a2p
accept
access
acct
addftinfo
addr2line
adjtime
afmtodit
after
aio_cancel
aio_error
aio_read
aio_return
aio_suspend
aio_waitcomplete
aio_write
alias
aliases
alloc
anvil
append
apply
apropos
ar
array
as
asa
asn1parse
at
atq
atrm
attemptckalloc
attemptckrealloc
authlib
authtest
autopoint
awk
b64decode
b64encode
basename
batch
bc
bdes
bell
bg
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biff
big5
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bind
bindkey
bindtags
bindtextdomain
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bitmap
blowfish
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bootparams
bootptab
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brk
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buffer
builtin
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button
byacc
bzcat
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c2ph
c89
c99
ca
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catch
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cd
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checkbutton
checknr
chflags
chfn
chgrp
chio
chkey
chmod
chown
chpass
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ckalloc
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ckfree
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cksum
cleanup
clear
clipboard
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close
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co
col
colcrt
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colrm
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comm
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compile_et
complete
compress
concat
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connect
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cp
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creat
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crypt
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csh
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ctags
ctm
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cu
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cut
cvs
date
dbiprof
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dc
dcgettext
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dd
dde
default
defer
deliverquota
des
destroy
devfs
df
dgettext
dgst
dh
dhparam
dialog
diff
diff3
dig
dir
dirent
dirname
dirs
discard
disktab
dngettext
do
domainname
done
dprofpp
dsa
dsaparam
dtmfdecode
du
dup
dup2
eaccess
ec
ecdsa
echo
echotc
ecparam
ed
edit
editrc
ee
egrep
elf
elfdump
elif
else
enc
enc2xs
encoding
end
endif
endsw
engine
enigma
entry
env
envsubst
eof
eqn
err
errno
error
errstr
esac
ethers
euc
eui64
eval
event
evp
ex
exec
execve
exit
expand
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expr
extattr
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f77
false
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fc
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host
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hpftodit
http
hup
i386_get_ioperm
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i386_set_ioperm
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i386_vm86
iconv
id
ident
idprio
if
ifnames253
ifnames259
image
imapd
incr
indent
indxbib
info
infokey
inode
install
instmodsh
interp
intro
introduction
ioctl
ipcrm
ipcs
ipf
ipftest
ipnat
ippool
ipresend
issetugid
jail
jail_attach
jobid
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join
jot
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ktrace
label
labelframe
lam
lappend
last
lastcomm
lastlog
lchflags
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lchown
ld
ldap
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ldapdelete
ldapmodify
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ldappasswd
ldapsearch
ldapwhoami
ldd
leave
less
lesskey
lex
lgetfh
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limit
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link
linprocfs
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lio_listio
list
listbox
listen
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ln
load
loadfont
local
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lock
lockf
log
logger
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od
onintr
open
openssl
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options
oqmgr
pack
package
packagens
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palette
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panedwindow
parray
passwd
paste
patch
pathchk
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pawd
pax
pbm
pcre
pcreapi
pcrebuild
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pcrecpp
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pcrepartial
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pcreperform
pcreposix
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perl
perl56delta
perl58delta
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rlog
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rs
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_exit
__syscall
 
FreeBSD/Linux/UNIX General Commands Manual
Hypertext Man Pages
tbl
 
TBL(1)									TBL(1)



NAME
       tbl - format tables for troff

SYNOPSIS
       tbl [ -Cv ] [ files... ]

DESCRIPTION
       This manual page describes the GNU version of tbl, which is part of the
       groff document formatting system.  tbl compiles descriptions of	tables
       embedded  within troff input files into commands that are understood by
       troff.  Normally, it should be invoked using the -t  option  of	groff.
       It is highly compatible with Unix tbl.  The output generated by GNU tbl
       cannot be processed with Unix troff; it	must  be  processed  with  GNU
       troff.	If  no files are given on the command line, the standard input
       will be read.  A filename of - will cause  the  standard  input	to  be
       read.

OPTIONS
       -C     Enable  compatibility  mode  to  recognize .TS and .TE even when
	      followed by a character other than  space  or  newline.	Leader
	      characters (\a) are handled as interpreted.

       -v     Print the version number.

USAGE
       tbl expects to find table descriptions wrapped in the .TS (table start)
       and .TE (table end) macros.  The line  immediately  following  the  .TS
       macro  may  contain  any  of the following global options (ignoring the
       case of characters -- Unix tbl only accepts options with all characters
       lowercase or all characters uppercase):

       center Centers  the table (default is left-justified).  The alternative
	      keyword name centre is also recognized (this is a GNU tbl exten-
	      sion).

       delim(xy)
	      Use x and y as start and end delimiters for eqn(1).

       expand Makes the table as wide as the current line length.

       box    Encloses the table in a box.

       doublebox
	      Encloses the table in a double box.

       allbox Encloses each item of the table in a box.

       frame  Same as box (GNU tbl only).

       doubleframe
	      Same as doublebox (GNU tbl only).

       tab(x) Uses  the  character  x  instead of a tab to separate items in a
	      line of input data.

       linesize(n)
	      Sets lines or rules (e.g. from box) in n-point type.

       nokeep Don't use diversions to prevent  page  breaks  (GNU  tbl	only).
	      Normally tbl attempts to prevent undesirable breaks in the table
	      by using diversions.  This can  sometimes  interact  badly  with
	      macro packages' own use of diversions, when footnotes, for exam-
	      ple, are used.

       decimalpoint(c)
	      Set the character to be  recognized  as  the  decimal  point  in
	      numeric columns (GNU tbl only).

       nospaces
	      Ignore leading and trailing spaces in data items (GNU tbl only).

       The global options must end with a semicolon.  There  might  be	white-
       space after an option and its argument in parentheses.

       After  global  options come lines describing the format of each line of
       the table.  Each such format line  describes  one  line	of  the  table
       itself,	except	that  the  last format line (which you must end with a
       period) describes all remaining lines of the table.  A single key char-
       acter  describes  each  column  of each line of the table.  You may run
       format specs for multiple lines together on the same line by separating
       them with commas.

       You  may  follow  each key character with specifiers that determine the
       font and point size of the corresponding item,  that  determine	column
       width, inter-column spacing, etc.

       The  longest  format  line  defines the number of columns in the table;
       missing format descriptors at the end of format lines are assumed to be
       `L'.   Extra  columns  in  the data (which have no corresponding format
       entry) are ignored.

       The available key characters are:

       c,C    Centers item within the column.

       r,R    Right-justifies item within the column.

       l,L    Left-justifies item within the column.

       n,N    Numerically justifies item in the  column:  Units  positions  of
	      numbers are aligned vertically.

       s,S    Spans previous item on the left into this column.

       a,A    Centers  longest line in this column and then left-justifies all
	      other lines in this column with respect to that centered line.

       ^      Spans down entry from previous row in this column.

       _,-    Replaces this entry with a horizontal line.

       =      Replaces this entry with a double horizontal line.

       |      The corresponding column becomes a  vertical  rule  (if  two  of
	      these are adjacent, a double vertical rule).

       A  vertical  bar to the left of the first key-letter or to the right of
       the last one produces a line at the edge of the table.

       Here are the specifiers that can appear in suffixes to column key  let-
       ters:

       b,B    Short form of fB (make affected entries bold).

       i,I    Short form of fI (make affected entries italic).

       t,T    Start  an  item vertically spanning rows at the top of its range
	      rather than vertically centering it.

       d,D    Start an item vertically spanning rows  at  the  bottom  of  its
	      range rather than vertically centering it (GNU tbl only).

       v,V    Followed	by  a number, this indicates the vertical line spacing
	      to be used in a multi-line table entry.  If signed, the  current
	      vertical	line  spacing  is  incremented or decremented (using a
	      signed number instead of a signed digit is a GNU tbl extension).
	      A  vertical  line spacing specifier followed by a column separa-
	      tion number must be separated by one or more blanks.  No	effect
	      if the corresponding table entry isn't a text block.

       f,F    Either  of  these  specifiers  may  be  followed	by a font name
	      (either one or two  characters  long),  font  number  (a	single
	      digit),  or long name in parentheses (the last form is a GNU tbl
	      extension).  A one-letter font name must be separated by one  or
	      more blanks from whatever follows.

       p,P    Followed	by  a  number,	this  does a point size change for the
	      affected fields.	If signed, the current point  size  is	incre-
	      mented or decremented (using a signed number instead of a signed
	      digit is a GNU tbl extension).  A point size specifier  followed
	      by  a  column separation number must be separated by one or more
	      blanks.

       w,W    Minimal column width  value.   Must  be  followed  either  by  a
	      troff(1)	width expression in parentheses or a unitless integer.
	      If no unit is given, en  units  are  used.   Also  used  as  the
	      default  line length for included text blocks.  If used multiple
	      times to specify the width for a	particular  column,  the  last
	      entry takes effect.

       x,X    This  is a GNU tbl extension.  Either of these specifiers may be
	      followed by a macro name (either one or two characters long), or
	      long name in parentheses.  A one-letter macro name must be sepa-
	      rated by one or more blanks from whatever  follows.   The  macro
	      which name can be specified here must be defined before creating
	      the table.  It is called just before the table's	cell  text  is
	      output.	As implemented currently, this macro is only called if
	      block input is used, that is, text between `T{' and  `T}'.   The
	      macro  should  contain  only simple troff requests to change the
	      text block formatting, like text adjustment, hyphenation,  size,
	      or  font.   The  macro  is called after other cell modifications
	      like b, f or v are output.  Thus the macro can  overwrite  other
	      modification specifiers.

       e,E    Make equally-spaced columns.

       u,U    Move the corresponding column up one half-line.

       z,Z    Ignore  the corresponding column for width-calculation purposes.

       A number suffix on a key character is interpreted as a  column  separa-
       tion  in  ens  (multiplied  in  proportion if the expand option is on).
       Default separation is 3n.

       The format lines are followed by lines containing the actual  data  for
       the  table, followed finally by .TE.  Within such data lines, items are
       normally separated by tab characters (or the character  specified  with
       the  tab option).  Long input lines can be broken across multiple lines
       if the last character on the line is `\' (which vanishes after concate-
       nation).

       A dot starting a line, followed by anything but a digit is handled as a
       troff command, passed through without changes.  The table  position  is
       unchanged in this case.

       If  a  data  line consists of only `_' or `=', a single or double line,
       respectively, is drawn across the table at that point; if a single item
       in  a data line consists of only `_' or `=', then that item is replaced
       by a single or double line, joining its neighbours.   If  a  data  item
       consists  only  of `\_' or `\=', a single or double line, respectively,
       is drawn across the field at that point which does not join its	neigh-
       bours.

       A data item consisting only of `\Rx' (`x' any character) is replaced by
       repetitions of character `x' as wide as the  column  (not  joining  its
       neighbours).

       A  data	item  consisting only of `\^' indicates that the field immedi-
       ately above spans downward over this row.

       A text block can be used to enter data as a single entry which would be
       too  long as a simple string between tabs.  It is started with `T{' and
       closed with `T}'.  The former must end a  line,	and  the  latter  must
       start  a  line, probably followed by other data columns (separated with
       tabs).  By default, the text block is formatted with the settings which
       were active before entering the table, possibly overridden by the v and
       w tbl specifiers.  For example, to make all text  blocks  ragged-right,
       insert .na right before the starting .TS (and .ad after the table).

       To  change  the data format within a table, use the .T& command (at the
       start of a line).  It is followed by format  and  data  lines  (but  no
       global options) similar to the .TS request.

INTERACTION WITH EQN
       tbl(1)  should  always  be called before eqn(1) (groff(1) automatically
       takes care of the correct order of preprocessors).

GNU TBL ENHANCEMENTS
       There is no limit on the number of columns in a table, nor any limit on
       the  number of text blocks.  All the lines of a table are considered in
       deciding column widths, not just the  first  200.   Table  continuation
       (.T&) lines are not restricted to the first 200 lines.

       Numeric and alphabetic items may appear in the same column.

       Numeric and alphabetic items may span horizontally.

       tbl uses register, string, macro and diversion names beginning with the
       digit 3.  When using tbl you should avoid  using  any  names  beginning
       with a 3.

BUGS
       You should use .TS H/.TH in conjunction with a supporting macro package
       for all multi-page boxed tables.  If there is no header that  you  wish
       to  appear  at  the  top  of each page of the table, place the .TH line
       immediately after the format section.  Do not enclose a multi-page  ta-
       ble within keep/release macros, or divert it in any other way.

       A text block within a table must be able to fit on one page.

       The bp request cannot be used to force a page-break in a multi-page ta-
       ble.  Instead, define BP as follows

	      .de BP
	      .ie '\\n(.z'' .bp \\$1
	      .el \!.BP \\$1
	      ..

       and use BP instead of bp.

       Using \a directly in a table to get leaders will not  work  (except  in
       compatibility mode).  This is correct behaviour: \a is an uninterpreted
       leader.	To get leaders use a real leader, either by using a control  A
       or like this:

	      .ds a \a
	      .TS
	      tab(;);
	      lw(1i) l.
	      A\*a;B
	      .TE

REFERENCE
       Lesk, M.E.: "TBL -- A Program to Format Tables".  For copyright reasons
       it cannot be included in the groff  distribution,  but  copies  can  be
       found with a title search on the World Wide Web.

SEE ALSO
       groff(1), troff(1)



Groff Version 1.19.2	       15 November 2005 			TBL(1)
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