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mt
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od
onintr
open
openssl
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options
oqmgr
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perl
perl56delta
perl58delta
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perlaix
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perlapio
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perlbook
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perlcn
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pfbtops
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photo
pic
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pkcs7
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pod2html
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zcat
zcmp
zdiff
zegrep
zfgrep
zforce
zgrep
zmore
znew
_exit
__syscall
 
FreeBSD/Linux/UNIX General Commands Manual
Hypertext Man Pages
imapd
 
IMAPD(8)							      IMAPD(8)



NAME
       imapd - Courier-IMAP server

SYNOPSIS
       /usr/local/libexec/courier-imap/couriertcpd     couriertcpd     options
       /usr/local/sbin/imaplogin  [   modules	...   ]   /usr/local/bin/imapd
       ./Maildir


       /usr/local/bin/imapd ./Maildir


DESCRIPTION
       imapd  is  the Courier-IMAP server that provides IMAP access to Maildir
       mailboxes.  Normally you don't have to worry about it,  as  imapd  runs
       automatically  after receiving a network connection, accompanied by the
       appropriate userid and password.

       couriertcpd opens network ports that receive incoming IMAP connections.
       After  an incoming network connections is established, couriertcpd runs
       the command specified by its first argument, which is imaplogin passing
       the  remaining  arguments to imaplogin.	imaplogin reads the IMAP login
       userid and password, then runs the modules specified by	its  remaining
       options,  which	are  Courier  authentication  modules described in the
       authlib(7) manual page.

       The last daisy-chained command is  imapd,  which  is  the  actual  IMAP
       server,	which  is started from the logged-in account's home directory.
       The sole argument to imapd is the pathname to the default IMAP mailbox,
       which is usually ./Maildir.  Some authentication modules are capable of
       specifying a different filename, by  setting  the  MAILDIR  environment
       variable.

       imapd  may  also  be  invoked  from  the shell prompt, in which case it
       issues a PREAUTH response, then changes the current directory to either
       its argument, or the contents of the MAILDIR environment variable, then
       attempts to talk IMAP on standard input and output.

       imapd implements IMAP4REV1, as defined by RFC 2060.

FILES AND ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       AUTH*  imapd examines several environment variables whose  names  start
	      with AUTH - these environment variables are set by imaplogin and
	      the authentication modules.  Their absence tells imapd that it's
	      running from the command line.

       MAILDIR
	      MAILDIR  -  if  defined,	imapd changes its directory to the one
	      specified by this environment variable.  Otherwise imapd changes
	      its directory to the one specified on the command line.

       `pwd`/.
	      The current directory is assumed to be the main INBOX Maildir.

       `pwd`/.folder
	      Maildir  folders,  each  one containing their own tmp, new, cur,
	      etc...

       Other	environment    variables    are    initialized	  from	   the
       /usr/local/etc/courier-imap/imapd      and      /usr/local/etc/courier-
       imap/imapd-ssl configuration files.  These files are  loaded  into  the
       environment by the system startup script that runs couriertcpd.

   REALTIME CONCURRENT FOLDER STATUS UPDATES
       Setting the IMAP_ENHANCEDIDLE to 1 in /usr/local/etc/courier-imap/imapd
       enables realtime  concurrent  folder  status  updates.	When  relatime
       folder  status  updates are enabled all IMAP mail clients that have the
       same folder open will be immediately notified of  any  changes  to  the
       folder's contents.

       The Courier-IMAP server always allows more than one mail client to have
       the same folder opened.	However, when two or  more  clients  have  the
       same  folder  opened,  the  mail  clients may not necessarily know when
       another client added or removed messages from  the  folder.   The  base
       IMAP  protocol  specification  requires IMAP mail clients to explicitly
       check for any changes to the folder's contents.	No  provisions	exists
       to  notify  the	mail client immediately when the folder's contents are
       modified by another mail client.

       The IDLE extension to the base IMAP protocol provides a delivery mecha-
       nism  for  notifying  mail clients of changes to the mail folder's con-
       tents.  Although at this time it's not known to which extent  the  IDLE
       extension  is  supported  by IMAP mail clients, the Courier-IMAP server
       fully  implements  the  IDLE  extension	provided  that	the  following
       requirements are met:

       FAM    The  File  Alteration  Monitor  package,	FAM,  must be properly
	      installed and configured prior to installing Courier-IMAP.

	      FAM is an application library that provides an interface to  the
	      operating  system's kernel that applications can use to be noti-
	      fied  when  specific  files  or  directories  are  changed,  and
	      Courier-IMAP leverages this API to implement realtime concurrent
	      folder status updates.  According to the most recently available
	      documentation,  FAM  builds  and	runs  on  Linux and IRIX.  FAM
	      should also build on other platform,  but  without  a  supported
	      kernel  monitor  FAM will fall back to a polling mode.  At press
	      time, FAM's web site reports that  FAM  succesfully  builds  (in
	      polling mode) on FreeBSD and Solaris.

	      FAM  also works with NFS filesystems.  On NFS clients fam trans-
	      parently forwards file monitoring requests to a peer fam process
	      on the NFS server.

	      Installation  and  configuration	of  FAM is beyond the scope of
	      this document.  This documentation presumes that FAM is  succes-
	      fully  installed.  Use the resources and tools on FAM's web site
	      for assistance with setting up FAM.  Systems that use  GNOME  or
	      KDE  desktops  already have FAM installed, as FAM is used by the
	      current versions of both desktops.

       IDLE IMAP capability
	      IDLE must be  listed  in	the  IMAP_CAPABILITY  setting  in  the
	      /usr/local/etc/courier-imap/imapd  configuration	file.  This is
	      the default  setting  in	new  Courier-IMAP  1.6.0/Courier  0.40
	      installs.   The  default	setting  in  previous  versions of the
	      server does not include the  IDLE  capability.   When  upgrading
	      from  the  previous version the IDLE capability must be manually
	      added.

       IMAP_USELOCKS
	      This  setting  in  /usr/local/etc/courier-imap/imapd   must   be
	      enabled.	 This  setting	uses  dot-lock	files  to  synchronize
	      updates to folder indexes between  multiple  IMAP  clients  that
	      have the same folder opened.

	      This  setting is safe to use with NFS, as it does not use actual
	      file locking calls, and does not require	the  services  of  the
	      problematic NFS lock daemon.

       An IMAP mail client that fully supports the IDLE protocol extension.
	      Of course, an IMAP client that supports the IDLE protocol exten-
	      sion is required.  At press time the status and extent  of  IDLE
	      support in most IMAP mail clients is not known.

       IMAP_ENHANCEDIDLE
	      This   setting   in  /usr/local/etc/courier-imap/imapd  actually
	      enables concurrent realtime folder status updates using the IDLE
	      extension.   Note  that it is possible to enable the IDLE exten-
	      sion even if FAM is not available, or  without  enabling	either
	      the   IMAP_USELOCKS   and/or  IMAP_ENHANCEDIDLE  settings.   The
	      resulting consequences are described are as follows:

	      1. Without IMAP_USERLOCKS there exists a small possibility  that
		 multiple  mail  clients  will receive a slightly inconsistent
		 folder index if both clients try to update  the  contents  of
		 the  folder at the same time.	Usually, the worst case result
		 is that some clients will eventually end up  downloading  the
		 same  message	twice  from  the server, and caching it incor-
		 rectly in the local cache (if the IMAP client caches  message
		 contents).   Clearing	the  local  message cache will quickly
		 eliminate any residual confusion that results from this situ-
		 ation.

	      2. Without  FAM,	and  IMAP_ENHANCEDIDLE	set,  the Courier-IMAP
		 server will manually check for changes to the	folder's  con-
		 tents	every  60  seconds,  in  IDLE mode (instead of in real
		 time).

   VERIFYING REALTIME CONCURRENT FOLDER STATUS UPDATES
       Use the following procedure to verify that realtime  concurrent	folder
       status updates are properly working.  It is helpful to be familiar with
       the IMAP protocol.  If that's not the case, just be  extra  careful  in
       entering  the  IMAP  protocol  commands.   The  following  instructions
       describe the procedure for connecting to the IMAP server, and  manually
       issuing	IMAP  protocol	commands,  as  if  they originate from an IMAP
       client.	The following instructions use "C:" to	indicate  IMAP	client
       commands  that  must  be  entered,  and	"S:"  to indicate the expected
       replies from the server.

	      Note: The actual replies from the server	may  differ  slightly,
	      due to the actual server configuration, and other minor factors.
	      The following examples have long lines wrapped for  readability.
	      Slight  observed	differences from the expected replies are nor-
	      mal, but they should still be substantively the same.

       1. Prepare a test account with a couple of messages.  Open two or three
	  terminal  windows.   In each window, connect to the IMAP server, and
	  enter IDLE mode:

	  S:* OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
	    See COPYING for distribution information.
	  C:a login userid password
	  S:a OK LOGIN Ok.
	  C:a SELECT INBOX
	  S:* FLAGS (\Draft \Answered \Flagged \Deleted \Seen \Recent)
	    * OK [PERMANENTFLAGS (\Draft \Answered \Flagged \Deleted \Seen)]
	      Limited
	    * 2 EXISTS
	    * 0 RECENT
	    * OK [UIDVALIDITY 939609418] Ok
	    a OK [READ-WRITE] Ok
	  C:a IDLE
	  S:+ entering ENHANCED idle mode

	  Note: The default Courier-IMAP server configuration permits a  maxi-
	  mum  of four connections from the same IP address.  It may be neces-
	  sary to adjust this setting in /usr/local/etc/courier-imap/imapd for
	  the duration of this test.

       2. The  last  message  from  the server must be "entering ENHANCED idle
	  mode".  Otherwise, it means that some of the necessary prerequisites
	  have	not  been met.	Verify that FAM was set up prior to installing
	  Courier-IMAP (use ldd(1) to verify  that  the  imapd	executable  is
	  linked  with	the  libfam  library),	and verify the settings in the
	  /usr/local/etc/courier-imap/imapd.

       3. Open another terminal window, connect to the server, and modify  the
	  flags of one of the messages:

	  S:* OK Courier-IMAP ready. Copyright 1998-2002 Double Precision, Inc.
	    See COPYING for distribution information.
	  C:a login userid password
	  S:a OK LOGIN Ok.
	  C:a SELECT INBOX
	  S:* FLAGS (\Draft \Answered \Flagged \Deleted \Seen \Recent)
	    * OK [PERMANENTFLAGS (\Draft \Answered \Flagged \Deleted \Seen)]
	      Limited
	    * 2 EXISTS
	    * 0 RECENT
	    * OK [UIDVALIDITY 939609418] Ok
	    a OK [READ-WRITE] Ok
	  C:STORE 1 +FLAGS (\Deleted)
	  * 1 FETCH (FLAGS (\Deleted))
	  a OK STORE completed.

       4. The  last command sets the \Deleted flag on the first message in the
	  folder.  Immediately after entering the last	command,  "*  1  FETCH
	  (FLAGS  (\Deleted))"	should	also appear in all other terminal win-
	  dows.  On systems where FAM uses the	fall-back  polling  mode  this
	  response may appear after a brief delay of a few seconds.  The delay
	  should never exceed 15-20 seconds.

       5. Verify that all terminal  windows  reliably  receive	folder	status
	  updates in real time by alternatively entering the commands "a STORE
	  1 -FLAGS (\Deleted)" and "a STORE 1 +FLAGS  (\Deleted)",  to	toggle
	  the  deleted flag on the first message.  Observe that the message is
	  received by all terminal windows quickly, and reliably.

       6. With the \Deleted flag set on the first message, enter  the  EXPUNGE
	  command, which removes the deleted message from the folder:

	  C:a EXPUNGE
	  S:* 1 EXPUNGE
	    * 2 EXISTS
	    * 0 RECENT
	  S:a OK EXPUNGE completed

	  The  lines  that  begin with the "*" character should also appear in
	  all other terminal windows (depending on the	initial  folder  state
	  one  of  the	terminal  windows may have a different RECENT message,
	  which is fine).

       7. Use a mail client to create and send a  test	message  to  the  test
	  account.   As soon as the mail server delivers the message, the fol-
	  lowing messages should appear in every terminal window:

	  * 3 EXISTS
	  * 0 RECENT
	  * 3 FETCH (FLAGS ())

	  The numbers in these messages may be different, depending  upon  the
	  initial  contents of the test mail folder.  One of the terminal win-
	  dows should have a different RECENT count, and one of  the  terminal
	  windows should include a \Recent flag in the untagged FLAGS message.
	  These difference are acceptable; the important thing is to make sure
	  that all terminal windows have the same EXISTS message.

SEE ALSO
       authlib(7), userdb(8)



Double Precision, Inc.	       19 February 2004 		      IMAPD(8)
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