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_exit
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FreeBSD/Linux/UNIX General Commands Manual
Hypertext Man Pages
listbox
 
listbox(n)		     Tk Built-In Commands		    listbox(n)



NAME
       listbox - Create and manipulate listbox widgets

SYNOPSIS
       listbox	pathName ?options?  -activestyle   -height   -selectforeground
       -background    -highlightbackground     -setgrid  -borderwidth	-high-
       lightcolor     -state   -cursor	 -highlightthickness -takefocus  -dis-
       abledforeground -relief	 -width       -exportselection	  -selectback-
       ground	-xscrollcommand  -font	   -selectborderwidth  -yscrollcommand
       -foreground

WIDGET-SPECIFIC OPTIONS
       Specifies the style in which to draw the active element.  This must  be
       one  of	dotbox (show a focus ring around the active element), none (no
       special indication of  active  element)	or  underline  (underline  the
       active  element).   The	default  is  underline.  Specifies the desired
       height for the window, in lines.  If zero or  less,  then  the  desired
       height  for  the  window is made just large enough to hold all the ele-
       ments in the listbox.  Specifies the name of a variable.  The value  of
       the  variable is a list to be displayed inside the widget; if the vari-
       able value changes then the widget will automatically update itself  to
       reflect	the  new value.  Attempts to assign a variable with an invalid
       list value to -listvariable will cause an error.  Attempts to  unset  a
       variable  in  use as a -listvariable will fail but will not generate an
       error.  Specifies one of several styles for manipulating the selection.
       The  value  of  the  option  may be arbitrary, but the default bindings
       expect it to be either single,  browse,	multiple,  or  extended;   the
       default	value is browse.  Specifies one of two states for the listbox:
       normal or disabled.  If the listbox is disabled then items may  not  be
       inserted  or deleted, items are drawn in the -disabledforeground color,
       and selection cannot be modified and is	not  shown  (though  selection
       information  is	retained).  Specifies the desired width for the window
       in characters.  If the font doesn't have a uniform width then the width
       of  the	character ``0'' is used in translating from character units to
       screen units.  If zero or less, then the desired width for  the	window
       is made just large enough to hold all the elements in the listbox.


DESCRIPTION
       The  listbox  command creates a new window (given by the pathName argu-
       ment)  and  makes  it  into  a  listbox	widget.   Additional  options,
       described  above, may be specified on the command line or in the option
       database to configure aspects of the listbox such as its colors,  font,
       text,  and  relief.  The listbox command returns its pathName argument.
       At the time this command is invoked, there  must  not  exist  a	window
       named pathName, but pathName's parent must exist.

       A  listbox  is  a widget that displays a list of strings, one per line.
       When first created, a new listbox has no  elements.   Elements  may  be
       added  or  deleted using widget commands described below.  In addition,
       one or more elements may be selected as described below.  If a  listbox
       is  exporting  its selection (see exportSelection option), then it will
       observe the standard X11 protocols for handling the selection.  Listbox
       selections  are	available  as  type STRING; the value of the selection
       will be the text of the selected elements, with newlines separating the
       elements.

       It is not necessary for all the elements to be displayed in the listbox
       window at once;	commands described below may be  used  to  change  the
       view in the window.  Listboxes allow scrolling in both directions using
       the standard xScrollCommand and yScrollCommand options.	They also sup-
       port scanning, as described below.


INDICES
       Many  of  the widget commands for listboxes take one or more indices as
       arguments.  An index specifies a particular element of the listbox,  in
       any of the following ways:

       number	   Specifies  the element as a numerical index, where 0 corre-
		   sponds to the first element in the listbox.

       active	   Indicates the element that has the location	cursor.   This
		   element will be displayed as specified by -activestyle when
		   the listbox has the keyboard focus,	and  it  is  specified
		   with the activate widget command.

       anchor	   Indicates  the anchor point for the selection, which is set
		   with the selection anchor widget command.

       end	   Indicates the end of the listbox.  For most	commands  this
		   refers  to  the  last element in the listbox, but for a few
		   commands such as index and insert it refers to the  element
		   just after the last one.

       @x,y	   Indicates  the element that covers the point in the listbox
		   window specified by x and y (in pixel coordinates).	If  no
		   element covers that point, then the closest element to that
		   point is used.

       In the widget command descriptions below, arguments named index, first,
       and last always contain text indices in one of the above forms.


WIDGET COMMAND
       The  listbox  command creates a new Tcl command whose name is pathName.
       This command may be used to invoke various operations  on  the  widget.
       It  has	the  following	general  form:	pathName  option ?arg arg ...?
       Option and the args determine the exact behavior of the	command.   The
       following commands are possible for listbox widgets:

       pathName activate index
	      Sets the active element to the one indicated by index.  If index
	      is outside the range of elements in the listbox then the closest
	      element  is activated.  The active element is drawn as specified
	      by -activestyle when the widget has the  input  focus,  and  its
	      index may be retrieved with the index active.

       pathName bbox index
	      Returns  a  list	of four numbers describing the bounding box of
	      the text in the element given by index.  The first two  elements
	      of  the list give the x and y coordinates of the upper-left cor-
	      ner of the screen area covered by the text (specified in	pixels
	      relative to the widget) and the last two elements give the width
	      and height of the area, in pixels.  If no part  of  the  element
	      given by index is visible on the screen, or if index refers to a
	      non-existent element, then the result is an  empty  string;   if
	      the element is partially visible, the result gives the full area
	      of the element, including any parts that are not visible.

       pathName cget option
	      Returns the current value of the configuration option  given  by
	      option.  Option may have any of the values accepted by the list-
	      box command.

       pathName configure ?option? ?value option value ...?
	      Query or modify the configuration options of the widget.	If  no
	      option is specified, returns a list describing all of the avail-
	      able options for pathName (see Tk_ConfigureInfo for  information
	      on  the  format  of  this list).	If option is specified with no
	      value, then the command returns a list describing the one  named
	      option (this list will be identical to the corresponding sublist
	      of the value returned if no option is  specified).   If  one  or
	      more option-value pairs are specified, then the command modifies
	      the given widget option(s) to have the given value(s);  in  this
	      case  the  command returns an empty string.  Option may have any
	      of the values accepted by the listbox command.

       pathName curselection
	      Returns a list containing the numerical indices of  all  of  the
	      elements	in  the listbox that are currently selected.  If there
	      are no elements selected in the listbox then an empty string  is
	      returned.

       pathName delete first ?last?
	      Deletes one or more elements of the listbox.  First and last are
	      indices specifying the first and last elements in the  range  to
	      delete.	If  last  isn't specified it defaults to first, i.e. a
	      single element is deleted.

       pathName get first ?last?
	      If last is omitted, returns the contents of the listbox  element
	      indicated by first, or an empty string if first refers to a non-
	      existent element.  If last is specified, the command  returns  a
	      list  whose  elements  are  all  of the listbox elements between
	      first and last, inclusive.  Both first and last may have any  of
	      the standard forms for indices.

       pathName index index
	      Returns  the  integer index value that corresponds to index.  If
	      index is end the return value is a count of the number  of  ele-
	      ments in the listbox (not the index of the last element).

       pathName insert index ?element element ...?
	      Inserts  zero  or  more new elements in the list just before the
	      element given by index.  If index is specified as end  then  the
	      new elements are added to the end of the list.  Returns an empty
	      string.

       pathName itemcget index option
	      Returns the current value of the item configuration option given
	      by  option.  Option  may	have any of the values accepted by the
	      listbox itemconfigure command.

       pathName itemconfigure index ?option? ?value? ?option value ...?
	      Query or modify the configuration options  of  an  item  in  the
	      listbox.	 If  no option is specified, returns a list describing
	      all of the available options for the item (see  Tk_ConfigureInfo
	      for information on the format of this list).  If option is spec-
	      ified with no value, then the command returns a list  describing
	      the  one named option (this list will be identical to the corre-
	      sponding sublist of the value returned if no  option  is	speci-
	      fied).   If  one	or more option-value pairs are specified, then
	      the command modifies the given  widget  option(s)  to  have  the
	      given  value(s);	 in  this  case  the  command returns an empty
	      string. The following options are currently supported for items:

	      -background color
		     Color specifies the background color to use when display-
		     ing the item. It may have any of the  forms  accepted  by
		     Tk_GetColor.

	      -foreground color
		     Color specifies the foreground color to use when display-
		     ing the item. It may have any of the  forms  accepted  by
		     Tk_GetColor.

	      -selectbackground color
		     color specifies the background color to use when display-
		     ing the item while it is selected. It may have any of the
		     forms accepted by Tk_GetColor.

	      -selectforeground color
		     color specifies the foreground color to use when display-
		     ing the item while it is selected. It may have any of the
		     forms accepted by Tk_GetColor.

       pathName nearest y
	      Given  a	y-coordinate  within  the listbox window, this command
	      returns the index of the (visible) listbox  element  nearest  to
	      that y-coordinate.

       pathName scan option args
	      This command is used to implement scanning on listboxes.	It has
	      two forms, depending on option:

	      pathName scan mark x y
		     Records x and y and the current view in the listbox  win-
		     dow;   used  in  conjunction  with later scan dragto com-
		     mands.  Typically this command is associated with a mouse
		     button  press in the widget.  It returns an empty string.

	      pathName scan dragto x y.
		     This command computes the difference between its x and  y
		     arguments and the x and y arguments to the last scan mark
		     command for the widget.  It then adjusts the view	by  10
		     times  the  difference  in  coordinates.  This command is
		     typically associated with mouse motion events in the wid-
		     get,  to  produce the effect of dragging the list at high
		     speed through the window.	The return value is  an  empty
		     string.

       pathName see index
	      Adjust  the  view  in  the  listbox so that the element given by
	      index is visible.  If the element is already  visible  then  the
	      command  has  no	effect; if the element is near one edge of the
	      window then the listbox scrolls to bring the element  into  view
	      at  the  edge;  otherwise the listbox scrolls to center the ele-
	      ment.

       pathName selection option arg
	      This command is used to adjust the selection within  a  listbox.
	      It has several forms, depending on option:

	      pathName selection anchor index
		     Sets  the selection anchor to the element given by index.
		     If index refers to a non-existent element, then the clos-
		     est  element is used.  The selection anchor is the end of
		     the selection that is fixed while dragging out  a	selec-
		     tion  with  the  mouse.   The index anchor may be used to
		     refer to the anchor element.

	      pathName selection clear first ?last?
		     If any of the elements between first and last (inclusive)
		     are  selected,  they are deselected.  The selection state
		     is not changed for elements outside this range.

	      pathName selection includes index
		     Returns 1 if the element indicated by index is  currently
		     selected, 0 if it isn't.

	      pathName selection set first ?last?
		     Selects  all  of  the elements in the range between first
		     and last,	inclusive,  without  affecting	the  selection
		     state of elements outside that range.

       pathName size
	      Returns a decimal string indicating the total number of elements
	      in the listbox.

       pathName xview args
	      This command is used to query and change the horizontal position
	      of  the  information in the widget's window.  It can take any of
	      the following forms:

	      pathName xview
		     Returns a list containing two elements.  Each element  is
		     a	real fraction between 0 and 1;	together they describe
		     the horizontal span that is visible in the  window.   For
		     example,  if  the first element is .2 and the second ele-
		     ment is .6, 20% of the listbox's text  is	off-screen  to
		     the  left,  the  middle 40% is visible in the window, and
		     40% of the text is off-screen to the  right.   These  are
		     the same values passed to scrollbars via the -xscrollcom-
		     mand option.

	      pathName xview index
		     Adjusts the view in the  window  so  that	the  character
		     position  given by index is displayed at the left edge of
		     the window.  Character positions are defined by the width
		     of the character 0.

	      pathName xview moveto fraction
		     Adjusts  the  view  in the window so that fraction of the
		     total width of the listbox  text  is  off-screen  to  the
		     left.  fraction must be a fraction between 0 and 1.

	      pathName xview scroll number what
		     This  command shifts the view in the window left or right
		     according to number and what.  Number must be an integer.
		     What  must be either units or pages or an abbreviation of
		     one of these.  If what is units, the view adjusts left or
		     right by number character units (the width of the 0 char-
		     acter) on the display;  if it  is	pages  then  the  view
		     adjusts by number screenfuls.  If number is negative then
		     characters farther to the left become visible;  if it  is
		     positive then characters farther to the right become vis-
		     ible.

       pathName yview ?args?
	      This command is used to query and change the  vertical  position
	      of the text in the widget's window.  It can take any of the fol-
	      lowing forms:

	      pathName yview
		     Returns a list containing two elements, both of which are
		     real  fractions between 0 and 1.  The first element gives
		     the position of the listbox element at  the  top  of  the
		     window,  relative to the listbox as a whole (0.5 means it
		     is halfway through the listbox, for example).  The second
		     element  gives  the  position of the listbox element just
		     after the last one in the window, relative to the listbox
		     as  a whole.  These are the same values passed to scroll-
		     bars via the -yscrollcommand option.

	      pathName yview index
		     Adjusts the view in the window so that the element  given
		     by index is displayed at the top of the window.

	      pathName yview moveto fraction
		     Adjusts  the view in the window so that the element given
		     by fraction appears at the top of the  window.   Fraction
		     is  a  fraction  between  0 and 1;  0 indicates the first
		     element in the listbox, 0.33 indicates the  element  one-
		     third the way through the listbox, and so on.

	      pathName yview scroll number what
		     This  command  adjusts  the view in the window up or down
		     according to number and what.  Number must be an integer.
		     What  must  be  either units or pages.  If what is units,
		     the view adjusts up or down by number lines;   if	it  is
		     pages  then  the  view  adjusts by number screenfuls.  If
		     number is negative then earlier elements become  visible;
		     if it is positive then later elements become visible.


DEFAULT BINDINGS
       Tk  automatically  creates  class bindings for listboxes that give them
       Motif-like behavior.  Much of the behavior of a listbox	is  determined
       by  its	selectMode  option,  which selects one of four ways of dealing
       with the selection.

       If the selection mode is single or browse, at most one element  can  be
       selected  in  the listbox at once.  In both modes, clicking button 1 on
       an element selects it and deselects any other selected item.  In browse
       mode it is also possible to drag the selection with button 1.

       If  the	selection mode is multiple or extended, any number of elements
       may be selected at once, including discontiguous ranges.   In  multiple
       mode, clicking button 1 on an element toggles its selection state with-
       out affecting any other elements.  In extended mode, pressing button  1
       on  an  element	selects  it,  deselects  everything else, and sets the
       anchor to the element under the mouse;  dragging the mouse with	button
       1  down	extends  the selection to include all the elements between the
       anchor and the element under the mouse, inclusive.

       Most people will probably want to use browse mode for single selections
       and extended mode for multiple selections; the other modes appear to be
       useful only in special situations.

       Any time the selection  changes	in  the  listbox,  the	virtual  event
       <>  will	be  generated.	 It is easiest to bind to this
       event to be made aware of any changes to listbox selection.

       In addition to the above behavior, the following additional behavior is
       defined by the default bindings:

       [1]    In extended mode, the selected range can be adjusted by pressing
	      button 1 with the Shift key down:  this modifies	the  selection
	      to  consist  of  the elements between the anchor and the element
	      under the mouse, inclusive.  The un-anchored  end  of  this  new
	      selection can also be dragged with the button down.

       [2]    In  extended  mode,  pressing button 1 with the Control key down
	      starts a toggle operation: the anchor  is  set  to  the  element
	      under  the  mouse,  and  its  selection  state is reversed.  The
	      selection state of other elements isn't changed.	If  the  mouse
	      is  dragged  with button 1 down, then the selection state of all
	      elements between the anchor and the element under the  mouse  is
	      set to match that of the anchor element;	the selection state of
	      all other elements remains what it was before the toggle	opera-
	      tion began.

       [3]    If  the  mouse leaves the listbox window with button 1 down, the
	      window scrolls away from the mouse, making  information  visible
	      that  used  to  be  off-screen  on  the  side of the mouse.  The
	      scrolling continues until the mouse re-enters  the  window,  the
	      button is released, or the end of the listbox is reached.

       [4]    Mouse  button  2 may be used for scanning.  If it is pressed and
	      dragged over the listbox, the contents of the  listbox  drag  at
	      high speed in the direction the mouse moves.

       [5]    If  the  Up  or Down key is pressed, the location cursor (active
	      element) moves up or down one element.  If the selection mode is
	      browse  or extended then the new active element is also selected
	      and all other elements are deselected.  In extended mode the new
	      active element becomes the selection anchor.

       [6]    In extended mode, Shift-Up and Shift-Down move the location cur-
	      sor (active element) up or down one element and also extend  the
	      selection  to that element in a fashion similar to dragging with
	      mouse button 1.

       [7]    The Left and Right keys scroll the listbox view left  and  right
	      by the width of the character 0.	Control-Left and Control-Right
	      scroll the listbox view left and right by the width of the  win-
	      dow.   Control-Prior and Control-Next also scroll left and right
	      by the width of the window.

       [8]    The Prior and Next keys scroll the listbox view up and  down  by
	      one page (the height of the window).

       [9]    The  Home  and  End  keys scroll the listbox horizontally to the
	      left and right edges, respectively.

       [10]   Control-Home sets the location cursor to the  first  element  in
	      the listbox, selects that element, and deselects everything else
	      in the listbox.

       [11]   Control-End sets the location cursor to the last element in  the
	      listbox,	selects that element, and deselects everything else in
	      the listbox.

       [12]   In extended mode, Control-Shift-Home extends  the  selection  to
	      the  first  element in the listbox and Control-Shift-End extends
	      the selection to the last element.

       [13]   In multiple mode, Control-Shift-Home moves the  location	cursor
	      to  the first element in the listbox and Control-Shift-End moves
	      the location cursor to the last element.

       [14]   The space and Select keys make a selection at the location  cur-
	      sor  (active element) just as if mouse button 1 had been pressed
	      over this element.

       [15]   In extended mode, Control-Shift-space  and  Shift-Select	extend
	      the selection to the active element just as if button 1 had been
	      pressed with the Shift key down.

       [16]   In extended mode, the Escape key cancels the most recent	selec-
	      tion  and  restores  all	the  elements in the selected range to
	      their previous selection state.

       [17]   Control-slash selects everything in the widget, except in single
	      and  browse  modes,  in which case it selects the active element
	      and deselects everything else.

       [18]   Control-backslash deselects everything in the widget, except  in
	      browse mode where it has no effect.

       [19]   The  F16	key (labelled Copy on many Sun workstations) or Meta-w
	      copies the selection in the widget to the clipboard, if there is
	      a selection.


       The  behavior  of listboxes can be changed by defining new bindings for
       individual widgets or by redefining the class bindings.


KEYWORDS
       listbox, widget



Tk				      8.4			    listbox(n)
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