a2p
accept
access
acct
addftinfo
addr2line
adjtime
afmtodit
after
aio_cancel
aio_error
aio_read
aio_return
aio_suspend
aio_waitcomplete
aio_write
alias
aliases
alloc
anvil
append
apply
apropos
ar
array
as
asa
asn1parse
at
atq
atrm
attemptckalloc
attemptckrealloc
authlib
authtest
autopoint
awk
b64decode
b64encode
basename
batch
bc
bdes
bell
bg
bgerror
biff
big5
binary
bind
bindkey
bindtags
bindtextdomain
bio
bitmap
blowfish
bn
bootparams
bootptab
bounce
brandelf
break
breaksw
brk
bsdiff
bsdtar
bsnmpd
bspatch
bthost
btsockstat
buffer
builtin
builtins
bunzip2
button
byacc
bzcat
bzegrep
bzfgrep
bzgrep
bzip2
c2ph
c89
c99
ca
cal
calendar
canvas
cap_mkdb
case
cat
catch
catman
cc
cd
cdcontrol
chdir
checkbutton
checknr
chflags
chfn
chgrp
chio
chkey
chmod
chown
chpass
chroot
chsh
ci
ciphers
ckalloc
ckdist
ckfree
ckrealloc
cksum
cleanup
clear
clipboard
clock
clock_getres
clock_gettime
clock_settime
close
cmp
co
col
colcrt
colldef
colors
colrm
column
comm
command
compile_et
complete
compress
concat
config
connect
console
continue
core
courierlogger
couriertcpd
cp
cpan
cpio
cpp
creat
crl
crontab
crunchgen
crunchide
crypt
crypto
csh
csplit
ctags
ctm
ctm_dequeue
ctm_rmail
ctm_smail
cu
cursor
cursors
cut
cvs
date
dbiprof
dbiproxy
dc
dcgettext
dcngettext
dd
dde
default
defer
deliverquota
des
destroy
devfs
df
dgettext
dgst
dh
dhparam
dialog
diff
diff3
dig
dir
dirent
dirname
dirs
discard
disktab
dngettext
do
domainname
done
dprofpp
dsa
dsaparam
dtmfdecode
du
dup
dup2
eaccess
ec
ecdsa
echo
echotc
ecparam
ed
edit
editrc
ee
egrep
elf
elfdump
elif
else
enc
enc2xs
encoding
end
endif
endsw
engine
enigma
entry
env
envsubst
eof
eqn
err
errno
error
errstr
esac
ethers
euc
eui64
eval
event
evp
ex
exec
execve
exit
expand
export
exports
expr
extattr
extattr_delete_fd
extattr_delete_file
extattr_get_fd
extattr_get_file
extattr_set_fd
extattr_set_file
f77
false
famm
famx
fblocked
fbtab
fc
fchdir
fchflags
fchmod
fchown
fcntl
fconfigure
fcopy
fdescfs
fdformat
fdread
fdwrite
fetch
fg
fgrep
fhopen
fhstat
fhstatfs
fi
file
file2c
fileevent
filename
filetest
find
find2perl
finger
flex
flock
flush
fmt
focus
fold
font
fontedit
for
foreach
fork
format
forward
fpathconf
frame
from
fs
fstab
fstat
fstatfs
fsync
ftp
ftpchroot
ftpusers
ftruncate
futimes
g711conv
gb2312
gb18030
gbk
gcc
gcore
gcov
gdb
gencat
gendsa
genrsa
gensnmptree
getconf
getdents
getdirentries
getdtablesize
getegid
geteuid
getfacl
getfh
getfsstat
getgid
getgroups
getitimer
getlogin
getopt
getopts
getpeername
getpgid
getpgrp
getpid
getppid
getpriority
getresgid
getresuid
getrlimit
getrusage
gets
getsid
getsockname
getsockopt
gettext
gettextize
gettimeofday
gettytab
getuid
glob
global
gmake
goto
gperf
gprof
grab
grep
grid
grn
grodvi
groff
groff_font
groff_out
groff_tmac
grog
grolbp
grolj4
grops
grotty
group
groups
gunzip
gzcat
gzexe
gzip
h2ph
h2xs
hash
hashstat
hd
head
help2man
hesinfo
hexdump
history
host
hostname
hosts
hosts_access
hosts_options
hpftodit
http
hup
i386_get_ioperm
i386_get_ldt
i386_set_ioperm
i386_set_ldt
i386_vm86
iconv
id
ident
idprio
if
ifnames253
ifnames259
image
imapd
incr
indent
indxbib
info
infokey
inode
install
instmodsh
interp
intro
introduction
ioctl
ipcrm
ipcs
ipf
ipftest
ipnat
ippool
ipresend
issetugid
jail
jail_attach
jobid
jobs
join
jot
kbdcontrol
kbdmap
kcon
kdestroy
kdump
kenv
kevent
keycap
keylogin
keylogout
keymap
keysyms
kgdb
kill
killall
killpg
kinit
kldfind
kldfirstmod
kldload
kldnext
kldstat
kldsym
kldunload
klist
kpasswd
kqueue
kse
kse_create
kse_exit
kse_release
kse_switchin
kse_thr_interrupt
kse_wakeup
ktrace
label
labelframe
lam
lappend
last
lastcomm
lastlog
lchflags
lchmod
lchown
ld
ldap
ldapadd
ldapcompare
ldapdelete
ldapmodify
ldapmodrdn
ldappasswd
ldapsearch
ldapwhoami
ldd
leave
less
lesskey
lex
lgetfh
lhash
libnetcfg
library
limit
limits
lindex
link
linprocfs
linsert
lint
lio_listio
list
listbox
listen
lj4_font
lkbib
llength
lmtp
ln
load
loadfont
local
locale
locate
lock
lockf
log
logger
login
logins
logname
logout
look
lookbib
lorder
lower
lp
lpq
lpr
lprm
lptest
lrange
lreplace
ls
lsearch
lseek
lset
lsort
lstat
lsvfs
lutimes
lynx
m4
madvise
magic
mail
maildiracl
maildirkw
maildirmake
mailq
mailx
make
makeinfo
makewhatis
man
manpath
master
mc
mcedit
mcview
md2
md4
md5
mdc2
memory
menu
menubar
menubutton
merge
mesg
message
mincore
minherit
minigzip
mkdep
mkdir
mkfifo
mkimapdcert
mklocale
mknod
mkpop3dcert
mkstr
mktemp
mlock
mlockall
mmap
mmroff
modfind
modfnext
modnext
modstat
moduli
more
motd
mount
mprotect
mptable
msdos
msdosfs
msgattrib
msgcat
msgcmp
msgcomm
msgconv
msgen
msgexec
msgfilter
msgfmt
msggrep
msginit
msgmerge
msgs
msgunfmt
msguniq
mskanji
msql2mysql
msync
mt
munlock
munlockall
munmap
mv
myisamchk
myisamlog
myisampack
mysql
mysqlaccess
mysqladmin
mysqlbinlog
mysqlcheck
mysqld
mysqldump
mysqld_multi
mysqld_safe
mysqlhotcopy
mysqlimport
mysqlshow
mysql_config
mysql_fix_privilege_tables
mysql_zap
namespace
nanosleep
nawk
nc
ncal
ncplist
ncplogin
ncplogout
neqn
netconfig
netgroup
netid
netstat
networks
newaliases
newgrp
nex
nfsstat
nfssvc
ngettext
nice
nl
nm
nmount
nohup
nologin
notify
nroff
nseq
nslookup
ntp_adjtime
ntp_gettime
nvi
nview
objcopy
objdump
objformat
ocsp
od
onintr
open
openssl
opieaccess
opieinfo
opiekey
opiekeys
opiepasswd
option
options
oqmgr
pack
package
packagens
pagesize
palette
pam_auth
panedwindow
parray
passwd
paste
patch
pathchk
pathconf
pawd
pax
pbm
pcre
pcreapi
pcrebuild
pcrecallout
pcrecompat
pcrecpp
pcregrep
pcrematching
pcrepartial
pcrepattern
pcreperform
pcreposix
pcreprecompile
pcresample
pcretest
perl
perl56delta
perl58delta
perl561delta
perl570delta
perl571delta
perl572delta
perl573delta
perl581delta
perl582delta
perl583delta
perl584delta
perl585delta
perl586delta
perl587delta
perl588delta
perl5004delta
perl5005delta
perlaix
perlamiga
perlapi
perlapio
perlapollo
perlartistic
perlbeos
perlbook
perlboot
perlbot
perlbs2000
perlbug
perlcall
perlcc
perlce
perlcheat
perlclib
perlcn
perlcompile
perlcygwin
perldata
perldbmfilter
perldebguts
perldebtut
perldebug
perldelta
perldgux
perldiag
perldoc
perldos
perldsc
perlebcdic
perlembed
perlepoc
perlfaq
perlfaq1
perlfaq2
perlfaq3
perlfaq4
perlfaq5
perlfaq6
perlfaq7
perlfaq8
perlfaq9
perlfilter
perlfork
perlform
perlfreebsd
perlfunc
perlglossary
perlgpl
perlguts
perlhack
perlhist
perlhpux
perlhurd
perlintern
perlintro
perliol
perlipc
perlirix
perlivp
perljp
perlko
perllexwarn
perllinux
perllocale
perllol
perlmachten
perlmacos
perlmacosx
perlmint
perlmod
perlmodinstall
perlmodlib
perlmodstyle
perlmpeix
perlnetware
perlnewmod
perlnumber
perlobj
perlop
perlopenbsd
perlopentut
perlos2
perlos390
perlos400
perlothrtut
perlpacktut
perlplan9
perlpod
perlpodspec
perlport
perlqnx
perlre
perlref
perlreftut
perlrequick
perlreref
perlretut
perlrun
perlsec
perlsolaris
perlstyle
perlsub
perlsyn
perlthrtut
perltie
perltoc
perltodo
perltooc
perltoot
perltrap
perltru64
perltw
perlunicode
perluniintro
perlutil
perluts
perlvar
perlvmesa
perlvms
perlvos
perlwin32
perlxs
perlxstut
perror
pfbtops
pftp
pgrep
phones
photo
pic
pickup
piconv
pid
pipe
pkcs7
pkcs8
pkcs12
pkg_add
pkg_check
pkg_create
pkg_delete
pkg_info
pkg_sign
pkg_version
pkill
pl2pm
place
pod2html
pod2latex
pod2man
pod2text
pod2usage
podchecker
podselect
poll
popd
popup
posix_madvise
postalias
postcat
postconf
postdrop
postfix
postkick
postlock
postlog
postmap
postqueue
postsuper
pr
pread
preadv
printcap
printenv
printf
proc
procfs
profil
protocols
prove
proxymap
ps
psed
psroff
pstruct
ptrace
publickey
pushd
puts
pwd
pwrite
pwritev
qmgr
qmqpd
quota
quotactl
radiobutton
raise
rand
ranlib
rcp
rcs
rcsclean
rcsdiff
rcsfile
rcsfreeze
rcsintro
rcsmerge
read
readelf
readlink
readonly
readv
realpath
reboot
recv
recvfrom
recvmsg
red
ree
refer
regexp
registry
regsub
rehash
remote
rename
repeat
replace
req
reset
resolver
resource
return
rev
revoke
rfcomm_sppd
rfork
rhosts
ripemd
ripemd160
rlog
rlogin
rm
rmd160
rmdir
rpc
rpcgen
rs
rsa
rsautl
rsh
rtld
rtprio
rup
ruptime
rusers
rwall
rwho
s2p
safe
sasl
sasldblistusers2
saslpasswd2
sbrk
scache
scale
scan
sched
sched_getparam
sched_getscheduler
sched_get_priority_max
sched_get_priority_min
sched_rr_get_interval
sched_setparam
sched_setscheduler
sched_yield
scon
scp
script
scrollbar
sdiff
sed
seek
select
selection
semctl
semget
semop
send
sendbug
sendfile
sendmail
sendmsg
sendto
services
sess_id
set
setegid
setenv
seteuid
setfacl
setgid
setgroups
setitimer
setlogin
setpgid
setpgrp
setpriority
setregid
setresgid
setresuid
setreuid
setrlimit
setsid
setsockopt
settc
settimeofday
setty
setuid
setvar
sftp
sh
sha
sha1
sha256
shar
shells
shift
shmat
shmctl
shmdt
shmget
showq
shutdown
sigaction
sigaltstack
sigblock
sigmask
sigpause
sigpending
sigprocmask
sigreturn
sigsetmask
sigstack
sigsuspend
sigvec
sigwait
size
slapadd
slapcat
slapd
slapdn
slapindex
slappasswd
slaptest
sleep
slogin
slurpd
smbutil
smime
smtp
smtpd
socket
socketpair
sockstat
soelim
sort
source
spawn
speed
spinbox
spkac
splain
split
squid
squid_ldap_auth
squid_ldap_group
squid_unix_group
sscop
ssh
sshd_config
ssh_config
stab
startslip
stat
statfs
stop
string
strings
strip
stty
su
subst
sum
suspend
swapoff
swapon
switch
symlink
sync
sysarch
syscall
sysconftool
sysconftoolcheck
systat
s_client
s_server
s_time
tabs
tail
talk
tar
tbl
tclsh
tcltest
tclvars
tcopy
tcpdump
tcpslice
tcsh
tee
tell
telltc
telnet
term
termcap
terminfo
test
texindex
texinfo
text
textdomain
tfmtodit
tftp
then
threads
time
tip
tk
tkerror
tkvars
tkwait
tlsmgr
tmac
top
toplevel
touch
tput
tr
trace
trafshow
trap
troff
true
truncate
truss
tset
tsort
tty
ttys
type
tzfile
ui
ul
ulimit
umask
unalias
uname
uncomplete
uncompress
undelete
unexpand
unhash
unifdef
unifdefall
uniq
units
unknown
unlimit
unlink
unmount
unset
unsetenv
until
unvis
update
uplevel
uptime
upvar
usbhidaction
usbhidctl
users
utf8
utimes
utmp
utrace
uudecode
uuencode
uuidgen
vacation
variable
verify
version
vfork
vgrind
vgrindefs
vi
vidcontrol
vidfont
view
virtual
vis
vt220keys
vwait
w
wait
wait3
wait4
waitpid
wall
wc
wget
what
whatis
where
whereis
which
while
who
whoami
whois
window
winfo
wish
wm
write
writev
wtmp
x509
xargs
xgettext
xmlwf
xstr
xsubpp
yacc
yes
ypcat
ypchfn
ypchpass
ypchsh
ypmatch
yppasswd
ypwhich
yyfix
zcat
zcmp
zdiff
zegrep
zfgrep
zforce
zgrep
zmore
znew
_exit
__syscall
 
FreeBSD/Linux/UNIX General Commands Manual
Hypertext Man Pages
perlmodlib
 
PERLMODLIB(1)	       Perl Programmers Reference Guide 	 PERLMODLIB(1)



NAME
       perlmodlib - constructing new Perl modules and finding existing ones

THE PERL MODULE LIBRARY
       Many modules are included in the Perl distribution.  These are
       described below, and all end in .pm.  You may discover compiled library
       files (usually ending in .so) or small pieces of modules to be
       autoloaded (ending in .al); these were automatically generated by the
       installation process.  You may also discover files in the library
       directory that end in either .pl or .ph.  These are old libraries sup-
       plied so that old programs that use them still run.  The .pl files will
       all eventually be converted into standard modules, and the .ph files
       made by h2ph will probably end up as extension modules made by h2xs.
       (Some .ph values may already be available through the POSIX, Errno, or
       Fcntl modules.)	The pl2pm file in the distribution may help in your
       conversion, but it's just a mechanical process and therefore far from
       bulletproof.

       Pragmatic Modules

       They work somewhat like compiler directives (pragmata) in that they
       tend to affect the compilation of your program, and thus will usually
       work well only when used within a "use", or "no".  Most of these are
       lexically scoped, so an inner BLOCK may countermand them by saying:

	   no integer;
	   no strict 'refs';
	   no warnings;

       which lasts until the end of that BLOCK.

       Some pragmas are lexically scoped--typically those that affect the $^H
       hints variable.	Others affect the current package instead, like "use
       vars" and "use subs", which allow you to predeclare a variables or sub-
       routines within a particular file rather than just a block.  Such dec-
       larations are effective for the entire file for which they were
       declared.  You cannot rescind them with "no vars" or "no subs".

       The following pragmas are defined (and have their own documentation).

       attributes  Get/set subroutine or variable attributes

       attrs	   Set/get attributes of a subroutine (deprecated)

       autouse	   Postpone load of modules until a function is used

       base	   Establish IS-A relationship with base classes at compile
		   time

       bigint	   Transparent BigInteger support for Perl

       bignum	   Transparent BigNumber support for Perl

       bigrat	   Transparent BigNumber/BigRational support for Perl

       blib	   Use MakeMaker's uninstalled version of a package

       bytes	   Force byte semantics rather than character semantics

       charnames   Define character names for "\N{named}" string literal
		   escapes

       constant    Declare constants

       diagnostics Produce verbose warning diagnostics

       encoding    Allows you to write your script in non-ascii or non-utf8

       fields	   Compile-time class fields

       filetest    Control the filetest permission operators

       if	   "use" a Perl module if a condition holds

       integer	   Use integer arithmetic instead of floating point

       less	   Request less of something from the compiler

       lib	   Manipulate @INC at compile time

       locale	   Use and avoid POSIX locales for built-in operations

       open	   Set default PerlIO layers for input and output

       ops	   Restrict unsafe operations when compiling

       overload    Package for overloading Perl operations

       re	   Alter regular expression behaviour

       sigtrap	   Enable simple signal handling

       sort	   Control sort() behaviour

       strict	   Restrict unsafe constructs

       subs	   Predeclare sub names

       threads	   Perl extension allowing use of interpreter based threads
		   from perl

       threads::shared
		   Perl extension for sharing data structures between threads

       utf8	   Enable/disable UTF-8 (or UTF-EBCDIC) in source code

       vars	   Predeclare global variable names (obsolete)

       vmsish	   Control VMS-specific language features

       warnings    Control optional warnings

       warnings::register
		   Warnings import function

       Standard Modules

       Standard, bundled modules are all expected to behave in a well-defined
       manner with respect to namespace pollution because they use the
       Exporter module.  See their own documentation for details.

       It's possible that not all modules listed below are installed on your
       system. For example, the GDBM_File module will not be installed if you
       don't have the gdbm library.

       AnyDBM_File Provide framework for multiple DBMs

       Attribute::Handlers
		   Simpler definition of attribute handlers

       AutoLoader  Load subroutines only on demand

       AutoSplit   Split a package for autoloading

       B	   The Perl Compiler

       B::Asmdata  Autogenerated data about Perl ops, used to generate byte-
		   code

       B::Assembler
		   Assemble Perl bytecode

       B::Bblock   Walk basic blocks

       B::Bytecode Perl compiler's bytecode backend

       B::C	   Perl compiler's C backend

       B::CC	   Perl compiler's optimized C translation backend

       B::Concise  Walk Perl syntax tree, printing concise info about ops

       B::Debug    Walk Perl syntax tree, printing debug info about ops

       B::Deparse  Perl compiler backend to produce perl code

       B::Disassembler
		   Disassemble Perl bytecode

       B::Lint	   Perl lint

       B::Showlex  Show lexical variables used in functions or files

       B::Stackobj Helper module for CC backend

       B::Stash    Show what stashes are loaded

       B::Terse    Walk Perl syntax tree, printing terse info about ops

       B::Xref	   Generates cross reference reports for Perl programs

       Benchmark   Benchmark running times of Perl code

       ByteLoader  Load byte compiled perl code

       CGI	   Simple Common Gateway Interface Class

       CGI::Apache Backward compatibility module for CGI.pm

       CGI::Carp   CGI routines for writing to the HTTPD (or other) error log

       CGI::Cookie Interface to Netscape Cookies

       CGI::Fast   CGI Interface for Fast CGI

       CGI::Pretty Module to produce nicely formatted HTML code

       CGI::Push   Simple Interface to Server Push

       CGI::Switch Backward compatibility module for defunct CGI::Switch

       CGI::Util   Internal utilities used by CGI module

       CPAN	   Query, download and build perl modules from CPAN sites

       CPAN::FirstTime
		   Utility for CPAN::Config file Initialization

       CPAN::Nox   Wrapper around CPAN.pm without using any XS module

       CPAN::Version
		   Utility functions to compare CPAN versions

       Carp	   Warn of errors (from perspective of caller)

       Carp::Heavy Heavy machinery, no user serviceable parts inside

       Class::ISA  Report the search path for a class's ISA tree

       Class::Struct
		   Declare struct-like datatypes as Perl classes

       Config	   Access Perl configuration information

       Cwd	   Get pathname of current working directory

       DB	   Programmatic interface to the Perl debugging API (draft,
		   subject to

       DBM_Filter  Filter DBM keys/values

       DB_File	   Perl5 access to Berkeley DB version 1.x

       Data::Dumper
		   Stringified perl data structures, suitable for both print-
		   ing and "eval"

       Devel::DProf
		   A Perl code profiler

       Devel::PPPort
		   Perl/Pollution/Portability

       Devel::Peek A data debugging tool for the XS programmer

       Devel::SelfStubber
		   Generate stubs for a SelfLoading module

       Digest	   Modules that calculate message digests

       Digest::MD5 Perl interface to the MD5 Algorithm

       Digest::base
		   Digest base class

       Digest::file
		   Calculate digests of files

       DirHandle   Supply object methods for directory handles

       Dumpvalue   Provides screen dump of Perl data.

       DynaLoader  Dynamically load C libraries into Perl code

       Encode	   Character encodings

       Encode::Alias
		   Alias definitions to encodings

       Encode::Byte
		   Single Byte Encodings

       Encode::CJKConstants
		   Internally used by Encode::??::ISO_2022_*

       Encode::CN  China-based Chinese Encodings

       Encode::CN::HZ
		   Internally used by Encode::CN

       Encode::Config
		   Internally used by Encode

       Encode::EBCDIC
		   EBCDIC Encodings

       Encode::Encoder
		   Object Oriented Encoder

       Encode::Encoding
		   Encode Implementation Base Class

       Encode::Guess
		   Guesses encoding from data

       Encode::JP  Japanese Encodings

       Encode::JP::H2Z
		   Internally used by Encode::JP::2022_JP*

       Encode::JP::JIS7
		   Internally used by Encode::JP

       Encode::KR  Korean Encodings

       Encode::KR::2022_KR
		   Internally used by Encode::KR

       Encode::MIME::Header
		   MIME 'B' and 'Q' header encoding

       Encode::PerlIO
		   A detailed document on Encode and PerlIO

       Encode::Supported
		   Encodings supported by Encode

       Encode::Symbol
		   Symbol Encodings

       Encode::TW  Taiwan-based Chinese Encodings

       Encode::Unicode
		   Various Unicode Transformation Formats

       Encode::Unicode::UTF7
		   UTF-7 encoding

       English	   Use nice English (or awk) names for ugly punctuation vari-
		   ables

       Env	   Perl module that imports environment variables as scalars
		   or arrays

       Errno	   System errno constants

       Exporter    Implements default import method for modules

       Exporter::Heavy
		   Exporter guts

       ExtUtils::Command
		   Utilities to replace common UNIX commands in Makefiles etc.

       ExtUtils::Command::MM
		   Commands for the MM's to use in Makefiles

       ExtUtils::Constant
		   Generate XS code to import C header constants

       ExtUtils::Constant::Base
		   Base class for ExtUtils::Constant objects

       ExtUtils::Constant::Utils
		   Helper functions for ExtUtils::Constant

       ExtUtils::Constant::XS
		   Base class for ExtUtils::Constant objects

       ExtUtils::Embed
		   Utilities for embedding Perl in C/C++ applications

       ExtUtils::Install
		   Install files from here to there

       ExtUtils::Installed
		   Inventory management of installed modules

       ExtUtils::Liblist
		   Determine libraries to use and how to use them

       ExtUtils::MM
		   OS adjusted ExtUtils::MakeMaker subclass

       ExtUtils::MM_AIX
		   AIX specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix

       ExtUtils::MM_Any
		   Platform-agnostic MM methods

       ExtUtils::MM_BeOS
		   Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

       ExtUtils::MM_Cygwin
		   Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

       ExtUtils::MM_DOS
		   DOS specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix

       ExtUtils::MM_MacOS
		   Once produced Makefiles for MacOS Classic

       ExtUtils::MM_NW5
		   Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

       ExtUtils::MM_OS2
		   Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

       ExtUtils::MM_QNX
		   QNX specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix

       ExtUtils::MM_UWIN
		   U/WIN specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix

       ExtUtils::MM_Unix
		   Methods used by ExtUtils::MakeMaker

       ExtUtils::MM_VMS
		   Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

       ExtUtils::MM_VOS
		   VOS specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix

       ExtUtils::MM_Win32
		   Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

       ExtUtils::MM_Win95
		   Method to customize MakeMaker for Win9X

       ExtUtils::MY
		   ExtUtils::MakeMaker subclass for customization

       ExtUtils::MakeMaker
		   Create a module Makefile

       ExtUtils::MakeMaker::Config
		   Wrapper around Config.pm

       ExtUtils::MakeMaker::FAQ
		   Frequently Asked Questions About MakeMaker

       ExtUtils::MakeMaker::Tutorial
		   Writing a module with MakeMaker

       ExtUtils::MakeMaker::bytes
		   Version-agnostic bytes.pm

       ExtUtils::MakeMaker::vmsish
		   Platform-agnostic vmsish.pm

       ExtUtils::Manifest
		   Utilities to write and check a MANIFEST file

       ExtUtils::Mkbootstrap
		   Make a bootstrap file for use by DynaLoader

       ExtUtils::Mksymlists
		   Write linker options files for dynamic extension

       ExtUtils::Packlist
		   Manage .packlist files

       ExtUtils::testlib
		   Add blib/* directories to @INC

       Fatal	   Replace functions with equivalents which succeed or die

       Fcntl	   Load the C Fcntl.h defines

       File::Basename
		   Parse file paths into directory, filename and suffix.

       File::CheckTree
		   Run many filetest checks on a tree

       File::Compare
		   Compare files or filehandles

       File::Copy  Copy files or filehandles

       File::DosGlob
		   DOS like globbing and then some

       File::Find  Traverse a directory tree.

       File::Glob  Perl extension for BSD glob routine

       File::Path  Create or remove directory trees

       File::Spec  Portably perform operations on file names

       File::Spec::Cygwin
		   Methods for Cygwin file specs

       File::Spec::Epoc
		   Methods for Epoc file specs

       File::Spec::Functions
		   Portably perform operations on file names

       File::Spec::Mac
		   File::Spec for Mac OS (Classic)

       File::Spec::OS2
		   Methods for OS/2 file specs

       File::Spec::Unix
		   File::Spec for Unix, base for other File::Spec modules

       File::Spec::VMS
		   Methods for VMS file specs

       File::Spec::Win32
		   Methods for Win32 file specs

       File::Temp  Return name and handle of a temporary file safely

       File::stat  By-name interface to Perl's built-in stat() functions

       FileCache   Keep more files open than the system permits

       FileHandle  Supply object methods for filehandles

       Filter::Simple
		   Simplified source filtering

       Filter::Util::Call
		   Perl Source Filter Utility Module

       FindBin	   Locate directory of original perl script

       GDBM_File   Perl5 access to the gdbm library.

       Getopt::Long
		   Extended processing of command line options

       Getopt::Std Process single-character switches with switch clustering

       Hash::Util  A selection of general-utility hash subroutines

       I18N::Collate
		   Compare 8-bit scalar data according to the current locale

       I18N::LangTags
		   Functions for dealing with RFC3066-style language tags

       I18N::LangTags::Detect
		   Detect the user's language preferences

       I18N::LangTags::List
		   Tags and names for human languages

       I18N::Langinfo
		   Query locale information

       IO	   Load various IO modules

       IO::Dir	   Supply object methods for directory handles

       IO::File    Supply object methods for filehandles

       IO::Handle  Supply object methods for I/O handles

       IO::Pipe    Supply object methods for pipes

       IO::Poll    Object interface to system poll call

       IO::Seekable
		   Supply seek based methods for I/O objects

       IO::Select  OO interface to the select system call

       IO::Socket  Object interface to socket communications

       IO::Socket::INET
		   Object interface for AF_INET domain sockets

       IO::Socket::UNIX
		   Object interface for AF_UNIX domain sockets

       IPC::Open2  Open a process for both reading and writing

       IPC::Open3  Open a process for reading, writing, and error handling

       IPC::SysV   SysV IPC constants

       IPC::SysV::Msg
		   SysV Msg IPC object class

       IPC::SysV::Semaphore
		   SysV Semaphore IPC object class

       List::Util  A selection of general-utility list subroutines

       Locale::Constants
		   Constants for Locale codes

       Locale::Country
		   ISO codes for country identification (ISO 3166)

       Locale::Currency
		   ISO three letter codes for currency identification (ISO
		   4217)

       Locale::Language
		   ISO two letter codes for language identification (ISO 639)

       Locale::Maketext
		   Framework for localization

       Locale::Maketext::TPJ13
		   Article about software localization

       Locale::Script
		   ISO codes for script identification (ISO 15924)

       MIME::Base64
		   Encoding and decoding of base64 strings

       MIME::Base64::QuotedPrint
		   Encoding and decoding of quoted-printable strings

       Math::BigFloat
		   Arbitrary size floating point math package

       Math::BigInt
		   Arbitrary size integer/float math package

       Math::BigInt::Calc
		   Pure Perl module to support Math::BigInt

       Math::BigInt::CalcEmu
		   Emulate low-level math with BigInt code

       Math::BigRat
		   Arbitrary big rational numbers

       Math::Complex
		   Complex numbers and associated mathematical functions

       Math::Trig  Trigonometric functions

       Memoize	   Make functions faster by trading space for time

       Memoize::AnyDBM_File
		   Glue to provide EXISTS for AnyDBM_File for Storable use

       Memoize::Expire
		   Plug-in module for automatic expiration of memoized values

       Memoize::ExpireFile
		   Test for Memoize expiration semantics

       Memoize::ExpireTest
		   Test for Memoize expiration semantics

       Memoize::NDBM_File
		   Glue to provide EXISTS for NDBM_File for Storable use

       Memoize::SDBM_File
		   Glue to provide EXISTS for SDBM_File for Storable use

       Memoize::Storable
		   Store Memoized data in Storable database

       NDBM_File   Tied access to ndbm files

       NEXT	   Provide a pseudo-class NEXT (et al) that allows method
		   redispatch

       Net::Cmd    Network Command class (as used by FTP, SMTP etc)

       Net::Config Local configuration data for libnet

       Net::Domain Attempt to evaluate the current host's internet name and
		   domain

       Net::FTP    FTP Client class

       Net::NNTP   NNTP Client class

       Net::Netrc  OO interface to users netrc file

       Net::POP3   Post Office Protocol 3 Client class (RFC1939)

       Net::Ping   Check a remote host for reachability

       Net::SMTP   Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Client

       Net::Time   Time and daytime network client interface

       Net::hostent
		   By-name interface to Perl's built-in gethost*() functions

       Net::libnetFAQ
		   Libnet Frequently Asked Questions

       Net::netent By-name interface to Perl's built-in getnet*() functions

       Net::protoent
		   By-name interface to Perl's built-in getproto*() functions

       Net::servent
		   By-name interface to Perl's built-in getserv*() functions

       O	   Generic interface to Perl Compiler backends

       ODBM_File   Tied access to odbm files

       Opcode	   Disable named opcodes when compiling perl code

       POSIX	   Perl interface to IEEE Std 1003.1

       PerlIO	   On demand loader for PerlIO layers and root of PerlIO::*
		   name space

       PerlIO::encoding
		   Encoding layer

       PerlIO::scalar
		   In-memory IO, scalar IO

       PerlIO::via Helper class for PerlIO layers implemented in perl

       PerlIO::via::QuotedPrint
		   PerlIO layer for quoted-printable strings

       Pod::Checker
		   Check pod documents for syntax errors

       Pod::Find   Find POD documents in directory trees

       Pod::Functions
		   Group Perl's functions a la perlfunc.pod

       Pod::Html   Module to convert pod files to HTML

       Pod::InputObjects
		   Objects representing POD input paragraphs, commands, etc.

       Pod::LaTeX  Convert Pod data to formatted Latex

       Pod::Man    Convert POD data to formatted *roff input

       Pod::ParseLink
		   Parse an L<> formatting code in POD text

       Pod::ParseUtils
		   Helpers for POD parsing and conversion

       Pod::Parser Base class for creating POD filters and translators

       Pod::Perldoc::ToChecker
		   Let Perldoc check Pod for errors

       Pod::Perldoc::ToMan
		   Let Perldoc render Pod as man pages

       Pod::Perldoc::ToNroff
		   Let Perldoc convert Pod to nroff

       Pod::Perldoc::ToPod
		   Let Perldoc render Pod as ... Pod!

       Pod::Perldoc::ToRtf
		   Let Perldoc render Pod as RTF

       Pod::Perldoc::ToText
		   Let Perldoc render Pod as plaintext

       Pod::Perldoc::ToTk
		   Let Perldoc use Tk::Pod to render Pod

       Pod::Perldoc::ToXml
		   Let Perldoc render Pod as XML

       Pod::PlainText
		   Convert POD data to formatted ASCII text

       Pod::Plainer
		   Perl extension for converting Pod to old style Pod.

       Pod::Select Extract selected sections of POD from input

       Pod::Text   Convert POD data to formatted ASCII text

       Pod::Text::Color
		   Convert POD data to formatted color ASCII text

       Pod::Text::Overstrike
		   Convert POD data to formatted overstrike text

       Pod::Text::Termcap
		   Convert POD data to ASCII text with format escapes

       Pod::Usage  Print a usage message from embedded pod documentation

       SDBM_File   Tied access to sdbm files

       Safe	   Compile and execute code in restricted compartments

       Scalar::Util
		   A selection of general-utility scalar subroutines

       Search::Dict
		   Search for key in dictionary file

       SelectSaver Save and restore selected file handle

       SelfLoader  Load functions only on demand

       Shell	   Run shell commands transparently within perl

       Socket	   Load the C socket.h defines and structure manipulators

       Storable    Persistence for Perl data structures

       Switch	   A switch statement for Perl

       Symbol	   Manipulate Perl symbols and their names

       Sys::Hostname
		   Try every conceivable way to get hostname

       Sys::Syslog Perl interface to the UNIX syslog(3) calls

       Term::ANSIColor
		   Color screen output using ANSI escape sequences

       Term::Cap   Perl termcap interface

       Term::Complete
		   Perl word completion module

       Term::ReadLine
		   Perl interface to various "readline" packages.

       Test	   Provides a simple framework for writing test scripts

       Test::Builder
		   Backend for building test libraries

       Test::Builder::Module
		   Base class for test modules

       Test::Builder::Tester
		   Test testsuites that have been built with

       Test::Builder::Tester::Color
		   Turn on colour in Test::Builder::Tester

       Test::Harness
		   Run Perl standard test scripts with statistics

       Test::Harness::Assert
		   Simple assert

       Test::Harness::Iterator
		   Internal Test::Harness Iterator

       Test::Harness::Point
		   Object for tracking a single test point

       Test::Harness::Straps
		   Detailed analysis of test results

       Test::Harness::TAP
		   Documentation for the TAP format

       Test::More  Yet another framework for writing test scripts

       Test::Simple
		   Basic utilities for writing tests.

       Test::Tutorial
		   A tutorial about writing really basic tests

       Text::Abbrev
		   Create an abbreviation table from a list

       Text::Balanced
		   Extract delimited text sequences from strings.

       Text::ParseWords
		   Parse text into an array of tokens or array of arrays

       Text::Soundex
		   Implementation of the Soundex Algorithm as Described by
		   Knuth

       Text::Tabs  Expand and unexpand tabs per the unix expand(1) and unex-
		   pand(1)

       Text::Wrap  Line wrapping to form simple paragraphs

       Thread	   Manipulate threads in Perl (for old code only)

       Thread::Queue
		   Thread-safe queues

       Thread::Semaphore
		   Thread-safe semaphores

       Thread::Signal
		   Start a thread which runs signal handlers reliably (for old
		   code)

       Thread::Specific
		   Thread-specific keys

       Tie::Array  Base class for tied arrays

       Tie::File   Access the lines of a disk file via a Perl array

       Tie::Handle Base class definitions for tied handles

       Tie::Hash   Base class definitions for tied hashes

       Tie::Memoize
		   Add data to hash when needed

       Tie::RefHash
		   Use references as hash keys

       Tie::Scalar Base class definitions for tied scalars

       Tie::SubstrHash
		   Fixed-table-size, fixed-key-length hashing

       Time::HiRes High resolution alarm, sleep, gettimeofday, interval timers

       Time::Local Efficiently compute time from local and GMT time

       Time::gmtime
		   By-name interface to Perl's built-in gmtime() function

       Time::localtime
		   By-name interface to Perl's built-in localtime() function

       Time::tm    Internal object used by Time::gmtime and Time::localtime

       UNIVERSAL   Base class for ALL classes (blessed references)

       Unicode::Collate
		   Unicode Collation Algorithm

       Unicode::Normalize
		   Unicode Normalization Forms

       Unicode::UCD
		   Unicode character database

       User::grent By-name interface to Perl's built-in getgr*() functions

       User::pwent By-name interface to Perl's built-in getpw*() functions

       XS::APItest Test the perl C API

       XS::Typemap Module to test the XS typemaps distributed with perl

       XSLoader    Dynamically load C libraries into Perl code

       To find out all modules installed on your system, including those with-
       out documentation or outside the standard release, just use the follow-
       ing command (under the default win32 shell, double quotes should be
       used instead of single quotes).

	   % perl -MFile::Find=find -MFile::Spec::Functions -Tlwe \
	     'find { wanted => sub { print canonpath $_ if /\.pm\z/ },
	     no_chdir => 1 }, @INC'

       (The -T is here to prevent '.' from being listed in @INC.)  They should
       all have their own documentation installed and accessible via your sys-
       tem man(1) command.  If you do not have a find program, you can use the
       Perl find2perl program instead, which generates Perl code as output you
       can run through perl.  If you have a man program but it doesn't find
       your modules, you'll have to fix your manpath.  See perl for details.
       If you have no system man command, you might try the perldoc program.

       Note also that the command "perldoc perllocal" gives you a (possibly
       incomplete) list of the modules that have been further installed on
       your system. (The perllocal.pod file is updated by the standard Make-
       Maker install process.)

       Extension Modules

       Extension modules are written in C (or a mix of Perl and C).  They are
       usually dynamically loaded into Perl if and when you need them, but may
       also be linked in statically.  Supported extension modules include
       Socket, Fcntl, and POSIX.

       Many popular C extension modules do not come bundled (at least, not
       completely) due to their sizes, volatility, or simply lack of time for
       adequate testing and configuration across the multitude of platforms on
       which Perl was beta-tested.  You are encouraged to look for them on
       CPAN (described below), or using web search engines like Alta Vista or
       Google.

CPAN
       CPAN stands for Comprehensive Perl Archive Network; it's a globally
       replicated trove of Perl materials, including documentation, style
       guides, tricks and traps, alternate ports to non-Unix systems and occa-
       sional binary distributions for these.	Search engines for CPAN can be
       found at http://www.cpan.org/

       Most importantly, CPAN includes around a thousand unbundled modules,
       some of which require a C compiler to build.  Major categories of mod-
       ules are:

       o   Language Extensions and Documentation Tools

       o   Development Support

       o   Operating System Interfaces

       o   Networking, Device Control (modems) and InterProcess Communication

       o   Data Types and Data Type Utilities

       o   Database Interfaces

       o   User Interfaces

       o   Interfaces to / Emulations of Other Programming Languages

       o   File Names, File Systems and File Locking (see also File Handles)

       o   String Processing, Language Text Processing, Parsing, and Searching

       o   Option, Argument, Parameter, and Configuration File Processing

       o   Internationalization and Locale

       o   Authentication, Security, and Encryption

       o   World Wide Web, HTML, HTTP, CGI, MIME

       o   Server and Daemon Utilities

       o   Archiving and Compression

       o   Images, Pixmap and Bitmap Manipulation, Drawing, and Graphing

       o   Mail and Usenet News

       o   Control Flow Utilities (callbacks and exceptions etc)

       o   File Handle and Input/Output Stream Utilities

       o   Miscellaneous Modules

       The list of the registered CPAN sites as of this writing follows.
       Please note that the sorting order is alphabetical on fields:

       Continent
	  |
	  |-->Country
		|
		|-->[state/province]
			  |
			  |-->ftp
			  |
			  |-->[http]

       and thus the North American servers happen to be listed between the
       European and the South American sites.

       You should try to choose one close to you.

       Africa


       South Africa
				 http://ftp.rucus.ru.ac.za/pub/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.rucus.ru.ac.za/pub/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.is.co.za/programming/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.saix.net/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.sun.ac.za/CPAN/CPAN/

       Asia


       China
				 http://cpan.linuxforum.net/
				 http://cpan.shellhung.org/
				 ftp://ftp.shellhung.org/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://mirrors.hknet.com/CPAN

       Indonesia
				 http://mirrors.tf.itb.ac.id/cpan/
				 http://cpan.cbn.net.id/
				 ftp://ftp.cbn.net.id/mirror/CPAN

       Israel
				 ftp://ftp.iglu.org.il/pub/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.lerner.co.il/
				 http://bioinfo.weizmann.ac.il/pub/software/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://bioinfo.weizmann.ac.il/pub/software/perl/CPAN/

       Japan
				 ftp://ftp.u-aizu.ac.jp/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.kddlabs.co.jp/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.ayamura.org/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.jaist.ac.jp/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/
				 http://ftp.cpan.jp/
				 ftp://ftp.cpan.jp/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.dti.ad.jp/pub/lang/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.ring.gr.jp/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/

       Malaysia
				 http://cpan.MyBSD.org.my
				 http://mirror.leafbug.org/pub/CPAN
				 http://ossig.mncc.com.my/mirror/pub/CPAN

       Russian Federation
				 http://cpan.tomsk.ru
				 ftp://cpan.tomsk.ru/

       Saudi Arabia
				 ftp://ftp.isu.net.sa/pub/CPAN/

       Singapore
				 http://CPAN.en.com.sg/
				 ftp://cpan.en.com.sg/
				 http://mirror.averse.net/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://mirror.averse.net/pub/CPAN
				 http://cpan.oss.eznetsols.org
				 ftp://ftp.oss.eznetsols.org/cpan

       South Korea
				 http://CPAN.bora.net/
				 ftp://ftp.bora.net/pub/CPAN/
				 http://mirror.kr.FreeBSD.org/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.kr.FreeBSD.org/pub/CPAN

       Taiwan
				 ftp://ftp.nctu.edu.tw/UNIX/perl/CPAN
				 http://cpan.cdpa.nsysu.edu.tw/
				 ftp://cpan.cdpa.nsysu.edu.tw/pub/CPAN
				 http://ftp.isu.edu.tw/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.isu.edu.tw/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp1.sinica.edu.tw/pub1/perl/CPAN/
				 http://ftp.tku.edu.tw/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.tku.edu.tw/pub/CPAN/

       Thailand
				 ftp://ftp.loxinfo.co.th/pub/cpan/
				 ftp://ftp.cs.riubon.ac.th/pub/mirrors/CPAN/

       Central America


       Costa Rica
				 http://ftp.ucr.ac.cr/Unix/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.ucr.ac.cr/pub/Unix/CPAN/

       Europe


       Austria
				 http://cpan.inode.at/
				 ftp://cpan.inode.at
				 ftp://ftp.tuwien.ac.at/pub/CPAN/

       Belgium
				 http://ftp.easynet.be/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.easynet.be/pub/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.skynet.be
				 ftp://ftp.cpan.skynet.be/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.kulnet.kuleuven.ac.be/pub/mirror/CPAN/

       Bosnia and Herzegovina
				 http://cpan.blic.net/

       Bulgaria
				 http://cpan.online.bg
				 ftp://cpan.online.bg/cpan
				 http://cpan.zadnik.org
				 ftp://ftp.zadnik.org/mirrors/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.lirex.net/
				 ftp://ftp.lirex.net/pub/mirrors/CPAN

       Croatia
				 http://ftp.linux.hr/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.linux.hr/pub/CPAN/

       Czech Republic
				 ftp://ftp.fi.muni.cz/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://sunsite.mff.cuni.cz/MIRRORS/ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/

       Denmark
				 http://mirrors.sunsite.dk/cpan/
				 ftp://sunsite.dk/mirrors/cpan/
				 http://cpan.cybercity.dk
				 http://www.cpan.dk/CPAN/
				 ftp://www.cpan.dk/ftp.cpan.org/CPAN/

       Estonia
				 ftp://ftp.ut.ee/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/

       Finland
				 ftp://ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
				 http://mirror.eunet.fi/CPAN

       France
				 http://www.enstimac.fr/Perl/CPAN
				 http://ftp.u-paris10.fr/perl/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.u-paris10.fr/perl/CPAN
				 http://cpan.mirrors.easynet.fr/
				 ftp://cpan.mirrors.easynet.fr/pub/ftp.cpan.org/
				 ftp://ftp.club-internet.fr/pub/perl/CPAN/
				 http://fr.cpan.org/
				 ftp://ftp.lip6.fr/pub/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.oleane.net/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.pasteur.fr/pub/computing/CPAN/
				 http://mir2.ovh.net/ftp.cpan.org
				 ftp://mir1.ovh.net/ftp.cpan.org
				 http://ftp.crihan.fr/mirrors/ftp.cpan.org/
				 ftp://ftp.crihan.fr/mirrors/ftp.cpan.org/
				 http://ftp.u-strasbg.fr/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.u-strasbg.fr/CPAN
				 ftp://cpan.cict.fr/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.uvsq.fr/pub/perl/CPAN/

       Germany
				 ftp://ftp.rub.de/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.freenet.de/pub/ftp.cpan.org/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.uni-erlangen.de/pub/source/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp-stud.fht-esslingen.de/pub/Mirrors/CPAN
				 http://pandemonium.tiscali.de/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://pandemonium.tiscali.de/pub/CPAN/
				 http://ftp.gwdg.de/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.gwdg.de/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.uni-hamburg.de/pub/soft/lang/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.leo.org/pub/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.noris.de/
				 ftp://cpan.noris.de/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.mpi-sb.mpg.de/pub/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.gmd.de/mirrors/CPAN/

       Greece
				 ftp://ftp.acn.gr/pub/lang/perl
				 ftp://ftp.forthnet.gr/pub/languages/perl/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.ntua.gr/pub/lang/perl/

       Hungary
				 http://ftp.kfki.hu/packages/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.kfki.hu/pub/packages/perl/CPAN/

       Iceland
				 http://ftp.rhnet.is/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.rhnet.is/pub/CPAN/

       Ireland
				 http://cpan.indigo.ie/
				 ftp://cpan.indigo.ie/pub/CPAN/
				 http://ftp.heanet.ie/mirrors/ftp.perl.org/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.heanet.ie/mirrors/ftp.perl.org/pub/CPAN
				 http://sunsite.compapp.dcu.ie/pub/perl/
				 ftp://sunsite.compapp.dcu.ie/pub/perl/

       Italy
				 http://cpan.nettuno.it/
				 http://gusp.dyndns.org/CPAN/
				 ftp://gusp.dyndns.org/pub/CPAN
				 http://softcity.iol.it/cpan
				 ftp://softcity.iol.it/pub/cpan
				 ftp://ftp.unina.it/pub/Other/CPAN/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.unipi.it/pub/mirror/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://cis.uniRoma2.it/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.edisontel.it/pub/CPAN_Mirror/
				 http://cpan.flashnet.it/
				 ftp://ftp.flashnet.it/pub/CPAN/

       Latvia
				 http://kvin.lv/pub/CPAN/

       Lithuania
				 ftp://ftp.unix.lt/pub/CPAN/

       Netherlands
				 ftp://download.xs4all.nl/pub/mirror/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.nl.uu.net/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.nluug.nl/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.cybercomm.nl/
				 ftp://mirror.cybercomm.nl/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://mirror.vuurwerk.nl/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.cpan.nl/pub/CPAN/
				 http://ftp.easynet.nl/mirror/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.easynet.nl/mirror/CPAN
				 http://archive.cs.uu.nl/mirror/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.cs.uu.nl/mirror/CPAN/

       Norway
				 ftp://ftp.uninett.no/pub/languages/perl/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.uit.no/pub/languages/perl/cpan/

       Poland
				 ftp://ftp.mega.net.pl/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.man.torun.pl/pub/doc/CPAN/
				 ftp://sunsite.icm.edu.pl/pub/CPAN/

       Portugal
				 ftp://ftp.ua.pt/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://perl.di.uminho.pt/pub/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.dei.uc.pt/
				 ftp://ftp.dei.uc.pt/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.nfsi.pt/pub/CPAN
				 http://ftp.linux.pt/pub/mirrors/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.linux.pt/pub/mirrors/CPAN
				 http://cpan.ip.pt/
				 ftp://cpan.ip.pt/pub/cpan/
				 http://cpan.telepac.pt/
				 ftp://ftp.telepac.pt/pub/cpan/

       Romania
				 ftp://ftp.bio-net.ro/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.kappa.ro/pub/mirrors/ftp.perl.org/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.lug.ro/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.roedu.net/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.dntis.ro/pub/cpan/
				 ftp://ftp.iasi.roedu.net/pub/mirrors/ftp.cpan.org/
				 http://cpan.ambra.ro/
				 ftp://ftp.ambra.ro/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.dnttm.ro/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.lasting.ro/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.timisoara.roedu.net/mirrors/CPAN/

       Russia
				 ftp://ftp.chg.ru/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.rinet.ru/
				 ftp://cpan.rinet.ru/pub/mirror/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.aha.ru/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.corbina.ru/pub/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.sai.msu.ru/
				 ftp://ftp.sai.msu.su/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/

       Slovakia
				 ftp://ftp.cvt.stuba.sk/pub/CPAN/

       Slovenia
				 ftp://ftp.arnes.si/software/perl/CPAN/

       Spain
				 http://cpan.imasd.elmundo.es/
				 ftp://ftp.rediris.es/mirror/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.ri.telefonica-data.net/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.etse.urv.es/pub/perl/

       Sweden
				 http://ftp.du.se/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.du.se/pub/CPAN/
				 http://mirror.dataphone.se/CPAN
				 ftp://mirror.dataphone.se/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.sunet.se/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/

       Switzerland
				 http://cpan.mirror.solnet.ch/
				 ftp://ftp.solnet.ch/mirror/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.danyk.ch/CPAN/
				 ftp://sunsite.cnlab-switch.ch/mirror/CPAN/

       Turkey
				 http://ftp.ulak.net.tr/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.ulak.net.tr/perl/CPAN
				 ftp://sunsite.bilkent.edu.tr/pub/languages/CPAN/

       Ukraine
				 http://cpan.org.ua/
				 ftp://cpan.org.ua/
				 ftp://ftp.perl.org.ua/pub/CPAN/
				 http://no-more.kiev.ua/CPAN/
				 ftp://no-more.kiev.ua/pub/CPAN/

       United Kingdom
				 http://www.mirror.ac.uk/sites/ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.mirror.ac.uk/sites/ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.teleglobe.net/
				 ftp://cpan.teleglobe.net/pub/CPAN
				 http://cpan.mirror.anlx.net/
				 ftp://ftp.mirror.anlx.net/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.etla.org/
				 ftp://cpan.etla.org/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.demon.co.uk/pub/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.m.flirble.org/
				 ftp://ftp.flirble.org/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.plig.org/pub/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.hambule.co.uk/
				 http://cpan.mirrors.clockerz.net/
				 ftp://ftp.clockerz.net/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://usit.shef.ac.uk/pub/packages/CPAN/

       North America


       Canada
	   Alberta
					 http://cpan.sunsite.ualberta.ca/
					 ftp://cpan.sunsite.ualberta.ca/pub/CPAN/

	   Manitoba
					 http://theoryx5.uwinnipeg.ca/pub/CPAN/
					 ftp://theoryx5.uwinnipeg.ca/pub/CPAN/

	   Nova Scotia
					 ftp://cpan.chebucto.ns.ca/pub/CPAN/

	   Ontario
					 ftp://ftp.nrc.ca/pub/CPAN/

       Mexico
				 http://cpan.azc.uam.mx
				 ftp://cpan.azc.uam.mx/mirrors/CPAN
				 http://www.cpan.unam.mx/
				 ftp://ftp.unam.mx/pub/CPAN
				 http://www.msg.com.mx/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.msg.com.mx/pub/CPAN/

       United States
	   Alabama
					 http://mirror.hiwaay.net/CPAN/
					 ftp://mirror.hiwaay.net/CPAN/

	   California
					 http://cpan.develooper.com/
					 http://www.cpan.org/
					 ftp://cpan.valueclick.com/pub/CPAN/
					 http://www.mednor.net/ftp/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
					 ftp://ftp.mednor.net/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
					 http://mirrors.gossamer-threads.com/CPAN
					 ftp://cpan.nas.nasa.gov/pub/perl/CPAN/
					 http://mirrors.kernel.org/cpan/
					 ftp://mirrors.kernel.org/pub/CPAN
					 http://cpan-sj.viaverio.com/
					 ftp://cpan-sj.viaverio.com/pub/CPAN/
					 http://cpan.digisle.net/
					 ftp://cpan.digisle.net/pub/CPAN
					 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/
					 http://www.uberlan.net/CPAN

	   Colorado
					 ftp://ftp.cs.colorado.edu/pub/perl/CPAN/
					 http://cpan.four10.com

	   Delaware
					 http://ftp.lug.udel.edu/pub/CPAN
					 ftp://ftp.lug.udel.edu/pub/CPAN

	   District of Columbia
					 ftp://ftp.dc.aleron.net/pub/CPAN/

	   Florida
					 ftp://ftp.cise.ufl.edu/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
					 http://mirror.csit.fsu.edu/pub/CPAN/
					 ftp://mirror.csit.fsu.edu/pub/CPAN/
					 http://cpan.mirrors.nks.net/

	   Indiana
					 ftp://ftp.uwsg.iu.edu/pub/perl/CPAN/
					 http://cpan.netnitco.net/
					 ftp://cpan.netnitco.net/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
					 http://archive.progeny.com/CPAN/
					 ftp://archive.progeny.com/CPAN/
					 http://fx.saintjoe.edu/pub/CPAN
					 ftp://ftp.saintjoe.edu/pub/CPAN
					 http://csociety-ftp.ecn.purdue.edu/pub/CPAN
					 ftp://csociety-ftp.ecn.purdue.edu/pub/CPAN

	   Kentucky
					 http://cpan.uky.edu/
					 ftp://cpan.uky.edu/pub/CPAN/
					 http://slugsite.louisville.edu/cpan
					 ftp://slugsite.louisville.edu/CPAN

	   Massachusetts
					 http://mirrors.towardex.com/CPAN
					 ftp://mirrors.towardex.com/pub/CPAN
					 ftp://ftp.ccs.neu.edu/net/mirrors/ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/

	   Michigan
					 ftp://cpan.cse.msu.edu/
					 http://cpan.calvin.edu/pub/CPAN
					 ftp://cpan.calvin.edu/pub/CPAN

	   Nevada
					 http://www.oss.redundant.com/pub/CPAN
					 ftp://www.oss.redundant.com/pub/CPAN

	   New Jersey
					 http://ftp.cpanel.net/pub/CPAN/
					 ftp://ftp.cpanel.net/pub/CPAN/
					 http://cpan.teleglobe.net/
					 ftp://cpan.teleglobe.net/pub/CPAN

	   New York
					 http://cpan.belfry.net/
					 http://cpan.erlbaum.net/
					 ftp://cpan.erlbaum.net/
					 http://cpan.thepirtgroup.com/
					 ftp://cpan.thepirtgroup.com/
					 ftp://ftp.stealth.net/pub/CPAN/
					 http://www.rge.com/pub/languages/perl/
					 ftp://ftp.rge.com/pub/languages/perl/

	   North Carolina
					 http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/languages/perl/CPAN
					 ftp://ftp.ibiblio.org/pub/languages/perl/CPAN
					 ftp://ftp.duke.edu/pub/perl/
					 ftp://ftp.ncsu.edu/pub/mirror/CPAN/

	   Oklahoma
					 ftp://ftp.ou.edu/mirrors/CPAN/

	   Oregon
					 ftp://ftp.orst.edu/pub/CPAN

	   Pennsylvania
					 http://ftp.epix.net/CPAN/
					 ftp://ftp.epix.net/pub/languages/perl/
					 http://mirrors.phenominet.com/pub/CPAN/
					 ftp://mirrors.phenominet.com/pub/CPAN/
					 http://cpan.pair.com/
					 ftp://cpan.pair.com/pub/CPAN/
					 ftp://carroll.cac.psu.edu/pub/CPAN/

	   Tennessee
					 ftp://ftp.sunsite.utk.edu/pub/CPAN/

	   Texas
					 http://ftp.sedl.org/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
					 http://www.binarycode.org/cpan
					 ftp://mirror.telentente.com/pub/CPAN
					 http://mirrors.theonlinerecordstore.com/CPAN

	   Utah
					 ftp://mirror.xmission.com/CPAN/

	   Virginia
					 http://cpan-du.viaverio.com/
					 ftp://cpan-du.viaverio.com/pub/CPAN/
					 http://mirrors.rcn.net/pub/lang/CPAN/
					 ftp://mirrors.rcn.net/pub/lang/CPAN/
					 http://perl.secsup.org/
					 ftp://perl.secsup.org/pub/perl/
					 http://noc.cvaix.com/mirrors/CPAN/

	   Washington
					 http://cpan.llarian.net/
					 ftp://cpan.llarian.net/pub/CPAN/
					 http://cpan.mirrorcentral.com/
					 ftp://ftp.mirrorcentral.com/pub/CPAN/
					 ftp://ftp-mirror.internap.com/pub/CPAN/

	   Wisconsin
					 http://mirror.sit.wisc.edu/pub/CPAN/
					 ftp://mirror.sit.wisc.edu/pub/CPAN/
					 http://mirror.aphix.com/CPAN
					 ftp://mirror.aphix.com/pub/CPAN

       Oceania


       Australia
				 http://ftp.planetmirror.com/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.planetmirror.com/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://mirror.aarnet.edu.au/pub/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://cpan.topend.com.au/pub/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.mirrors.ilisys.com.au

       New Zealand
				 ftp://ftp.auckland.ac.nz/pub/perl/CPAN/

       United States
				 http://aniani.ifa.hawaii.edu/CPAN/
				 ftp://aniani.ifa.hawaii.edu/CPAN/

       South America


       Argentina
				 ftp://mirrors.bannerlandia.com.ar/mirrors/CPAN/
				 http://www.linux.org.ar/mirrors/cpan
				 ftp://ftp.linux.org.ar/mirrors/cpan

       Brazil
				 ftp://cpan.pop-mg.com.br/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.matrix.com.br/pub/perl/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.hostsul.com.br/
				 ftp://cpan.hostsul.com.br/

       Chile
				 http://cpan.netglobalis.net/
				 ftp://cpan.netglobalis.net/pub/CPAN/

       RSYNC Mirrors

			     www.linux.org.ar::cpan
			     theoryx5.uwinnipeg.ca::CPAN
			     ftp.shellhung.org::CPAN
			     rsync.nic.funet.fi::CPAN
			     ftp.u-paris10.fr::CPAN
			     mir1.ovh.net::CPAN
			     rsync://ftp.crihan.fr::CPAN
			     ftp.gwdg.de::FTP/languages/perl/CPAN/
			     ftp.leo.org::CPAN
			     ftp.cbn.net.id::CPAN
			     rsync://ftp.heanet.ie/mirrors/ftp.perl.org/pub/CPAN
			     ftp.iglu.org.il::CPAN
			     gusp.dyndns.org::cpan
			     ftp.kddlabs.co.jp::cpan
			     ftp.ayamura.org::pub/CPAN/
			     mirror.leafbug.org::CPAN
			     rsync.en.com.sg::CPAN
			     mirror.averse.net::cpan
			     rsync.oss.eznetsols.org
			     ftp.kr.FreeBSD.org::CPAN
			     ftp.solnet.ch::CPAN
			     cpan.cdpa.nsysu.edu.tw::CPAN
			     cpan.teleglobe.net::CPAN
			     rsync://rsync.mirror.anlx.net::CPAN
			     ftp.sedl.org::cpan
			     ibiblio.org::CPAN
			     cpan-du.viaverio.com::CPAN
			     aniani.ifa.hawaii.edu::CPAN
			     archive.progeny.com::CPAN
			     rsync://slugsite.louisville.edu::CPAN
			     mirror.aphix.com::CPAN
			     cpan.teleglobe.net::CPAN
			     ftp.lug.udel.edu::cpan
			     mirrors.kernel.org::mirrors/CPAN
			     mirrors.phenominet.com::CPAN
			     cpan.pair.com::CPAN
			     cpan-sj.viaverio.com::CPAN
			     mirror.csit.fsu.edu::CPAN
			     csociety-ftp.ecn.purdue.edu::CPAN

       For an up-to-date listing of CPAN sites, see http://www.cpan.org/SITES
       or ftp://www.cpan.org/SITES .

Modules: Creation, Use, and Abuse
       (The following section is borrowed directly from Tim Bunce's modules
       file, available at your nearest CPAN site.)

       Perl implements a class using a package, but the presence of a package
       doesn't imply the presence of a class.  A package is just a namespace.
       A class is a package that provides subroutines that can be used as
       methods.  A method is just a subroutine that expects, as its first
       argument, either the name of a package (for "static" methods), or a
       reference to something (for "virtual" methods).

       A module is a file that (by convention) provides a class of the same
       name (sans the .pm), plus an import method in that class that can be
       called to fetch exported symbols.  This module may implement some of
       its methods by loading dynamic C or C++ objects, but that should be
       totally transparent to the user of the module.  Likewise, the module
       might set up an AUTOLOAD function to slurp in subroutine definitions on
       demand, but this is also transparent.  Only the .pm file is required to
       exist.  See perlsub, perltoot, and AutoLoader for details about the
       AUTOLOAD mechanism.

       Guidelines for Module Creation


       o   Do similar modules already exist in some form?

	   If so, please try to reuse the existing modules either in whole or
	   by inheriting useful features into a new class.  If this is not
	   practical try to get together with the module authors to work on
	   extending or enhancing the functionality of the existing modules.
	   A perfect example is the plethora of packages in perl4 for dealing
	   with command line options.

	   If you are writing a module to expand an already existing set of
	   modules, please coordinate with the author of the package.  It
	   helps if you follow the same naming scheme and module interaction
	   scheme as the original author.

       o   Try to design the new module to be easy to extend and reuse.

	   Try to "use warnings;" (or "use warnings qw(...);").  Remember that
	   you can add "no warnings qw(...);" to individual blocks of code
	   that need less warnings.

	   Use blessed references.  Use the two argument form of bless to
	   bless into the class name given as the first parameter of the con-
	   structor, e.g.,:

	    sub new {
		my $class = shift;
		return bless {}, $class;
	    }

	   or even this if you'd like it to be used as either a static or a
	   virtual method.

	    sub new {
		my $self  = shift;
		my $class = ref($self) || $self;
		return bless {}, $class;
	    }

	   Pass arrays as references so more parameters can be added later
	   (it's also faster).	Convert functions into methods where appropri-
	   ate.  Split large methods into smaller more flexible ones.  Inherit
	   methods from other modules if appropriate.

	   Avoid class name tests like: "die "Invalid" unless ref $ref eq
	   'FOO'".  Generally you can delete the "eq 'FOO'" part with no harm
	   at all.  Let the objects look after themselves! Generally, avoid
	   hard-wired class names as far as possible.

	   Avoid "$r->Class::func()" where using "@ISA=qw(... Class ...)" and
	   "$r->func()" would work (see perlbot for more details).

	   Use autosplit so little used or newly added functions won't be a
	   burden to programs that don't use them. Add test functions to the
	   module after __END__ either using AutoSplit or by saying:

	    eval join('',) || die $@ unless caller();

	   Does your module pass the 'empty subclass' test? If you say "@SUB-
	   CLASS::ISA = qw(YOURCLASS);" your applications should be able to
	   use SUBCLASS in exactly the same way as YOURCLASS.  For example,
	   does your application still work if you change:  "$obj = new YOUR-
	   CLASS;" into: "$obj = new SUBCLASS;" ?

	   Avoid keeping any state information in your packages. It makes it
	   difficult for multiple other packages to use yours. Keep state
	   information in objects.

	   Always use -w.

	   Try to "use strict;" (or "use strict qw(...);").  Remember that you
	   can add "no strict qw(...);" to individual blocks of code that need
	   less strictness.

	   Always use -w.

	   Follow the guidelines in the perlstyle(1) manual.

	   Always use -w.

       o   Some simple style guidelines

	   The perlstyle manual supplied with Perl has many helpful points.

	   Coding style is a matter of personal taste. Many people evolve
	   their style over several years as they learn what helps them write
	   and maintain good code.  Here's one set of assorted suggestions
	   that seem to be widely used by experienced developers:

	   Use underscores to separate words.  It is generally easier to read
	   $var_names_like_this than $VarNamesLikeThis, especially for non-
	   native speakers of English. It's also a simple rule that works con-
	   sistently with VAR_NAMES_LIKE_THIS.

	   Package/Module names are an exception to this rule. Perl informally
	   reserves lowercase module names for 'pragma' modules like integer
	   and strict. Other modules normally begin with a capital letter and
	   use mixed case with no underscores (need to be short and portable).

	   You may find it helpful to use letter case to indicate the scope or
	   nature of a variable. For example:

	    $ALL_CAPS_HERE   constants only (beware clashes with Perl vars)
	    $Some_Caps_Here  package-wide global/static
	    $no_caps_here    function scope my() or local() variables

	   Function and method names seem to work best as all lowercase.
	   e.g., "$obj->as_string()".

	   You can use a leading underscore to indicate that a variable or
	   function should not be used outside the package that defined it.

       o   Select what to export.

	   Do NOT export method names!

	   Do NOT export anything else by default without a good reason!

	   Exports pollute the namespace of the module user.  If you must
	   export try to use @EXPORT_OK in preference to @EXPORT and avoid
	   short or common names to reduce the risk of name clashes.

	   Generally anything not exported is still accessible from outside
	   the module using the ModuleName::item_name (or
	   "$blessed_ref->method") syntax.  By convention you can use a lead-
	   ing underscore on names to indicate informally that they are
	   'internal' and not for public use.

	   (It is actually possible to get private functions by saying: "my
	   $subref = sub { ... };  &$subref;".	But there's no way to call
	   that directly as a method, because a method must have a name in the
	   symbol table.)

	   As a general rule, if the module is trying to be object oriented
	   then export nothing. If it's just a collection of functions then
	   @EXPORT_OK anything but use @EXPORT with caution.

       o   Select a name for the module.

	   This name should be as descriptive, accurate, and complete as pos-
	   sible.  Avoid any risk of ambiguity. Always try to use two or more
	   whole words.  Generally the name should reflect what is special
	   about what the module does rather than how it does it.  Please use
	   nested module names to group informally or categorize a module.
	   There should be a very good reason for a module not to have a
	   nested name.  Module names should begin with a capital letter.

	   Having 57 modules all called Sort will not make life easy for any-
	   one (though having 23 called Sort::Quick is only marginally better
	   :-).  Imagine someone trying to install your module alongside many
	   others.  If in any doubt ask for suggestions in
	   comp.lang.perl.misc.

	   If you are developing a suite of related modules/classes it's good
	   practice to use nested classes with a common prefix as this will
	   avoid namespace clashes. For example: Xyz::Control, Xyz::View,
	   Xyz::Model etc. Use the modules in this list as a naming guide.

	   If adding a new module to a set, follow the original author's stan-
	   dards for naming modules and the interface to methods in those mod-
	   ules.

	   If developing modules for private internal or project specific use,
	   that will never be released to the public, then you should ensure
	   that their names will not clash with any future public module. You
	   can do this either by using the reserved Local::* category or by
	   using a category name that includes an underscore like Foo_Corp::*.

	   To be portable each component of a module name should be limited to
	   11 characters. If it might be used on MS-DOS then try to ensure
	   each is unique in the first 8 characters. Nested modules make this
	   easier.

       o   Have you got it right?

	   How do you know that you've made the right decisions? Have you
	   picked an interface design that will cause problems later? Have you
	   picked the most appropriate name? Do you have any questions?

	   The best way to know for sure, and pick up many helpful sugges-
	   tions, is to ask someone who knows. Comp.lang.perl.misc is read by
	   just about all the people who develop modules and it's the best
	   place to ask.

	   All you need to do is post a short summary of the module, its pur-
	   pose and interfaces. A few lines on each of the main methods is
	   probably enough. (If you post the whole module it might be ignored
	   by busy people - generally the very people you want to read it!)

	   Don't worry about posting if you can't say when the module will be
	   ready - just say so in the message. It might be worth inviting oth-
	   ers to help you, they may be able to complete it for you!

       o   README and other Additional Files.

	   It's well known that software developers usually fully document the
	   software they write. If, however, the world is in urgent need of
	   your software and there is not enough time to write the full docu-
	   mentation please at least provide a README file containing:

	   o	     A description of the module/package/extension etc.

	   o	     A copyright notice - see below.

	   o	     Prerequisites - what else you may need to have.

	   o	     How to build it - possible changes to Makefile.PL etc.

	   o	     How to install it.

	   o	     Recent changes in this release, especially incompatibili-
		     ties

	   o	     Changes / enhancements you plan to make in the future.

	   If the README file seems to be getting too large you may wish to
	   split out some of the sections into separate files: INSTALL, Copy-
	   ing, ToDo etc.

	   o   Adding a Copyright Notice.

	       How you choose to license your work is a personal decision.
	       The general mechanism is to assert your Copyright and then make
	       a declaration of how others may copy/use/modify your work.

	       Perl, for example, is supplied with two types of licence: The
	       GNU GPL and The Artistic Licence (see the files README, Copy-
	       ing, and Artistic, or perlgpl and perlartistic).  Larry has
	       good reasons for NOT just using the GNU GPL.

	       My personal recommendation, out of respect for Larry, Perl, and
	       the Perl community at large is to state something simply like:

		Copyright (c) 1995 Your Name. All rights reserved.
		This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
		modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

	       This statement should at least appear in the README file. You
	       may also wish to include it in a Copying file and your source
	       files.  Remember to include the other words in addition to the
	       Copyright.

	   o   Give the module a version/issue/release number.

	       To be fully compatible with the Exporter and MakeMaker modules
	       you should store your module's version number in a non-my pack-
	       age variable called $VERSION.  This should be a floating point
	       number with at least two digits after the decimal (i.e., hun-
	       dredths, e.g, "$VERSION = "0.01"").  Don't use a "1.3.2" style
	       version.  See Exporter for details.

	       It may be handy to add a function or method to retrieve the
	       number.	Use the number in announcements and archive file names
	       when releasing the module (ModuleName-1.02.tar.Z).  See perldoc
	       ExtUtils::MakeMaker.pm for details.

	   o   How to release and distribute a module.

	       It's good idea to post an announcement of the availability of
	       your module (or the module itself if small) to the
	       comp.lang.perl.announce Usenet newsgroup.  This will at least
	       ensure very wide once-off distribution.

	       If possible, register the module with CPAN.  You should include
	       details of its location in your announcement.

	       Some notes about ftp archives: Please use a long descriptive
	       file name that includes the version number. Most incoming
	       directories will not be readable/listable, i.e., you won't be
	       able to see your file after uploading it. Remember to send your
	       email notification message as soon as possible after uploading
	       else your file may get deleted automatically. Allow time for
	       the file to be processed and/or check the file has been pro-
	       cessed before announcing its location.

	       FTP Archives for Perl Modules:

	       Follow the instructions and links on:

		  http://www.cpan.org/modules/00modlist.long.html
		  http://www.cpan.org/modules/04pause.html

	       or upload to one of these sites:

		  https://pause.kbx.de/pause/
		  http://pause.perl.org/pause/

	       and notify .

	       By using the WWW interface you can ask the Upload Server to
	       mirror your modules from your ftp or WWW site into your own
	       directory on CPAN!

	       Please remember to send me an updated entry for the Module
	       list!

	   o   Take care when changing a released module.

	       Always strive to remain compatible with previous released ver-
	       sions.  Otherwise try to add a mechanism to revert to the old
	       behavior if people rely on it.  Document incompatible changes.

       Guidelines for Converting Perl 4 Library Scripts into Modules


       o   There is no requirement to convert anything.

	   If it ain't broke, don't fix it! Perl 4 library scripts should con-
	   tinue to work with no problems. You may need to make some minor
	   changes (like escaping non-array @'s in double quoted strings) but
	   there is no need to convert a .pl file into a Module for just that.

       o   Consider the implications.

	   All Perl applications that make use of the script will need to be
	   changed (slightly) if the script is converted into a module.  Is it
	   worth it unless you plan to make other changes at the same time?

       o   Make the most of the opportunity.

	   If you are going to convert the script to a module you can use the
	   opportunity to redesign the interface.  The guidelines for module
	   creation above include many of the issues you should consider.

       o   The pl2pm utility will get you started.

	   This utility will read *.pl files (given as parameters) and write
	   corresponding *.pm files. The pl2pm utilities does the following:

	   o	     Adds the standard Module prologue lines

	   o	     Converts package specifiers from ' to ::

	   o	     Converts die(...) to croak(...)

	   o	     Several other minor changes

	   Being a mechanical process pl2pm is not bullet proof. The converted
	   code will need careful checking, especially any package statements.
	   Don't delete the original .pl file till the new .pm one works!

       Guidelines for Reusing Application Code


       o   Complete applications rarely belong in the Perl Module Library.

       o   Many applications contain some Perl code that could be reused.

	   Help save the world! Share your code in a form that makes it easy
	   to reuse.

       o   Break-out the reusable code into one or more separate module files.

       o   Take the opportunity to reconsider and redesign the interfaces.

       o   In some cases the 'application' can then be reduced to a small

	   fragment of code built on top of the reusable modules. In these
	   cases the application could invoked as:

		% perl -e 'use Module::Name; method(@ARGV)' ...
	   or
		% perl -mModule::Name ...    (in perl5.002 or higher)

NOTE
       Perl does not enforce private and public parts of its modules as you
       may have been used to in other languages like C++, Ada, or Modula-17.
       Perl doesn't have an infatuation with enforced privacy.	It would pre-
       fer that you stayed out of its living room because you weren't invited,
       not because it has a shotgun.

       The module and its user have a contract, part of which is common law,
       and part of which is "written".	Part of the common law contract is
       that a module doesn't pollute any namespace it wasn't asked to.	The
       written contract for the module (A.K.A. documentation) may make other
       provisions.  But then you know when you "use RedefineTheWorld" that
       you're redefining the world and willing to take the consequences.



perl v5.8.8			  2006-01-07			 PERLMODLIB(1)
=193460
+127
(46)