, the  argument
	      denotes  the  name  of a channel already opened for writing. The
	      Postscript is written to that channel, and the channel  is  left
	      open for further writing at the end of the operation.  The Post-
	      script is created in Encapsulated Postscript form using  version
	      3.0  of  the Document Structuring Conventions.  Note: by default
	      Postscript is only generated for information that appears in the
	      canvas's window on the screen.  If the canvas is freshly created
	      it may still have its initial size of 1x1 pixel so nothing  will
	      appear  in  the  Postscript.   To get around this problem either
	      invoke the "update" command to wait for  the  canvas  window  to
	      reach its final size, or else use the -width and -height options
	      to specify the area of the canvas to  print.   The  option-value
	      argument	pairs  provide	additional  information to control the
	      generation of Postscript.  The following options are supported:

	      -colormap varName
		     VarName must be the name of an array variable that speci-
		     fies a color mapping to use in the Postscript.  Each ele-
		     ment of varName must consist of Postscript code to set  a
		     particular  color	value  (e.g.  ``1.0  1.0  0.0  setrgb-
		     color'').	When outputting color information in the Post-
		     script,  Tk  checks to see if there is an element of var-
		     Name with the same name as the color.  If so, Tk uses the
		     value of the element as the Postscript command to set the
		     color.  If this option hasn't been specified, or if there
		     isn't an entry in varName for a given color, then Tk uses
		     the red, green, and blue intensities from the X color.

	      -colormode mode
		     Specifies how to output color information.  Mode must  be
		     either  color  (for full color output), gray (convert all
		     colors to their gray-scale equivalents) or mono  (convert
		     all colors to black or white).

	      -file fileName
		     Specifies	the  name  of  the  file in which to write the
		     Postscript.  If this  option  isn't  specified  then  the
		     Postscript  is  returned  as  the	result	of the command
		     instead of being written to a file.

	      -fontmap varName
		     VarName must be the name of an array variable that speci-
		     fies  a font mapping to use in the Postscript.  Each ele-
		     ment of varName must consist of a Tcl list with two  ele-
		     ments,  which are the name and point size of a Postscript
		     font.  When outputting Postscript commands for a particu-
		     lar font, Tk checks to see if varName contains an element
		     with the same name as the font.  If there is such an ele-
		     ment, then the font information contained in that element
		     is used in the  Postscript.   Otherwise  Tk  attempts  to
		     guess  what  Postscript font to use.  Tk's guesses gener-
		     ally only work for well-known fonts  such	as  Times  and
		     Helvetica	and  Courier, and only if the X font name does
		     not omit any dashes up through the point size.  For exam-
		     ple,   -*-Courier-Bold-R-Normal--*-120-*  will  work  but
		     *Courier-Bold-R-Normal*120*  will	not;   Tk  needs   the
		     dashes to parse the font name).

	      -height size
		     Specifies	the height of the area of the canvas to print.
		     Defaults to the height of the canvas window.

	      -pageanchor anchor
		     Specifies which point of the printed area of  the	canvas
		     should  appear  over  the	positioning  point on the page
		     (which is given by the -pagex and -pagey  options).   For
		     example,  -pageanchor  n means that the top center of the
		     area of the canvas being printed (as it  appears  in  the
		     canvas  window)  should  be  over	the positioning point.
		     Defaults to center.

	      -pageheight size
		     Specifies that the Postscript should be scaled in both  x
		     and  y so that the printed area is size high on the Post-
		     script page.  Size consists of  a	floating-point	number
		     followed  by  c for centimeters, i for inches, m for mil-
		     limeters, or p or	nothing  for  printer's  points  (1/72
		     inch).  Defaults to the height of the printed area on the
		     screen.  If both -pageheight and -pagewidth are specified
		     then  the	scale factor from -pagewidth is used (non-uni-
		     form scaling is not implemented).

	      -pagewidth size
		     Specifies that the Postscript should be scaled in both  x
		     and  y so that the printed area is size wide on the Post-
		     script page.  Size has the same form as for  -pageheight.
		     Defaults  to the width of the printed area on the screen.
		     If both -pageheight and -pagewidth are specified then the
		     scale  factor from -pagewidth  is used (non-uniform scal-
		     ing is not implemented).

	      -pagex position
		     Position gives the x-coordinate of the positioning  point
		     on  the  Postscript  page, using any of the forms allowed
		     for -pageheight.  Used in conjunction with the -pagey and
		     -pageanchor  options  to determine where the printed area
		     appears on the Postscript page.  Defaults to  the	center
		     of the page.

	      -pagey position
		     Position  gives the y-coordinate of the positioning point
		     on the Postscript page, using any of  the	forms  allowed
		     for -pageheight.  Used in conjunction with the -pagex and
		     -pageanchor options to determine where the  printed  area
		     appears  on  the Postscript page.	Defaults to the center
		     of the page.

	      -rotate boolean
		     Boolean specifies whether	the  printed  area  is	to  be
		     rotated  90 degrees.  In non-rotated output the x-axis of
		     the printed area runs along the short  dimension  of  the
		     page (``portrait'' orientation); in rotated output the x-
		     axis runs along the long dimension of the	page  (``land-
		     scape'' orientation).  Defaults to non-rotated.

	      -width size
		     Specifies	the  width of the area of the canvas to print.
		     Defaults to the width of the canvas window.

	      -x position
		     Specifies the x-coordinate of the left edge of  the  area
		     of  the  canvas  that is to be printed, in canvas coordi-
		     nates, not window coordinates.  Defaults to  the  coordi-
		     nate of the left edge of the window.

	      -y position
		     Specifies the y-coordinate of the top edge of the area of
		     the canvas that is to be printed, in canvas  coordinates,
		     not  window  coordinates.	 Defaults to the coordinate of
		     the top edge of the window.

       pathName raise tagOrId ?aboveThis?
	      Move all of the items given by tagOrId to a new position in  the
	      display list just after the item given by aboveThis.  If tagOrId
	      refers to more than one item then all are moved but the relative
	      order  of  the  moved items will not be changed.	AboveThis is a
	      tag or id;  if it refers to more than one  item  then  the  last
	      (topmost) of these items in the display list is used as the des-
	      tination location for the moved items.  Note: this  command  has
	      no  effect  on  window items.  Window items always obscure other
	      item types, and the stacking order of window items is determined
	      by  the raise and lower commands, not the raise and lower widget
	      commands for canvases.  This command returns an empty string.

       pathName scale tagOrId xOrigin yOrigin xScale yScale
	      Rescale all of the items given by tagOrId in  canvas  coordinate
	      space.   XOrigin and yOrigin identify the origin for the scaling
	      operation and xScale and yScale identify the scale  factors  for
	      x-  and  y-coordinates,  respectively  (a  scale	factor	of 1.0
	      implies no change to that coordinate).  For each of  the	points
	      defining	each  item, the x-coordinate is adjusted to change the
	      distance from xOrigin by a factor of xScale.  Similarly, each y-
	      coordinate  is adjusted to change the distance from yOrigin by a
	      factor of yScale.  This command returns an empty string.

       pathName scan option args
	      This command is used to implement scanning on canvases.  It  has
	      two forms, depending on option:

	      pathName scan mark x y
		     Records  x  and y and the canvas's current view;  used in
		     conjunction with later scan dragto  commands.   Typically
		     this  command  is associated with a mouse button press in
		     the widget and x and y are the coordinates of the	mouse.
		     It returns an empty string.

	      pathName scan dragto x y ?gain?.
		     This  command computes the difference between its x and y
		     arguments (which are typically mouse coordinates) and the
		     x	and  y arguments to the last scan mark command for the
		     widget.  It then adjusts the view by gain times the  dif-
		     ference  in coordinates, where gain defaults to 10.  This
		     command is typically associated with mouse motion	events
		     in the widget, to produce the effect of dragging the can-
		     vas at high speed through its window.  The  return  value
		     is an empty string.

       pathName select option ?tagOrId arg?
	      Manipulates  the	selection in one of several ways, depending on
	      option.  The command may take any of the forms described	below.
	      In  all of the descriptions below, tagOrId must refer to an item
	      that supports indexing and selection;  if it refers to  multiple
	      items  then  the	first  of these that supports indexing and the
	      selection is used.  Index gives a textual description of a posi-
	      tion within tagOrId, as described in INDICES above.

	      pathName select adjust tagOrId index
		     Locate the end of the selection in tagOrId nearest to the
		     character given by index, and  adjust  that  end  of  the
		     selection	to  be	at index (i.e. including but not going
		     beyond index).  The other end of the  selection  is  made
		     the  anchor  point for future select to commands.	If the
		     selection isn't currently in tagOrId  then  this  command
		     behaves  the  same  as  the  select  to  widget  command.
		     Returns an empty string.

	      pathName select clear
		     Clear the selection if it is  in  this  widget.   If  the
		     selection	isn't  in  this widget then the command has no
		     effect.  Returns an empty string.

	      pathName select from tagOrId index
		     Set the selection anchor point for the widget to be  just
		     before  the character given by index in the item given by
		     tagOrId.  This command doesn't change the selection;   it
		     just  sets  the  fixed  end  of  the selection for future
		     select to commands.  Returns an empty string.

	      pathName select item
		     Returns the id of the selected item, if the selection  is
		     in  an  item  in this canvas.  If the selection is not in
		     this canvas then an empty string is returned.

	      pathName select to tagOrId index
		     Set the selection	to  consist  of  those	characters  of
		     tagOrId  between  the  selection  anchor point and index.
		     The new selection will include  the  character  given  by
		     index;  it will include the character given by the anchor
		     point only if index is  greater  than  or	equal  to  the
		     anchor point.  The anchor point is determined by the most
		     recent select adjust or select from command for this wid-
		     get.   If the selection anchor point for the widget isn't
		     currently in tagOrId, then it is set to the same  charac-
		     ter given by index.  Returns an empty string.

       pathName type tagOrId
	      Returns the type of the item given by tagOrId, such as rectangle
	      or text.	If tagOrId refers to more than one item, then the type
	      of  the  first item in the display list is returned.  If tagOrId
	      doesn't refer to any items  at  all  then  an  empty  string  is
	      returned.

       pathName xview  ?args?
	      This command is used to query and change the horizontal position
	      of the information displayed in the  canvas's  window.   It  can
	      take any of the following forms:

	      pathName xview
		     Returns  a list containing two elements.  Each element is
		     a real fraction between 0 and 1;  together they  describe
		     the  horizontal  span that is visible in the window.  For
		     example, if the first element is .2 and the  second  ele-
		     ment  is  .6, 20% of the canvas's area (as defined by the
		     -scrollregion option) is off-screen to the left, the mid-
		     dle  40%  is visible in the window, and 40% of the canvas
		     is off-screen to the right.  These are  the  same	values
		     passed to scrollbars via the -xscrollcommand option.

	      pathName xview moveto fraction
		     Adjusts  the  view  in the window so that fraction of the
		     total width of the canvas	is  off-screen	to  the  left.
		     Fraction must be a fraction between 0 and 1.

	      pathName xview scroll number what
		     This  command shifts the view in the window left or right
		     according to number and what.  Number must be an integer.
		     What  must be either units or pages or an abbreviation of
		     one of these.  If what is units, the view adjusts left or
		     right  in	units of the xScrollIncrement option, if it is
		     greater than zero, or in units of one-tenth the  window's
		     width  otherwise.	If what is pages then the view adjusts
		     in units of nine-tenths the window's width.  If number is
		     negative  then  information  farther  to the left becomes
		     visible;  if it is positive then information  farther  to
		     the right becomes visible.

       pathName yview ?args?
	      This  command  is used to query and change the vertical position
	      of the information displayed in the  canvas's  window.   It  can
	      take any of the following forms:

	      pathName yview
		     Returns  a list containing two elements.  Each element is
		     a real fraction between 0 and 1;  together they  describe
		     the  vertical  span  that	is visible in the window.  For
		     example, if the first element is .6 and the  second  ele-
		     ment  is  1.0,  the  lowest  40% of the canvas's area (as
		     defined by the -scrollregion option) is  visible  in  the
		     window.   These  are the same values passed to scrollbars
		     via the -yscrollcommand option.

	      pathName yview moveto fraction
		     Adjusts the view in the window so that  fraction  of  the
		     canvas's  area  is  off-screen to the top.  Fraction is a
		     fraction between 0 and 1.

	      pathName yview scroll number what
		     This command adjusts the view in the window  up  or  down
		     according to number and what.  Number must be an integer.
		     What must be either units or pages.  If  what  is	units,
		     the view adjusts up or down in units of the yScrollIncre-
		     ment option, if it is greater than zero, or in  units  of
		     one-tenth	the  window's  height  otherwise.   If what is
		     pages then the view adjusts in units of  nine-tenths  the
		     window's  height.	 If  number  is  negative  then higher
		     information becomes visible;   if	it  is	positive  then
		     lower information becomes visible.

OVERVIEW OF ITEM TYPES
       The  sections  below  describe  the various types of items supported by
       canvas widgets.	Each item type is characterized by two things:	first,
       the  form  of  the create command used to create instances of the type;
       and second, a set of configuration options  for	items  of  that  type,
       which  may  be  used  in  the create and itemconfigure widget commands.
       Most items don't support indexing or selection or the commands  related
       to them, such as index and insert.  Where items do support these facil-
       ities, it is noted explicitly in the descriptions below.   At  present,
       text, line and polygon items provide this support.  For lines and poly-
       gons the indexing facility is used to manipulate the coordinates of the
       item.

COMMON ITEM OPTIONS
       Many  items share a common set of options.  These options are explained
       here, and then referred to be each widget type for brevity.


       -dash pattern

       -activedash pattern

       -disableddash pattern
	      This option specifies  dash  patterns  for  the  normal,	active
	      state,  and  disabled state of an item.  pattern may have any of
	      the forms accepted by Tk_GetDash.  If the dash options are omit-
	      ted  then  the  default is a solid outline.  See "DASH PATTERNS"
	      for more information.

       -dashoffset offset
	      The starting offset in pixels into the pattern provided  by  the
	      -dash  option.  -dashoffset is ignored if there is no -dash pat-
	      tern.  The offset may have any of the  forms  described  in  the
	      COORDINATES section above.

       -fill color

       -activefill color

       -disabledfill color
	      Specifies the color to be used to fill item's area.  in its nor-
	      mal, active, and disabled states, Color  may  have  any  of  the
	      forms accepted by Tk_GetColor.  If color is an empty string (the
	      default), then the item will not be filled.  For the line  item,
	      it specifies the color of the line drawn.  For the text item, it
	      specifies the foreground color of the text.

       -outline color

       -activeoutline color

       -disabledoutline color
	      This option specifies the color that should be used to draw  the
	      outline  of  the item in its normal, active and disabled states.
	      Color may have any of the forms accepted by  Tk_GetColor.   This
	      option  defaults	to  black.   If color is specified as an empty
	      string then no outline is drawn for the item.

       -offset offset
	      Specifies the offset of stipples.  The offset value  can	be  of
	      the  form x,y or side, where side can be n, ne, e, se, s, sw, w,
	      nw, or center. In the first case the origin is the origin of the
	      toplevel	of the current window.	For the canvas itself and can-
	      vas objects the origin is the canvas origin, but	putting  #  in
	      front of the coordinate pair indicates using the toplevel origin
	      instead. For canvas objects, the	-offset  option  is  used  for
	      stippling  as  well.   For the line and polygon canvas items you
	      can also specify an index as argument, which connects the  stip-
	      ple  origin to one of the coordinate points of the line/polygon.

       -outlinestipple bitmap

       -activeoutlinestipple bitmap

       -disabledoutlinestipple bitmap
	      This option specifies stipple patterns that should  be  used  to
	      draw  the outline of the item in its normal, active and disabled
	      states.  Indicates that the outline for the item should be drawn
	      with  a stipple pattern; bitmap specifies the stipple pattern to
	      use, in any of the forms accepted by Tk_GetBitmap.  If the -out-
	      line  option  hasn't  been  specified  then  this  option has no
	      effect.  If bitmap is an empty string (the  default),  then  the
	      outline is drawn in a solid fashion.

       -stipple bitmap

       -activestipple bitmap

       -disabledstipple bitmap
	      This  option  specifies  stipple patterns that should be used to
	      fill the item in its normal, active and disabled states.	bitmap
	      specifies  the  stipple  pattern	to  use,  in  any of the forms
	      accepted by Tk_GetBitmap.  If the -fill option hasn't been spec-
	      ified  then  this  option  has no effect.  If bitmap is an empty
	      string (the default), then filling is done in a  solid  fashion.
	      For the text item, it affects the actual text.

       -state state
	      This allows an item to override the canvas widget's global state
	      option.  It takes the same values: normal, disabled or hidden.

       -tags tagList
	      Specifies a set of tags to apply to the item.  TagList  consists
	      of  a list of tag names, which replace any existing tags for the
	      item.  TagList may be an empty list.

       -width outlineWidth

       -activewidth outlineWidth

       -disabledwidth outlineWidth
	      Specifies the width of the outline to be drawn around the item's
	      region, in its normal, active and disabled states.  outlineWidth
	      may be in any of the forms described in the COORDINATES  section
	      above.   If  the	-outline option has been specified as an empty
	      string then this option has no effect.  This option defaults  to
	      1.0.   For  arcs,  wide  outlines  will be drawn centered on the
	      edges of the arc's region.

ARC ITEMS
       Items of type arc appear on the display as arc-shaped regions.  An  arc
       is  a  section  of  an  oval  delimited by two angles (specified by the
       -start and -extent options) and displayed in one of several ways (spec-
       ified  by the -style option).  Arcs are created with widget commands of
       the following form: pathName create arc	x1  y1	x2  y2	?option  value
       option  value  ...?  pathName create arc coordList ?option value option
       value ...?  The arguments x1, y1, x2, and  y2  or  coordList  give  the
       coordinates  of two diagonally opposite corners of a rectangular region
       enclosing the oval that defines the arc.  After the  coordinates  there
       may  be any number of option-value pairs, each of which sets one of the
       configuration options for the item.  These same option-value pairs  may
       be  used in itemconfigure widget commands to change the item's configu-
       ration.
       The following standard options are supported by arcs: -dash -activedash
       -disableddash -dashoffset -fill -activefill -disabledfill -offset -out-
       line  -activeoutline   -disabledoutline	 -outlinestipple   -activeout-
       linestipple  -disabledoutlinestipple -stipple -activestipple -disabled-
       stipple -state -tags -width -activewidth -disabledwidth	The  following
       extra options are supported for arcs:

       -extent degrees
	      Specifies  the  size  of	the angular range occupied by the arc.
	      The arc's range extends for  degrees  degrees  counter-clockwise
	      from the starting angle given by the -start option.  Degrees may
	      be negative.  If it is greater than 360 or less than -360,  then
	      degrees modulo 360 is used as the extent.

       -start degrees
	      Specifies  the  beginning  of  the angular range occupied by the
	      arc.  Degrees is given in units  of  degrees  measured  counter-
	      clockwise  from  the 3-o'clock position;	it may be either posi-
	      tive or negative.

       -style type
	      Specifies how to	draw  the  arc.   If  type  is	pieslice  (the
	      default)	then  the  arc's region is defined by a section of the
	      oval's perimeter plus two line segments, one between the	center
	      of  the  oval and each end of the perimeter section.  If type is
	      chord then the arc's region is  defined  by  a  section  of  the
	      oval's  perimeter  plus a single line segment connecting the two
	      end points of the perimeter section.  If type is	arc  then  the
	      arc's  region  consists of a section of the perimeter alone.  In
	      this last case the -fill option is ignored.

BITMAP ITEMS
       Items of type bitmap appear on the display as images with  two  colors,
       foreground and background.  Bitmaps are created with widget commands of
       the following form: pathName create bitmap x  y	?option  value	option
       value ...?  pathName create bitmap coordList ?option value option value
       ...?  The arguments x and y or coordList specify the coordinates  of  a
       point  used  to	position  the  bitmap  on the display (see the -anchor
       option below for more information on how bitmaps are displayed).  After
       the  coordinates there may be any number of option-value pairs, each of
       which sets one of the configuration options for the item.   These  same
       option-value  pairs  may  be  used  in itemconfigure widget commands to
       change the item's configuration.
       The following standard options are supported by bitmaps:  -state  -tags
       The following extra options are supported for bitmaps:

       -anchor anchorPos
	      AnchorPos tells how to position the bitmap relative to the posi-
	      tioning point for the item;   it	may  have  any	of  the  forms
	      accepted	by  Tk_GetAnchor.  For example, if anchorPos is center
	      then the bitmap is centered on the point;   if  anchorPos  is  n
	      then the bitmap will be drawn so that its top center point is at
	      the positioning point.  This option defaults to center.

       -background color

       -activebackground bitmap

       -disabledbackground bitmap
	      Specifies the color to use for each of the bitmap's  '0'	valued
	      pixels  in  its  normal,	active and disabled states.  Color may
	      have any of the forms accepted by Tk_GetColor.  If  this	option
	      isn't  specified, or if it is specified as an empty string, then
	      nothing is displayed where the bitmap pixels are 0;   this  pro-
	      duces a transparent effect.

       -bitmap bitmap

       -activebitmap bitmap

       -disabledbitmap bitmap
	      Specifies  the  bitmaps  to  display  in the item in its normal,
	      active and disabled states.  Bitmap may have any	of  the  forms
	      accepted by Tk_GetBitmap.

       -foreground color

       -activeforeground bitmap

       -disabledforeground bitmap
	      Specifies  the  color to use for each of the bitmap's '1' valued
	      pixels in its normal, active and	disabled  states.   Color  may
	      have  any  of  the forms accepted by Tk_GetColor and defaults to
	      black.

IMAGE ITEMS
       Items of type image are used to display images on a canvas.  Images are
       created	with  widget  commands	of the following form: pathName create
       image x y ?option  value  option  value	...?   pathName  create  image
       coordList  ?option  value  option  value ...?  The arguments x and y or
       coordList specify the coordinates of a point used to position the image
       on  the	display  (see  the -anchor option below for more information).
       After the coordinates there may be any number  of  option-value	pairs,
       each  of  which	sets  one  of  the configuration options for the item.
       These same option-value pairs may be used in itemconfigure widget  com-
       mands to change the item's configuration.
       The  following  standard  options are supported by images: -state -tags
       The following extra options are supported for images:

       -anchor anchorPos
	      AnchorPos tells how to position the image relative to the  posi-
	      tioning  point  for  the	item;	it  may  have any of the forms
	      accepted by Tk_GetAnchor.  For example, if anchorPos  is	center
	      then the image is centered on the point;	if anchorPos is n then
	      the image will be drawn so that its top center point is  at  the
	      positioning point.  This option defaults to center.

       -image name

       -activeimage name

       -disabledimage name
	      Specifies  the  name  of the images to display in the item in is
	      normal, active and disabled states.  This image must  have  been
	      created previously with the image create command.

LINE ITEMS
       Items  of type line appear on the display as one or more connected line
       segments or curves.  Line items support coordinate indexing  operations
       using  the  canvas  widget  commands: dchars, index, insert.  Lines are
       created with widget commands of the  following  form:  pathName	create
       line  x1  y1...	xn yn ?option value option value ...?  pathName create
       line coordList ?option  value  option  value  ...?   The  arguments  x1
       through	yn  or	coordList  give the coordinates for a series of two or
       more points that describe a series of connected line  segments.	 After
       the  coordinates there may be any number of option-value pairs, each of
       which sets one of the configuration options for the item.   These  same
       option-value  pairs  may  be  used  in itemconfigure widget commands to
       change the item's configuration.
       The  following  standard  options  are  supported   by	lines:	 -dash
       -activedash  -disableddash  -dashoffset -fill -activefill -disabledfill
       -stipple   -activestipple   -disabledstipple   -state   -tags	-width
       -activewidth  -disabledwidth  The following extra options are supported
       for lines:

       -arrow where
	      Indicates whether or not arrowheads are to be drawn  at  one  or
	      both  ends  of the line.	Where must have one of the values none
	      (for no arrowheads), first (for an arrowhead at the first  point
	      of  the  line),  last (for an arrowhead at the last point of the
	      line), or both (for  arrowheads  at  both  ends).   This	option
	      defaults to none.

       -arrowshape shape
	      This  option  indicates how to draw arrowheads.  The shape argu-
	      ment must be a list with three elements, each specifying a  dis-
	      tance  in  any of the forms described in the COORDINATES section
	      above.  The first element of the list gives the  distance  along
	      the  line from the neck of the arrowhead to its tip.  The second
	      element gives the distance along	the  line  from  the  trailing
	      points  of the arrowhead to the tip, and the third element gives
	      the distance from the outside edge of the line to  the  trailing
	      points.	If  this option isn't specified then Tk picks a ``rea-
	      sonable'' shape.

       -capstyle style
	      Specifies the ways in which caps are to be  drawn  at  the  end-
	      points of the line.  Style may have any of the forms accepted by
	      Tk_GetCapStyle (butt, projecting, or  round).   If  this	option
	      isn't  specified then it defaults to butt.  Where arrowheads are
	      drawn the cap style is ignored.

       -joinstyle style
	      Specifies the ways in which joints are to be drawn at  the  ver-
	      tices  of the line.  Style may have any of the forms accepted by
	      Tk_GetCapStyle (bevel, miter, or round).	If this  option  isn't
	      specified  then it defaults to miter.  If the line only contains
	      two points then this option is irrelevant.

       -smooth smoothMethod
	      smoothMethod must have one of the  forms	accepted  by  Tcl_Get-
	      Boolean or a line smoothing method.  Only bezier is supported in
	      the core, but more can be added at runtime.  If a boolean  false
	      value  or  empty	string	is  given, no smoothing is applied.  A
	      boolean truth  value  assume  bezier  smoothing.	 It  indicates
	      whether  or not the line should be drawn as a curve.  If so, the
	      line is rendered as a set of parabolic splines:  one  spline  is
	      drawn for the first and second line segments, one for the second
	      and third, and so on.  Straight-line segments can  be  generated
	      within a curve by duplicating the end-points of the desired line
	      segment.

       -splinesteps number
	      Specifies the degree of smoothness  desired  for	curves:   each
	      spline  will  be	approximated  with number line segments.  This
	      option is ignored unless the -smooth option is true.


OVAL ITEMS
       Items of type oval appear as circular or oval regions on  the  display.
       Each oval may have an outline, a fill, or both.	Ovals are created with
       widget commands of the following form: pathName create oval x1 y1 x2 y2
       ?option value option value ...?	pathName create oval coordList ?option
       value option value ...?	The arguments x1, y1, x2, and y2 or  coordList
       give  the coordinates of two diagonally opposite corners of a rectangu-
       lar region enclosing the oval.  The oval will include the top and  left
       edges  of the rectangle not the lower or right edges.  If the region is
       square then the resulting oval is circular; otherwise it  is  elongated
       in   shape.    After  the  coordinates  there  may  be  any  number  of
       option-value pairs, each of which sets one of the configuration options
       for the item.  These same option-value pairs may be used in itemconfig-
       ure widget commands to change the item's configuration.
       The  following  standard  options  are  supported   by	ovals:	 -dash
       -activedash  -disableddash  -dashoffset -fill -activefill -disabledfill
       -offset	-outline   -activeoutline   -disabledoutline   -outlinestipple
       -activeoutlinestipple  -disabledoutlinestipple  -stipple -activestipple
       -disabledstipple -state -tags -width -activewidth -disabledwidth

POLYGON ITEMS
       Items of type polygon appear as polygonal or curved filled  regions  on
       the  display.   Polygon	items  support	coordinate indexing operations
       using the canvas widget commands: dchars, index, insert.  Polygons  are
       created	with  widget  commands	of the following form: pathName create
       polygon x1 y1 ... xn yn ?option value option value ...?	pathName  cre-
       ate polygon coordList ?option value option value ...?  The arguments x1
       through yn or coordList specify	the  coordinates  for  three  or  more
       points  that  define a polygon.	The first point should not be repeated
       as the last to close the shape; Tk will automatically close the periph-
       ery between the first and last points.  After the coordinates there may
       be any number of option-value pairs, each of which sets one of the con-
       figuration  options for the item.  These same option-value pairs may be
       used in itemconfigure widget commands to change the  item's  configura-
       tion.
       The  following  standard  options  are  supported  by  polygons:  -dash
       -activedash -disableddash -dashoffset -fill  -activefill  -disabledfill
       -offset	 -outline   -activeoutline   -disabledoutline  -outlinestipple
       -activeoutlinestipple -disabledoutlinestipple  -stipple	-activestipple
       -disabledstipple  -state  -tags	-width -activewidth -disabledwidth The
       following extra options are supported for polygons:

       -joinstyle style
	      Specifies the ways in which joints are to be drawn at  the  ver-
	      tices  of the outline.  Style may have any of the forms accepted
	      by Tk_GetCapStyle (bevel, miter,	or  round).   If  this	option
	      isn't specified then it defaults to miter.

       -smooth boolean
	      Boolean  must  have one of the forms accepted by Tcl_GetBoolean.
	      It indicates whether or not the polygon should be drawn  with  a
	      curved  perimeter.   If so, the outline of the polygon becomes a
	      set of parabolic splines, one spline for the  first  and	second
	      line  segments,  one  for  the  second  and  third,  and	so on.
	      Straight-line segments can be generated in a smoothed polygon by
	      duplicating the end-points of the desired line segment.

       -splinesteps number
	      Specifies  the  degree  of  smoothness desired for curves:  each
	      spline will be approximated with	number	line  segments.   This
	      option is ignored unless the -smooth option is true.

       Polygon	items are different from other items such as rectangles, ovals
       and arcs in that interior points are  considered  to  be  ``inside''  a
       polygon	(e.g.  for  purposes  of the find closest and find overlapping
       widget commands) even if it is not filled.  For most other item	types,
       an  interior point is considered to be inside the item only if the item
       is filled or if it has neither a fill nor an  outline.	If  you  would
       like an unfilled polygon whose interior points are not considered to be
       inside the polygon, use a line item instead.

RECTANGLE ITEMS
       Items of type rectangle appear as rectangular regions on  the  display.
       Each  rectangle	may  have an outline, a fill, or both.	Rectangles are
       created with widget commands of the  following  form:  pathName	create
       rectangle  x1 y1 x2 y2 ?option value option value ...?  pathName create
       rectangle coordList ?option value option value ...?  The arguments  x1,
       y1,  x2,  and  y2  or  coordList give the coordinates of two diagonally
       opposite corners of the rectangle (the rectangle will include its upper
       and  left  edges  but not its lower or right edges).  After the coordi-
       nates there may be any number of option-value pairs, each of which sets
       one of the configuration options for the item.  These same option-value
       pairs may be used in itemconfigure widget commands to change the item's
       configuration.
       The  following  standard  options  are  supported  by rectangles: -dash
       -activedash -disableddash -dashoffset -fill  -activefill  -disabledfill
       -offset	 -outline   -activeoutline   -disabledoutline  -outlinestipple
       -activeoutlinestipple -disabledoutlinestipple  -stipple	-activestipple
       -disabledstipple -state -tags -width -activewidth -disabledwidth

TEXT ITEMS
       A  text	item  displays	a string of characters on the screen in one or
       more lines.  Text items support indexing and selection, along with  the
       following text-related canvas widget commands:  dchars, focus, icursor,
       index, insert, select.  Text items are created with widget commands  of
       the following form: pathName create text x y ?option value option value
       ...?  pathName create text coordList ?option value  option  value  ...?
       The  arguments  x and y or coordList specify the coordinates of a point
       used to position the text on the display (see  the  options  below  for
       more  information  on  how  text  is displayed).  After the coordinates
       there may be any number of option-value pairs, each of which  sets  one
       of  the	configuration  options	for the item.  These same option-value
       pairs may be used in itemconfigure widget commands to change the item's
       configuration.
       The  following  standard  options  are  supported  by text items: -fill
       -activefill  -disabledfill  -stipple  -activestipple   -disabledstipple
       -state -tags The following extra options are supported for text items:

       -anchor anchorPos
	      AnchorPos  tells	how to position the text relative to the posi-
	      tioning point for the text;   it	may  have  any	of  the  forms
	      accepted	by  Tk_GetAnchor.  For example, if anchorPos is center
	      then the text is centered on the point;  if anchorPos is n  then
	      the  text  will  be  drawn such that the top center point of the
	      rectangular region occupied by the text will be at the position-
	      ing point.  This option defaults to center.

       -font fontName
	      Specifies  the  font  to use for the text item.  FontName may be
	      any string acceptable to Tk_GetFont.  If this option isn't spec-
	      ified, it defaults to a system-dependent font.

       -justify how
	      Specifies  how  to  justify the text within its bounding region.
	      How must be one of the values  left,  right,  or	center.   This
	      option  will  only  matter  if the text is displayed as multiple
	      lines.  If the option is omitted, it defaults to left.

       -text string
	      String specifies the characters to  be  displayed  in  the  text
	      item.   Newline characters cause line breaks.  The characters in
	      the item may also be changed with the insert and	delete	widget
	      commands.  This option defaults to an empty string.

       -width lineLength
	      Specifies  a  maximum  line  length  for the text, in any of the
	      forms described in  the  COORDINATES  section  above.   If  this
	      option  is zero (the default) the text is broken into lines only
	      at newline characters.  However, if this option is non-zero then
	      any  line  that  would  be longer than lineLength is broken just
	      before a space character to make the  line  shorter  than  line-
	      Length;	the space character is treated as if it were a newline
	      character.

WINDOW ITEMS
       Items of type window cause a particular window to  be  displayed  at  a
       given  position	on  the  canvas.  Window items are created with widget
       commands of the following form: pathName  create  window  x  y  ?option
       value option value ...?	pathName create window coordList ?option value
       option value ...?  The arguments x and y or coordList specify the coor-
       dinates	of a point used to position the window on the display (see the
       -anchor option below for more  information  on  how  bitmaps  are  dis-
       played).  After the coordinates there may be any number of option-value
       pairs, each of which sets one of  the  configuration  options  for  the
       item.   These same option-value pairs may be used in itemconfigure wid-
       get commands to change the item's configuration.
       The following standard options are supported by	window	items:	-state
       -tags The following extra options are supported for window items:

       -anchor anchorPos
	      AnchorPos tells how to position the window relative to the posi-
	      tioning point for the item;   it	may  have  any	of  the  forms
	      accepted	by  Tk_GetAnchor.  For example, if anchorPos is center
	      then the window is centered on the point;   if  anchorPos  is  n
	      then the window will be drawn so that its top center point is at
	      the positioning point.  This option defaults to center.

       -height pixels
	      Specifies the height to assign to the item's window.  Pixels may
	      have  any  of  the  forms  described  in the COORDINATES section
	      above.  If this option isn't specified, or if it is specified as
	      an  empty  string,  then	the window is given whatever height it
	      requests internally.

       -width pixels
	      Specifies the width to assign to the item's window.  Pixels  may
	      have  any  of  the  forms  described  in the COORDINATES section
	      above.  If this option isn't specified, or if it is specified as
	      an  empty  string,  then	the  window is given whatever width it
	      requests internally.

       -window pathName
	      Specifies the window to associate with this  item.   The	window
	      specified  by pathName must either be a child of the canvas wid-
	      get or a child of some ancestor of the canvas widget.   PathName
	      may not refer to a top-level window.

       Note:   due to restrictions in the ways that windows are managed, it is
       not possible to draw other graphical items (such as lines  and  images)
       on  top	of  window  items.  A window item always obscures any graphics
       that overlap it, regardless of their order in the display list.

APPLICATION-DEFINED ITEM TYPES
       It is possible for individual applications to define new item types for
       canvas  widgets using C code.  See the documentation for Tk_CreateItem-
       Type.

BINDINGS
       In the current implementation, new canvases are not given  any  default
       behavior:   you'll  have  to  execute explicit Tcl commands to give the
       canvas its behavior.

CREDITS
       Tk's canvas widget is a blatant ripoff of ideas	from  Joel  Bartlett's
       ezd  program.  Ezd provides structured graphics in a Scheme environment
       and preceded canvases by a year or  two.   Its  simple  mechanisms  for
       placing	and animating graphical objects inspired the functions of can-
       vases.


SEE ALSO
       bind(n), font(n), image(n), scrollbar(n)


KEYWORDS
       canvas, widget



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