a2p
accept
access
acct
addftinfo
addr2line
adjtime
afmtodit
after
aio_cancel
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alias
aliases
alloc
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append
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apropos
ar
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as
asa
asn1parse
at
atq
atrm
attemptckalloc
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authlib
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awk
b64decode
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diff
diff3
dig
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dirs
discard
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dngettext
do
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done
dprofpp
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dtmfdecode
du
dup
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eaccess
ec
ecdsa
echo
echotc
ecparam
ed
edit
editrc
ee
egrep
elf
elfdump
elif
else
enc
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end
endif
endsw
engine
enigma
entry
env
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eof
eqn
err
errno
error
errstr
esac
ethers
euc
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ex
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f77
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ifnames259
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incr
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indxbib
info
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interp
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introduction
ioctl
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ipftest
ipnat
ippool
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issetugid
jail
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label
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od
onintr
open
openssl
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perl
perl56delta
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whereis
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while
who
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yppasswd
ypwhich
yyfix
zcat
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zdiff
zegrep
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_exit
__syscall
 
FreeBSD/Linux/UNIX General Commands Manual
Hypertext Man Pages
perldebtut
 
PERLDEBTUT(1)	       Perl Programmers Reference Guide 	 PERLDEBTUT(1)



NAME
       perldebtut - Perl debugging tutorial

DESCRIPTION
       A (very) lightweight introduction in the use of the perl debugger, and
       a pointer to existing, deeper sources of information on the subject of
       debugging perl programs.

       There's an extraordinary number of people out there who don't appear to
       know anything about using the perl debugger, though they use the lan-
       guage every day.  This is for them.

use strict
       First of all, there's a few things you can do to make your life a lot
       more straightforward when it comes to debugging perl programs, without
       using the debugger at all.  To demonstrate, here's a simple script,
       named "hello", with a problem:

	       #!/usr/bin/perl

	       $var1 = 'Hello World'; # always wanted to do that :-)
	       $var2 = "$varl\n";

	       print $var2;
	       exit;

       While this compiles and runs happily, it probably won't do what's
       expected, namely it doesn't print "Hello World\n" at all;  It will on
       the other hand do exactly what it was told to do, computers being a bit
       that way inclined.  That is, it will print out a newline character, and
       you'll get what looks like a blank line.  It looks like there's 2 vari-
       ables when (because of the typo) there's really 3:

	       $var1 = 'Hello World';
	       $varl = undef;
	       $var2 = "\n";

       To catch this kind of problem, we can force each variable to be
       declared before use by pulling in the strict module, by putting 'use
       strict;' after the first line of the script.

       Now when you run it, perl complains about the 3 undeclared variables
       and we get four error messages because one variable is referenced
       twice:

	Global symbol "$var1" requires explicit package name at ./t1 line 4.
	Global symbol "$var2" requires explicit package name at ./t1 line 5.
	Global symbol "$varl" requires explicit package name at ./t1 line 5.
	Global symbol "$var2" requires explicit package name at ./t1 line 7.
	Execution of ./hello aborted due to compilation errors.

       Luvverly! and to fix this we declare all variables explicitly and now
       our script looks like this:

	       #!/usr/bin/perl
	       use strict;

	       my $var1 = 'Hello World';
	       my $varl = undef;
	       my $var2 = "$varl\n";

	       print $var2;
	       exit;

       We then do (always a good idea) a syntax check before we try to run it
       again:

	       > perl -c hello
	       hello syntax OK

       And now when we run it, we get "\n" still, but at least we know why.
       Just getting this script to compile has exposed the '$varl' (with the
       letter 'l') variable, and simply changing $varl to $var1 solves the
       problem.

Looking at data and -w and v
       Ok, but how about when you want to really see your data, what's in that
       dynamic variable, just before using it?

	       #!/usr/bin/perl
	       use strict;

	       my $key = 'welcome';
	       my %data = (
		       'this' => qw(that),
		       'tom' => qw(and jerry),
		       'welcome' => q(Hello World),
		       'zip' => q(welcome),
	       );
	       my @data = keys %data;

	       print "$data{$key}\n";
	       exit;

       Looks OK, after it's been through the syntax check (perl -c script-
       name), we run it and all we get is a blank line again!  Hmmmm.

       One common debugging approach here, would be to liberally sprinkle a
       few print statements, to add a check just before we print out our data,
       and another just after:

	       print "All OK\n" if grep($key, keys %data);
	       print "$data{$key}\n";
	       print "done: '$data{$key}'\n";

       And try again:

	       > perl data
	       All OK

	       done: ''

       After much staring at the same piece of code and not seeing the wood
       for the trees for some time, we get a cup of coffee and try another
       approach.  That is, we bring in the cavalry by giving perl the '-d'
       switch on the command line:

	       > perl -d data
	       Default die handler restored.

	       Loading DB routines from perl5db.pl version 1.07
	       Editor support available.

	       Enter h or `h h' for help, or `man perldebug' for more help.

	       main::(./data:4):     my $key = 'welcome';

       Now, what we've done here is to launch the built-in perl debugger on
       our script.  It's stopped at the first line of executable code and is
       waiting for input.

       Before we go any further, you'll want to know how to quit the debugger:
       use just the letter 'q', not the words 'quit' or 'exit':

	       DB<1> q
	       >

       That's it, you're back on home turf again.

help
       Fire the debugger up again on your script and we'll look at the help
       menu.  There's a couple of ways of calling help: a simple 'h' will get
       the summary help list, '|h' (pipe-h) will pipe the help through your
       pager (which is (probably 'more' or 'less'), and finally, 'h h'
       (h-space-h) will give you the entire help screen.  Here is the summary
       page:

       D1h

	List/search source lines:		Control script execution:
	 l [ln|sub]  List source code		 T	     Stack trace
	 - or .      List previous/current line  s [expr]    Single step [in expr]
	 v [line]    View around line		 n [expr]    Next, steps over subs
	 f filename  View source in file	   Repeat last n or s
	 /pattern/ ?patt?   Search forw/backw	 r	     Return from subroutine
	 M	     Show module versions	 c [ln|sub]  Continue until position
	Debugger controls:			 L	     List break/watch/actions
	 o [...]     Set debugger options	 t [expr]    Toggle trace [trace expr]
	 <[<]|{[{]|>[>] [cmd] Do pre/post-prompt b [ln|event|sub] [cnd] Set breakpoint
	 ! [N|pat]   Redo a previous command	 B ln|*      Delete a/all breakpoints
	 H [-num]    Display last num commands	 a [ln] cmd  Do cmd before line
	 = [a val]   Define/list an alias	 A ln|*      Delete a/all actions
	 h [db_cmd]  Get help on command	 w expr      Add a watch expression
	 h h	     Complete help page 	 W expr|*    Delete a/all watch exprs
	 |[|]db_cmd  Send output to pager	 ![!] syscmd Run cmd in a subprocess
	 q or ^D     Quit			 R	     Attempt a restart
	Data Examination:     expr     Execute perl code, also see: s,n,t expr
	 x|m expr	Evals expr in list context, dumps the result or lists methods.
	 p expr 	Print expression (uses script's current package).
	 S [[!]pat]	List subroutine names [not] matching pattern
	 V [Pk [Vars]]	List Variables in Package.  Vars can be ~pattern or !pattern.
	 X [Vars]	Same as "V current_package [Vars]".
	 y [n [Vars]]	List lexicals in higher scope .  Vars same as V.
	For more help, type h cmd_letter, or run man perldebug for all docs.

       More confusing options than you can shake a big stick at!  It's not as
       bad as it looks and it's very useful to know more about all of it, and
       fun too!

       There's a couple of useful ones to know about straight away.  You
       wouldn't think we're using any libraries at all at the moment, but 'M'
       will show which modules are currently loaded, and their version number,
       while 'm' will show the methods, and 'S' shows all subroutines (by pat-
       tern) as shown below.  'V' and 'X' show variables in the program by
       package scope and can be constrained by pattern.

	       DB<2>S str
	       dumpvar::stringify
	       strict::bits
	       strict::import
	       strict::unimport

       Using 'X' and cousins requires you not to use the type identifiers
       ($@%), just the 'name':

	       DM<3>X ~err
	       FileHandle(stderr) => fileno(2)

       Remember we're in our tiny program with a problem, we should have a
       look at where we are, and what our data looks like. First of all let's
       view some code at our present position (the first line of code in this
       case), via 'v':

	       DB<4> v
	       1       #!/usr/bin/perl
	       2:      use strict;
	       3
	       4==>    my $key = 'welcome';
	       5:      my %data = (
	       6	       'this' => qw(that),
	       7	       'tom' => qw(and jerry),
	       8	       'welcome' => q(Hello World),
	       9	       'zip' => q(welcome),
	       10      );

       At line number 4 is a helpful pointer, that tells you where you are
       now.  To see more code, type 'v' again:

	       DB<4> v
	       8	       'welcome' => q(Hello World),
	       9	       'zip' => q(welcome),
	       10      );
	       11:     my @data = keys %data;
	       12:     print "All OK\n" if grep($key, keys %data);
	       13:     print "$data{$key}\n";
	       14:     print "done: '$data{$key}'\n";
	       15:     exit;

       And if you wanted to list line 5 again, type 'l 5', (note the space):

	       DB<4> l 5
	       5:      my %data = (

       In this case, there's not much to see, but of course normally there's
       pages of stuff to wade through, and 'l' can be very useful.  To reset
       your view to the line we're about to execute, type a lone period '.':

	       DB<5> .
	       main::(./data_a:4):     my $key = 'welcome';

       The line shown is the one that is about to be executed next, it hasn't
       happened yet.  So while we can print a variable with the letter 'p', at
       this point all we'd get is an empty (undefined) value back.  What we
       need to do is to step through the next executable statement with an
       's':

	       DB<6> s
	       main::(./data_a:5):     my %data = (
	       main::(./data_a:6):	       'this' => qw(that),
	       main::(./data_a:7):	       'tom' => qw(and jerry),
	       main::(./data_a:8):	       'welcome' => q(Hello World),
	       main::(./data_a:9):	       'zip' => q(welcome),
	       main::(./data_a:10):    );

       Now we can have a look at that first ($key) variable:

	       DB<7> p $key
	       welcome

       line 13 is where the action is, so let's continue down to there via the
       letter 'c', which by the way, inserts a 'one-time-only' breakpoint at
       the given line or sub routine:

	       DB<8> c 13
	       All OK
	       main::(./data_a:13):    print "$data{$key}\n";

       We've gone past our check (where 'All OK' was printed) and have stopped
       just before the meat of our task.  We could try to print out a couple
       of variables to see what is happening:

	       DB<9> p $data{$key}

       Not much in there, lets have a look at our hash:

	       DB<10> p %data
	       Hello Worldziptomandwelcomejerrywelcomethisthat

	       DB<11> p keys %data
	       Hello Worldtomwelcomejerrythis

       Well, this isn't very easy to read, and using the helpful manual (h h),
       the 'x' command looks promising:

	       DB<12> x %data
	       0  'Hello World'
	       1  'zip'
	       2  'tom'
	       3  'and'
	       4  'welcome'
	       5  undef
	       6  'jerry'
	       7  'welcome'
	       8  'this'
	       9  'that'

       That's not much help, a couple of welcomes in there, but no indication
       of which are keys, and which are values, it's just a listed array dump
       and, in this case, not particularly helpful.  The trick here, is to use
       a reference to the data structure:

	       DB<13> x \%data
	       0  HASH(0x8194bc4)
		  'Hello World' => 'zip'
		  'jerry' => 'welcome'
		  'this' => 'that'
		  'tom' => 'and'
		  'welcome' => undef

       The reference is truly dumped and we can finally see what we're dealing
       with.  Our quoting was perfectly valid but wrong for our purposes, with
       'and jerry' being treated as 2 separate words rather than a phrase,
       thus throwing the evenly paired hash structure out of alignment.

       The '-w' switch would have told us about this, had we used it at the
       start, and saved us a lot of trouble:

	       > perl -w data
	       Odd number of elements in hash assignment at ./data line 5.

       We fix our quoting: 'tom' => q(and jerry), and run it again, this time
       we get our expected output:

	       > perl -w data
	       Hello World

       While we're here, take a closer look at the 'x' command, it's really
       useful and will merrily dump out nested references, complete objects,
       partial objects - just about whatever you throw at it:

       Let's make a quick object and x-plode it, first we'll start the debug-
       ger: it wants some form of input from STDIN, so we give it something
       non-committal, a zero:

	       > perl -de 0
	       Default die handler restored.

	       Loading DB routines from perl5db.pl version 1.07
	       Editor support available.

	       Enter h or `h h' for help, or `man perldebug' for more help.

	       main::(-e:1):   0

       Now build an on-the-fly object over a couple of lines (note the back-
       slash):

	       DB<1> $obj = bless({'unique_id'=>'123', 'attr'=> \
	       cont:   {'col' => 'black', 'things' => [qw(this that etc)]}}, 'MY_class')

       And let's have a look at it:

	       DB<2> x $obj
	       0  MY_class=HASH(0x828ad98)
		       'attr' => HASH(0x828ad68)
	       'col' => 'black'
	       'things' => ARRAY(0x828abb8)
		       0  'this'
		       1  'that'
		       2  'etc'
		       'unique_id' => 123
	       DB<3>

       Useful, huh?  You can eval nearly anything in there, and experiment
       with bits of code or regexes until the cows come home:

	       DB<3> @data = qw(this that the other atheism leather theory scythe)

	       DB<4> p 'saw -> '.($cnt += map { print "\t:\t$_\n" } grep(/the/, sort @data))
	       atheism
	       leather
	       other
	       scythe
	       the
	       theory
	       saw -> 6

       If you want to see the command History, type an 'H':

	       DB<5> H
	       4: p 'saw -> '.($cnt += map { print "\t:\t$_\n" } grep(/the/, sort @data))
	       3: @data = qw(this that the other atheism leather theory scythe)
	       2: x $obj
	       1: $obj = bless({'unique_id'=>'123', 'attr'=>
	       {'col' => 'black', 'things' => [qw(this that etc)]}}, 'MY_class')
	       DB<5>

       And if you want to repeat any previous command, use the exclamation:
       '!':

	       DB<5> !4
	       p 'saw -> '.($cnt += map { print "$_\n" } grep(/the/, sort @data))
	       atheism
	       leather
	       other
	       scythe
	       the
	       theory
	       saw -> 12

       For more on references see perlref and perlreftut

Stepping through code
       Here's a simple program which converts between Celsius and Fahrenheit,
       it too has a problem:

	       #!/usr/bin/perl -w
	       use strict;

	       my $arg = $ARGV[0] || '-c20';

	       if ($arg =~ /^\-(c|f)((\-|\+)*\d+(\.\d+)*)$/) {
		       my ($deg, $num) = ($1, $2);
		       my ($in, $out) = ($num, $num);
		       if ($deg eq 'c') {
			       $deg = 'f';
			       $out = &c2f($num);
		       } else {
			       $deg = 'c';
			       $out = &f2c($num);
		       }
		       $out = sprintf('%0.2f', $out);
		       $out =~ s/^((\-|\+)*\d+)\.0+$/$1/;
		       print "$out $deg\n";
	       } else {
		       print "Usage: $0 -[c|f] num\n";
	       }
	       exit;

	       sub f2c {
		       my $f = shift;
		       my $c = 5 * $f - 32 / 9;
		       return $c;
	       }

	       sub c2f {
		       my $c = shift;
		       my $f = 9 * $c / 5 + 32;
		       return $f;
	       }

       For some reason, the Fahrenheit to Celsius conversion fails to return
       the expected output.  This is what it does:

	       > temp -c0.72
	       33.30 f

	       > temp -f33.3
	       162.94 c

       Not very consistent!  We'll set a breakpoint in the code manually and
       run it under the debugger to see what's going on.  A breakpoint is a
       flag, to which the debugger will run without interruption, when it
       reaches the breakpoint, it will stop execution and offer a prompt for
       further interaction.  In normal use, these debugger commands are com-
       pletely ignored, and they are safe - if a little messy, to leave in
       production code.

	       my ($in, $out) = ($num, $num);
	       $DB::single=2; # insert at line 9!
	       if ($deg eq 'c')
		       ...

	       > perl -d temp -f33.3
	       Default die handler restored.

	       Loading DB routines from perl5db.pl version 1.07
	       Editor support available.

	       Enter h or `h h' for help, or `man perldebug' for more help.

	       main::(temp:4): my $arg = $ARGV[0] || '-c100';

       We'll simply continue down to our pre-set breakpoint with a 'c':

	       DB<1> c
	       main::(temp:10): 	       if ($deg eq 'c') {

       Followed by a view command to see where we are:

	       DB<1> v
	       7:	       my ($deg, $num) = ($1, $2);
	       8:	       my ($in, $out) = ($num, $num);
	       9:	       $DB::single=2;
	       10==>	       if ($deg eq 'c') {
	       11:		       $deg = 'f';
	       12:		       $out = &c2f($num);
	       13	       } else {
	       14:		       $deg = 'c';
	       15:		       $out = &f2c($num);
	       16	       }

       And a print to show what values we're currently using:

	       DB<1> p $deg, $num
	       f33.3

       We can put another break point on any line beginning with a colon,
       we'll use line 17 as that's just as we come out of the subroutine, and
       we'd like to pause there later on:

	       DB<2> b 17

       There's no feedback from this, but you can see what breakpoints are set
       by using the list 'L' command:

	       DB<3> L
	       temp:
		       17:	      print "$out $deg\n";
		       break if (1)

       Note that to delete a breakpoint you use 'd' or 'D'.

       Now we'll continue down into our subroutine, this time rather than by
       line number, we'll use the subroutine name, followed by the now famil-
       iar 'v':

	       DB<3> c f2c
	       main::f2c(temp:30):	       my $f = shift;

	       DB<4> v
	       24:     exit;
	       25
	       26      sub f2c {
	       27==>	       my $f = shift;
	       28:	       my $c = 5 * $f - 32 / 9;
	       29:	       return $c;
	       30      }
	       31
	       32      sub c2f {
	       33:	       my $c = shift;

       Note that if there was a subroutine call between us and line 29, and we
       wanted to single-step through it, we could use the 's' command, and to
       step over it we would use 'n' which would execute the sub, but not
       descend into it for inspection.	In this case though, we simply con-
       tinue down to line 29:

	       DB<4> c 29
	       main::f2c(temp:29):	       return $c;

       And have a look at the return value:

	       DB<5> p $c
	       162.944444444444

       This is not the right answer at all, but the sum looks correct.	I won-
       der if it's anything to do with operator precedence?  We'll try a cou-
       ple of other possibilities with our sum:

	       DB<6> p (5 * $f - 32 / 9)
	       162.944444444444

	       DB<7> p 5 * $f - (32 / 9)
	       162.944444444444

	       DB<8> p (5 * $f) - 32 / 9
	       162.944444444444

	       DB<9> p 5 * ($f - 32) / 9
	       0.722222222222221

       :-) that's more like it!  Ok, now we can set our return variable and
       we'll return out of the sub with an 'r':

	       DB<10> $c = 5 * ($f - 32) / 9

	       DB<11> r
	       scalar context return from main::f2c: 0.722222222222221

       Looks good, let's just continue off the end of the script:

	       DB<12> c
	       0.72 c
	       Debugged program terminated.  Use q to quit or R to restart,
	       use O inhibit_exit to avoid stopping after program termination,
	       h q, h R or h O to get additional info.

       A quick fix to the offending line (insert the missing parentheses) in
       the actual program and we're finished.

Placeholder for a, w, t, T
       Actions, watch variables, stack traces etc.: on the TODO list.

	       a

	       w

	       t

	       T

REGULAR EXPRESSIONS
       Ever wanted to know what a regex looked like?  You'll need perl com-
       piled with the DEBUGGING flag for this one:

	       > perl -Dr -e '/^pe(a)*rl$/i'
	       Compiling REx `^pe(a)*rl$'
	       size 17 first at 2
	       rarest char
		at 0
		  1: BOL(2)
		  2: EXACTF (4)
		  4: CURLYN[1] {0,32767}(14)
		  6:   NOTHING(8)
		  8:   EXACTF (0)
		 12:   WHILEM(0)
		 13: NOTHING(14)
		 14: EXACTF (16)
		 16: EOL(17)
		 17: END(0)
	       floating `'$ at 4..2147483647 (checking floating) stclass `EXACTF '
       anchored(BOL) minlen 4
	       Omitting $` $& $' support.

	       EXECUTING...

	       Freeing REx: `^pe(a)*rl$'

       Did you really want to know? :-) For more gory details on getting regu-
       lar expressions to work, have a look at perlre, perlretut, and to
       decode the mysterious labels (BOL and CURLYN, etc. above), see perlde-
       bguts.

OUTPUT TIPS
       To get all the output from your error log, and not miss any messages
       via helpful operating system buffering, insert a line like this, at the
       start of your script:

	       $|=1;

       To watch the tail of a dynamically growing logfile, (from the command
       line):

	       tail -f $error_log

       Wrapping all die calls in a handler routine can be useful to see how,
       and from where, they're being called, perlvar has more information:

	       BEGIN { $SIG{__DIE__} = sub { require Carp; Carp::confess(@_) } }

       Various useful techniques for the redirection of STDOUT and STDERR
       filehandles are explained in perlopentut and perlfaq8.

CGI
       Just a quick hint here for all those CGI programmers who can't figure
       out how on earth to get past that 'waiting for input' prompt, when run-
       ning their CGI script from the command-line, try something like this:

	       > perl -d my_cgi.pl -nodebug

       Of course CGI and perlfaq9 will tell you more.

GUIs
       The command line interface is tightly integrated with an emacs exten-
       sion and there's a vi interface too.

       You don't have to do this all on the command line, though, there are a
       few GUI options out there.  The nice thing about these is you can wave
       a mouse over a variable and a dump of its data will appear in an appro-
       priate window, or in a popup balloon, no more tiresome typing of 'x
       $varname' :-)

       In particular have a hunt around for the following:

       ptkdb perlTK based wrapper for the built-in debugger

       ddd data display debugger

       PerlDevKit and PerlBuilder are NT specific

       NB. (more info on these and others would be appreciated).

SUMMARY
       We've seen how to encourage good coding practices with use strict and
       -w.  We can run the perl debugger perl -d scriptname to inspect your
       data from within the perl debugger with the p and x commands.  You can
       walk through your code, set breakpoints with b and step through that
       code with s or n, continue with c and return from a sub with r.	Fairly
       intuitive stuff when you get down to it.

       There is of course lots more to find out about, this has just scratched
       the surface.  The best way to learn more is to use perldoc to find out
       more about the language, to read the on-line help (perldebug is proba-
       bly the next place to go), and of course, experiment.

SEE ALSO
       perldebug, perldebguts, perldiag, dprofpp, perlrun

AUTHOR
       Richard Foley  Copyright (c) 2000

CONTRIBUTORS
       Various people have made helpful suggestions and contributions, in par-
       ticular:

       Ronald J Kimball 

       Hugo van der Sanden 

       Peter Scott 



perl v5.8.8			  2006-01-07			 PERLDEBTUT(1)
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