a2p
accept
access
acct
addftinfo
addr2line
adjtime
afmtodit
after
aio_cancel
aio_error
aio_read
aio_return
aio_suspend
aio_waitcomplete
aio_write
alias
aliases
alloc
anvil
append
apply
apropos
ar
array
as
asa
asn1parse
at
atq
atrm
attemptckalloc
attemptckrealloc
authlib
authtest
autopoint
awk
b64decode
b64encode
basename
batch
bc
bdes
bell
bg
bgerror
biff
big5
binary
bind
bindkey
bindtags
bindtextdomain
bio
bitmap
blowfish
bn
bootparams
bootptab
bounce
brandelf
break
breaksw
brk
bsdiff
bsdtar
bsnmpd
bspatch
bthost
btsockstat
buffer
builtin
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bunzip2
button
byacc
bzcat
bzegrep
bzfgrep
bzgrep
bzip2
c2ph
c89
c99
ca
cal
calendar
canvas
cap_mkdb
case
cat
catch
catman
cc
cd
cdcontrol
chdir
checkbutton
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chflags
chfn
chgrp
chio
chkey
chmod
chown
chpass
chroot
chsh
ci
ciphers
ckalloc
ckdist
ckfree
ckrealloc
cksum
cleanup
clear
clipboard
clock
clock_getres
clock_gettime
clock_settime
close
cmp
co
col
colcrt
colldef
colors
colrm
column
comm
command
compile_et
complete
compress
concat
config
connect
console
continue
core
courierlogger
couriertcpd
cp
cpan
cpio
cpp
creat
crl
crontab
crunchgen
crunchide
crypt
crypto
csh
csplit
ctags
ctm
ctm_dequeue
ctm_rmail
ctm_smail
cu
cursor
cursors
cut
cvs
date
dbiprof
dbiproxy
dc
dcgettext
dcngettext
dd
dde
default
defer
deliverquota
des
destroy
devfs
df
dgettext
dgst
dh
dhparam
dialog
diff
diff3
dig
dir
dirent
dirname
dirs
discard
disktab
dngettext
do
domainname
done
dprofpp
dsa
dsaparam
dtmfdecode
du
dup
dup2
eaccess
ec
ecdsa
echo
echotc
ecparam
ed
edit
editrc
ee
egrep
elf
elfdump
elif
else
enc
enc2xs
encoding
end
endif
endsw
engine
enigma
entry
env
envsubst
eof
eqn
err
errno
error
errstr
esac
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euc
eui64
eval
event
evp
ex
exec
execve
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expand
export
exports
expr
extattr
extattr_delete_fd
extattr_delete_file
extattr_get_fd
extattr_get_file
extattr_set_fd
extattr_set_file
f77
false
famm
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fbtab
fc
fchdir
fchflags
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fconfigure
fcopy
fdescfs
fdformat
fdread
fdwrite
fetch
fg
fgrep
fhopen
fhstat
fhstatfs
fi
file
file2c
fileevent
filename
filetest
find
find2perl
finger
flex
flock
flush
fmt
focus
fold
font
fontedit
for
foreach
fork
format
forward
fpathconf
frame
from
fs
fstab
fstat
fstatfs
fsync
ftp
ftpchroot
ftpusers
ftruncate
futimes
g711conv
gb2312
gb18030
gbk
gcc
gcore
gcov
gdb
gencat
gendsa
genrsa
gensnmptree
getconf
getdents
getdirentries
getdtablesize
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geteuid
getfacl
getfh
getfsstat
getgid
getgroups
getitimer
getlogin
getopt
getopts
getpeername
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getpgrp
getpid
getppid
getpriority
getresgid
getresuid
getrlimit
getrusage
gets
getsid
getsockname
getsockopt
gettext
gettextize
gettimeofday
gettytab
getuid
glob
global
gmake
goto
gperf
gprof
grab
grep
grid
grn
grodvi
groff
groff_font
groff_out
groff_tmac
grog
grolbp
grolj4
grops
grotty
group
groups
gunzip
gzcat
gzexe
gzip
h2ph
h2xs
hash
hashstat
hd
head
help2man
hesinfo
hexdump
history
host
hostname
hosts
hosts_access
hosts_options
hpftodit
http
hup
i386_get_ioperm
i386_get_ldt
i386_set_ioperm
i386_set_ldt
i386_vm86
iconv
id
ident
idprio
if
ifnames253
ifnames259
image
imapd
incr
indent
indxbib
info
infokey
inode
install
instmodsh
interp
intro
introduction
ioctl
ipcrm
ipcs
ipf
ipftest
ipnat
ippool
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jobs
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jot
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keysyms
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killall
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labelframe
lam
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last
lastcomm
lastlog
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ld
ldap
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ldapdelete
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ldapmodrdn
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ldapsearch
ldapwhoami
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leave
less
lesskey
lex
lgetfh
lhash
libnetcfg
library
limit
limits
lindex
link
linprocfs
linsert
lint
lio_listio
list
listbox
listen
lj4_font
lkbib
llength
lmtp
ln
load
loadfont
local
locale
locate
lock
lockf
log
logger
login
logins
logname
logout
look
lookbib
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lower
lp
lpq
lpr
lprm
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lreplace
ls
lsearch
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lset
lsort
lstat
lsvfs
lutimes
lynx
m4
madvise
magic
mail
maildiracl
maildirkw
maildirmake
mailq
mailx
make
makeinfo
makewhatis
man
manpath
master
mc
mcedit
mcview
md2
md4
md5
mdc2
memory
menu
menubar
menubutton
merge
mesg
message
mincore
minherit
minigzip
mkdep
mkdir
mkfifo
mkimapdcert
mklocale
mknod
mkpop3dcert
mkstr
mktemp
mlock
mlockall
mmap
mmroff
modfind
modfnext
modnext
modstat
moduli
more
motd
mount
mprotect
mptable
msdos
msdosfs
msgattrib
msgcat
msgcmp
msgcomm
msgconv
msgen
msgexec
msgfilter
msgfmt
msggrep
msginit
msgmerge
msgs
msgunfmt
msguniq
mskanji
msql2mysql
msync
mt
munlock
munlockall
munmap
mv
myisamchk
myisamlog
myisampack
mysql
mysqlaccess
mysqladmin
mysqlbinlog
mysqlcheck
mysqld
mysqldump
mysqld_multi
mysqld_safe
mysqlhotcopy
mysqlimport
mysqlshow
mysql_config
mysql_fix_privilege_tables
mysql_zap
namespace
nanosleep
nawk
nc
ncal
ncplist
ncplogin
ncplogout
neqn
netconfig
netgroup
netid
netstat
networks
newaliases
newgrp
nex
nfsstat
nfssvc
ngettext
nice
nl
nm
nmount
nohup
nologin
notify
nroff
nseq
nslookup
ntp_adjtime
ntp_gettime
nvi
nview
objcopy
objdump
objformat
ocsp
od
onintr
open
openssl
opieaccess
opieinfo
opiekey
opiekeys
opiepasswd
option
options
oqmgr
pack
package
packagens
pagesize
palette
pam_auth
panedwindow
parray
passwd
paste
patch
pathchk
pathconf
pawd
pax
pbm
pcre
pcreapi
pcrebuild
pcrecallout
pcrecompat
pcrecpp
pcregrep
pcrematching
pcrepartial
pcrepattern
pcreperform
pcreposix
pcreprecompile
pcresample
pcretest
perl
perl56delta
perl58delta
perl561delta
perl570delta
perl571delta
perl572delta
perl573delta
perl581delta
perl582delta
perl583delta
perl584delta
perl585delta
perl586delta
perl587delta
perl588delta
perl5004delta
perl5005delta
perlaix
perlamiga
perlapi
perlapio
perlapollo
perlartistic
perlbeos
perlbook
perlboot
perlbot
perlbs2000
perlbug
perlcall
perlcc
perlce
perlcheat
perlclib
perlcn
perlcompile
perlcygwin
perldata
perldbmfilter
perldebguts
perldebtut
perldebug
perldelta
perldgux
perldiag
perldoc
perldos
perldsc
perlebcdic
perlembed
perlepoc
perlfaq
perlfaq1
perlfaq2
perlfaq3
perlfaq4
perlfaq5
perlfaq6
perlfaq7
perlfaq8
perlfaq9
perlfilter
perlfork
perlform
perlfreebsd
perlfunc
perlglossary
perlgpl
perlguts
perlhack
perlhist
perlhpux
perlhurd
perlintern
perlintro
perliol
perlipc
perlirix
perlivp
perljp
perlko
perllexwarn
perllinux
perllocale
perllol
perlmachten
perlmacos
perlmacosx
perlmint
perlmod
perlmodinstall
perlmodlib
perlmodstyle
perlmpeix
perlnetware
perlnewmod
perlnumber
perlobj
perlop
perlopenbsd
perlopentut
perlos2
perlos390
perlos400
perlothrtut
perlpacktut
perlplan9
perlpod
perlpodspec
perlport
perlqnx
perlre
perlref
perlreftut
perlrequick
perlreref
perlretut
perlrun
perlsec
perlsolaris
perlstyle
perlsub
perlsyn
perlthrtut
perltie
perltoc
perltodo
perltooc
perltoot
perltrap
perltru64
perltw
perlunicode
perluniintro
perlutil
perluts
perlvar
perlvmesa
perlvms
perlvos
perlwin32
perlxs
perlxstut
perror
pfbtops
pftp
pgrep
phones
photo
pic
pickup
piconv
pid
pipe
pkcs7
pkcs8
pkcs12
pkg_add
pkg_check
pkg_create
pkg_delete
pkg_info
pkg_sign
pkg_version
pkill
pl2pm
place
pod2html
pod2latex
pod2man
pod2text
pod2usage
podchecker
podselect
poll
popd
popup
posix_madvise
postalias
postcat
postconf
postdrop
postfix
postkick
postlock
postlog
postmap
postqueue
postsuper
pr
pread
preadv
printcap
printenv
printf
proc
procfs
profil
protocols
prove
proxymap
ps
psed
psroff
pstruct
ptrace
publickey
pushd
puts
pwd
pwrite
pwritev
qmgr
qmqpd
quota
quotactl
radiobutton
raise
rand
ranlib
rcp
rcs
rcsclean
rcsdiff
rcsfile
rcsfreeze
rcsintro
rcsmerge
read
readelf
readlink
readonly
readv
realpath
reboot
recv
recvfrom
recvmsg
red
ree
refer
regexp
registry
regsub
rehash
remote
rename
repeat
replace
req
reset
resolver
resource
return
rev
revoke
rfcomm_sppd
rfork
rhosts
ripemd
ripemd160
rlog
rlogin
rm
rmd160
rmdir
rpc
rpcgen
rs
rsa
rsautl
rsh
rtld
rtprio
rup
ruptime
rusers
rwall
rwho
s2p
safe
sasl
sasldblistusers2
saslpasswd2
sbrk
scache
scale
scan
sched
sched_getparam
sched_getscheduler
sched_get_priority_max
sched_get_priority_min
sched_rr_get_interval
sched_setparam
sched_setscheduler
sched_yield
scon
scp
script
scrollbar
sdiff
sed
seek
select
selection
semctl
semget
semop
send
sendbug
sendfile
sendmail
sendmsg
sendto
services
sess_id
set
setegid
setenv
seteuid
setfacl
setgid
setgroups
setitimer
setlogin
setpgid
setpgrp
setpriority
setregid
setresgid
setresuid
setreuid
setrlimit
setsid
setsockopt
settc
settimeofday
setty
setuid
setvar
sftp
sh
sha
sha1
sha256
shar
shells
shift
shmat
shmctl
shmdt
shmget
showq
shutdown
sigaction
sigaltstack
sigblock
sigmask
sigpause
sigpending
sigprocmask
sigreturn
sigsetmask
sigstack
sigsuspend
sigvec
sigwait
size
slapadd
slapcat
slapd
slapdn
slapindex
slappasswd
slaptest
sleep
slogin
slurpd
smbutil
smime
smtp
smtpd
socket
socketpair
sockstat
soelim
sort
source
spawn
speed
spinbox
spkac
splain
split
squid
squid_ldap_auth
squid_ldap_group
squid_unix_group
sscop
ssh
sshd_config
ssh_config
stab
startslip
stat
statfs
stop
string
strings
strip
stty
su
subst
sum
suspend
swapoff
swapon
switch
symlink
sync
sysarch
syscall
sysconftool
sysconftoolcheck
systat
s_client
s_server
s_time
tabs
tail
talk
tar
tbl
tclsh
tcltest
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tcpdump
tcpslice
tcsh
tee
tell
telltc
telnet
term
termcap
terminfo
test
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text
textdomain
tfmtodit
tftp
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threads
time
tip
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top
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tr
trace
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true
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truss
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tty
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type
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ui
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ulimit
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uniq
units
unknown
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until
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update
uplevel
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utf8
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uuidgen
vacation
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verify
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vi
vidcontrol
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view
virtual
vis
vt220keys
vwait
w
wait
wait3
wait4
waitpid
wall
wc
wget
what
whatis
where
whereis
which
while
who
whoami
whois
window
winfo
wish
wm
write
writev
wtmp
x509
xargs
xgettext
xmlwf
xstr
xsubpp
yacc
yes
ypcat
ypchfn
ypchpass
ypchsh
ypmatch
yppasswd
ypwhich
yyfix
zcat
zcmp
zdiff
zegrep
zfgrep
zforce
zgrep
zmore
znew
_exit
__syscall
 
FreeBSD/Linux/UNIX General Commands Manual
Hypertext Man Pages
cpp
 
cpp(1)				   GNU Tools				cpp(1)



NAME
       cpp - The GNU C-Compatible Compiler Preprocessor.

SYNOPSIS
       cpp    [-$] [-Apredicate[(value)]] [-C] [-Dname[=definition]] [-dD]
	      [-dM] [-I directory] [-H] [-I-] [-imacros file] [-include file]
	      [-idirafter dir] [-iprefix prefix] [-iwithprefix dir] [-lang-c]
	      [-lang-c++] [-lang-objc] [-lang-objc++] [-lint] [-M [-MG]]
	      [-MM [-MG]] [-MD file ] [-MMD file ] [-nostdinc] [-nostdinc++]
	      [-P] [-pedantic] [-pedantic-errors] [-traditional] [-trigraphs]
	      [-Uname] [-undef] [-Wtrigraphs] [-Wcomment] [-Wall]
	      [-Wtraditional]
	      [infile|-] [outfile|-]

DESCRIPTION
       The C preprocessor is a macro processor that is used  automatically  by
       the C compiler to transform your program before actual compilation.  It
       is called a macro processor because it allows  you  to  define  macros,
       which are brief abbreviations for longer constructs.

       The  C  preprocessor provides four separate facilities that you can use
       as you see fit:

       o      Inclusion of header files.  These are files of declarations that
	      can be substituted into your program.

       o      Macro expansion.	You can define macros, which are abbreviations
	      for arbitrary fragments of C code, and then the  C  preprocessor
	      will  replace  the  macros with their definitions throughout the
	      program.

       o      Conditional compilation.	 Using	special  preprocessing	direc-
	      tives, you can include or exclude parts of the program according
	      to various conditions.

       o      Line control.  If you use a  program  to	combine  or  rearrange
	      source  files  into an intermediate file which is then compiled,
	      you can use line control to inform the compiler  of  where  each
	      source line originally came from.

       C  preprocessors  vary  in some details.  For a full explanation of the
       GNU C preprocessor, see the info file `cpp.info', or the manual	The  C
       Preprocessor.   Both  of  these	are  built from the same documentation
       source file, `cpp.texinfo'.  The GNU C preprocessor provides a superset
       of the features of ANSI Standard C.

       ANSI Standard C requires the rejection of many harmless constructs com-
       monly used by today's C programs.  Such incompatibility would be incon-
       venient	for  users,  so the GNU C preprocessor is configured to accept
       these constructs by default.  Strictly speaking, to get	ANSI  Standard
       C, you must use the options `-trigraphs', `-undef' and `-pedantic', but
       in practice the consequences of having strict ANSI Standard C  make  it
       undesirable to do this.

       Most  often when you use the C preprocessor you will not have to invoke
       it explicitly: the C compiler will do so automatically.	 However,  the
       preprocessor is sometimes useful individually.

       The C preprocessor expects two file names as arguments, infile and out-
       file.  The preprocessor reads infile together with any other  files  it
       specifies  with	`#include'.   All the output generated by the combined
       input files is written in outfile.

       Either infile or outfile may be `-', which as infile means to read from
       standard input and as outfile means to write to standard output.  Also,
       if outfile or both file names are  omitted,  the  standard  output  and
       standard input are used for the omitted file names.

OPTIONS
       Here  is  a  table  of  command options accepted by the C preprocessor.
       These options can also be given when compiling a C  program;  they  are
       passed  along  automatically  to the preprocessor when it is invoked by
       the compiler.

       -P     Inhibit generation of `#'-lines with line-number information  in
	      the  output  from  the  preprocessor.  This might be useful when
	      running the preprocessor on something that is  not  C  code  and
	      will  be	sent  to  a  program  which  might  be confused by the
	      `#'-lines.

       -C     Do not discard comments: pass them through to the  output  file.
	      Comments	appearing  in arguments of a macro call will be copied
	      to the output before the expansion of the macro call.

       -traditional
	      Try to imitate the behavior of old-fashioned C,  as  opposed  to
	      ANSI C.

       -trigraphs
	      Process ANSI standard trigraph sequences.  These are three-char-
	      acter sequences, all starting with `??', that are defined by AN-
	      SI  C to stand for single characters.  For example, `??/' stands
	      for `\', so `'??/n'' is a  character  constant  for  a  newline.
	      Strictly	speaking,  the GNU C preprocessor does not support all
	      programs in ANSI Standard C unless `-trigraphs' is used, but  if
	      you ever notice the difference it will be with relief.

	      You don't want to know any more about trigraphs.

       -pedantic
	      Issue  warnings required by the ANSI C standard in certain cases
	      such as when text other than a comment follows `#else' or  `#en-
	      dif'.

       -pedantic-errors
	      Like  `-pedantic',  except  that errors are produced rather than
	      warnings.

       -Wtrigraphs
	      Warn if any trigraphs are encountered  (assuming	they  are  en-
	      abled).

       -Wcomment

       -Wcomments
	      Warn  whenever  a  comment-start sequence `/*' appears in a com-
	      ment.  (Both forms have the same effect).

       -Wall  Requests both `-Wtrigraphs' and `-Wcomment' (but	not  `-Wtradi-
	      tional').

       -Wtraditional
	      Warn  about certain constructs that behave differently in tradi-
	      tional and ANSI C.

       -I directory
	       Add the directory directory to the end of the list of  directo-
	      ries to be searched for header files.  This can be used to over-
	      ride a system header file, substituting your own version,  since
	      these directories are searched before the system header file di-
	      rectories.  If you use more than one `-I' option,  the  directo-
	      ries are scanned in left-to-right order; the standard system di-
	      rectories come after.

       -I-    Any directories specified with `-I' options before the `-I-' op-
	      tion  are  searched  only for the case of `#include file"'; they
	      are not searched for `#include <file>'.

	      If additional directories are specified with `-I' options  after
	      the `-I-', these directories are searched for all `#include' di-
	      rectives.

	      In addition, the `-I-' option inhibits the use  of  the  current
	      directory  as  the  first search directory for `#include file"'.
	      Therefore, the current directory is searched only if it  is  re-
	      quested  explicitly with `-I.'.  Specifying both `-I-' and `-I.'
	      allows you to control precisely which directories  are  searched
	      before the current one and which are searched after.

       -nostdinc
	      Do  not search the standard system directories for header files.
	      Only the directories you have specified with `-I'  options  (and
	      the current directory, if appropriate) are searched.

       -nostdinc++
	      Do  not search for header files in the C++ specific standard di-
	      rectories, but do still search the other	standard  directories.
	      (This option is used when building libg++.)

       -D name
	       Predefine name as a macro, with definition `1'.

       -D name=definition
		Predefine  name as a macro, with definition definition.  There
	      are no restrictions on the contents of definition,  but  if  you
	      are invoking the preprocessor from a shell or shell-like program
	      you may need to use the shell's quoting syntax to protect  char-
	      acters  such  as spaces that have a meaning in the shell syntax.
	      If you use more than one `-D' for the same name,	the  rightmost
	      definition takes effect.

       -U name
	       Do not predefine name.  If both `-U' and `-D' are specified for
	      one name, the `-U' beats the `-D' and the  name  is  not	prede-
	      fined.

       -undef Do not predefine any nonstandard macros.

       -A name(value)
	      Assert  (in the same way as the #assert directive) the predicate
	      name with tokenlist value.  Remember  to	escape	or  quote  the
	      parentheses on shell command lines.

	      You  can use `-A-' to disable all predefined assertions; it also
	      undefines all predefined macros.

       -dM    Instead of outputting the result of preprocessing, output a list
	      of  `#define'  directives  for all the macros defined during the
	      execution of  the  preprocessor,	including  predefined  macros.
	      This  gives  you a way of finding out what is predefined in your
	      version of the preprocessor; assuming you have no file  `foo.h',
	      the command

	      touch foo.h; cpp -dM foo.h

	      will show the values of any predefined macros.

       -dD    Like  `-dM' except in two respects: it does not include the pre-
	      defined macros, and it outputs both the `#define' directives and
	      the  result  of  preprocessing.	Both kinds of output go to the
	      standard output file.


       -M [-MG]
	      Instead of outputting the result of preprocessing, output a rule
	      suitable for make describing the dependencies of the main source
	      file.  The preprocessor outputs one make rule containing the ob-
	      ject  file  name for that source file, a colon, and the names of
	      all the included files.  If there are many included  files  then
	      the rule is split into several lines using `\'-newline.

	      `-MG'  says to treat missing header files as generated files and
	      assume they live in the same directory as the source  file.   It
	      must be specified in addition to `-M'.

	      This feature is used in automatic updating of makefiles.

       -MM [-MG]
	      Like  `-M'  but  mention	only the files included with `#include
	      "file"'.	System header files included  with  `#include  <file>'
	      are omitted.

       -MD file
	      Like  `-M'  but the dependency information is written to `file'.
	      This is in addition to compiling the  file  as  specified--`-MD'
	      does not inhibit ordinary compilation the way `-M' does.

	      When invoking gcc, do not specify the `file' argument.  Gcc will
	      create file names made by replacing `.c' with `.d' at the end of
	      the input file names.

	      In Mach, you can use the utility md to merge multiple files into
	      a single dependency file suitable for using with the `make' com-
	      mand.

       -MMD file
	      Like  `-MD'  except  mention  only user header files, not system
	      header files.

       -H     Print the name of each header file used, in  addition  to  other
	      normal activities.

       -imacros file
		Process file as input, discarding the resulting output, before
	      processing the regular input file.  Because the output generated
	      from file is discarded, the only effect of `-imacros file' is to
	      make the macros defined in file available for use  in  the  main
	      input.   The preprocessor evaluates any `-D' and `-U' options on
	      the command line before processing `-imacros file' .

       -include file
	      Process file as input, and include all the resulting output, be-
	      fore processing the regular input file.

       -idirafter dir
	       Add the directory dir to the second include path.  The directo-
	      ries on the second include path are searched when a header  file
	      is  not found in any of the directories in the main include path
	      (the one that `-I' adds to).

       -iprefix prefix
	       Specify prefix as the prefix for subsequent `-iwithprefix'  op-
	      tions.

       -iwithprefix dir
		Add  a	directory to the second include path.  The directory's
	      name is made by concatenating prefix and dir, where  prefix  was
	      specified previously with `-iprefix'.

       -lang-c

       -lang-c++

       -lang-objc

       -lang-objc++
	      Specify the source language.  `-lang-c++' makes the preprocessor
	      handle C++ comment syntax, and includes  extra  default  include
	      directories  for	C++,  and `-lang-objc' enables the Objective C
	      `#import' directive.  `-lang-c' explicitly  turns  off  both  of
	      these extensions, and `-lang-objc++' enables both.

	      These  options are generated by the compiler driver gcc, but not
	      passed from the `gcc' command line.

       -lint  Look for commands to the program checker lint embedded  in  com-
	      ments,  and  emit them preceded by `#pragma lint'.  For example,
	      the  comment  `/*   NOTREACHED   */'   becomes   `#pragma   lint
	      NOTREACHED'.

	      This  option  is	available only when you call cpp directly; gcc
	      will not pass it from its command line.

       -$     Forbid the use of `$' in identifiers.   This  was  formerly  re-
	      quired for strict conformance to the C Standard before the stan-
	      dard was corrected.   This option is  available  only  when  you
	      call cpp directly; gcc will not pass it from its command line.

SEE ALSO
       `Cpp' entry in info; The C Preprocessor, Richard M. Stallman.
       gcc(1);	`Gcc'  entry  in  info;  Using and Porting GNU CC (for version
       2.0), Richard M. Stallman.

COPYING
       Copyright (c) 1991, 1992, 1993 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim  copies  of  this
       manual  provided  the  copyright  notice and this permission notice are
       preserved on all copies.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of  this
       manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the en-
       tire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a permis-
       sion notice identical to this one.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this manu-
       al into another language, under the above conditions for modified  ver-
       sions,  except  that this permission notice may be included in transla-
       tions approved by the Free Software Foundation instead of in the origi-
       nal English.



FreeBSD 			April 30, 1993				cpp(1)
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