a2p
accept
access
acct
addftinfo
addr2line
adjtime
afmtodit
after
aio_cancel
aio_error
aio_read
aio_return
aio_suspend
aio_waitcomplete
aio_write
alias
aliases
alloc
anvil
append
apply
apropos
ar
array
as
asa
asn1parse
at
atq
atrm
attemptckalloc
attemptckrealloc
authlib
authtest
autopoint
awk
b64decode
b64encode
basename
batch
bc
bdes
bell
bg
bgerror
biff
big5
binary
bind
bindkey
bindtags
bindtextdomain
bio
bitmap
blowfish
bn
bootparams
bootptab
bounce
brandelf
break
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brk
bsdiff
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button
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c2ph
c89
c99
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cc
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chio
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ci
ciphers
ckalloc
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clock_getres
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cmp
co
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comm
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console
continue
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cpp
creat
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crypt
crypto
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cu
cursor
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date
dbiprof
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dc
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destroy
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df
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dh
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diff
diff3
dig
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disktab
dngettext
do
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done
dprofpp
dsa
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dtmfdecode
du
dup
dup2
eaccess
ec
ecdsa
echo
echotc
ecparam
ed
edit
editrc
ee
egrep
elf
elfdump
elif
else
enc
enc2xs
encoding
end
endif
endsw
engine
enigma
entry
env
envsubst
eof
eqn
err
errno
error
errstr
esac
ethers
euc
eui64
eval
event
evp
ex
exec
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expand
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exports
expr
extattr
extattr_delete_fd
extattr_delete_file
extattr_get_fd
extattr_get_file
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f77
false
famm
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fc
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fg
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file
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fileevent
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gcov
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gencat
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grid
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history
host
hostname
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hosts_access
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hup
i386_get_ioperm
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iconv
id
ident
idprio
if
ifnames253
ifnames259
image
imapd
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inode
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intro
introduction
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lesskey
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library
limit
limits
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link
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lio_listio
list
listbox
listen
lj4_font
lkbib
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ln
load
loadfont
local
locale
locate
lock
lockf
log
logger
login
logins
logname
logout
look
lookbib
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lower
lp
lpq
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lprm
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lstat
lsvfs
lutimes
lynx
m4
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magic
mail
maildiracl
maildirkw
maildirmake
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make
makeinfo
makewhatis
man
manpath
master
mc
mcedit
mcview
md2
md4
md5
mdc2
memory
menu
menubar
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merge
mesg
message
mincore
minherit
minigzip
mkdep
mkdir
mkfifo
mkimapdcert
mklocale
mknod
mkpop3dcert
mkstr
mktemp
mlock
mlockall
mmap
mmroff
modfind
modfnext
modnext
modstat
moduli
more
motd
mount
mprotect
mptable
msdos
msdosfs
msgattrib
msgcat
msgcmp
msgcomm
msgconv
msgen
msgexec
msgfilter
msgfmt
msggrep
msginit
msgmerge
msgs
msgunfmt
msguniq
mskanji
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mt
munlock
munlockall
munmap
mv
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myisamlog
myisampack
mysql
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mysqlhotcopy
mysqlimport
mysqlshow
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mysql_fix_privilege_tables
mysql_zap
namespace
nanosleep
nawk
nc
ncal
ncplist
ncplogin
ncplogout
neqn
netconfig
netgroup
netid
netstat
networks
newaliases
newgrp
nex
nfsstat
nfssvc
ngettext
nice
nl
nm
nmount
nohup
nologin
notify
nroff
nseq
nslookup
ntp_adjtime
ntp_gettime
nvi
nview
objcopy
objdump
objformat
ocsp
od
onintr
open
openssl
opieaccess
opieinfo
opiekey
opiekeys
opiepasswd
option
options
oqmgr
pack
package
packagens
pagesize
palette
pam_auth
panedwindow
parray
passwd
paste
patch
pathchk
pathconf
pawd
pax
pbm
pcre
pcreapi
pcrebuild
pcrecallout
pcrecompat
pcrecpp
pcregrep
pcrematching
pcrepartial
pcrepattern
pcreperform
pcreposix
pcreprecompile
pcresample
pcretest
perl
perl56delta
perl58delta
perl561delta
perl570delta
perl571delta
perl572delta
perl573delta
perl581delta
perl582delta
perl583delta
perl584delta
perl585delta
perl586delta
perl587delta
perl588delta
perl5004delta
perl5005delta
perlaix
perlamiga
perlapi
perlapio
perlapollo
perlartistic
perlbeos
perlbook
perlboot
perlbot
perlbs2000
perlbug
perlcall
perlcc
perlce
perlcheat
perlclib
perlcn
perlcompile
perlcygwin
perldata
perldbmfilter
perldebguts
perldebtut
perldebug
perldelta
perldgux
perldiag
perldoc
perldos
perldsc
perlebcdic
perlembed
perlepoc
perlfaq
perlfaq1
perlfaq2
perlfaq3
perlfaq4
perlfaq5
perlfaq6
perlfaq7
perlfaq8
perlfaq9
perlfilter
perlfork
perlform
perlfreebsd
perlfunc
perlglossary
perlgpl
perlguts
perlhack
perlhist
perlhpux
perlhurd
perlintern
perlintro
perliol
perlipc
perlirix
perlivp
perljp
perlko
perllexwarn
perllinux
perllocale
perllol
perlmachten
perlmacos
perlmacosx
perlmint
perlmod
perlmodinstall
perlmodlib
perlmodstyle
perlmpeix
perlnetware
perlnewmod
perlnumber
perlobj
perlop
perlopenbsd
perlopentut
perlos2
perlos390
perlos400
perlothrtut
perlpacktut
perlplan9
perlpod
perlpodspec
perlport
perlqnx
perlre
perlref
perlreftut
perlrequick
perlreref
perlretut
perlrun
perlsec
perlsolaris
perlstyle
perlsub
perlsyn
perlthrtut
perltie
perltoc
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perltooc
perltoot
perltrap
perltru64
perltw
perlunicode
perluniintro
perlutil
perluts
perlvar
perlvmesa
perlvms
perlvos
perlwin32
perlxs
perlxstut
perror
pfbtops
pftp
pgrep
phones
photo
pic
pickup
piconv
pid
pipe
pkcs7
pkcs8
pkcs12
pkg_add
pkg_check
pkg_create
pkg_delete
pkg_info
pkg_sign
pkg_version
pkill
pl2pm
place
pod2html
pod2latex
pod2man
pod2text
pod2usage
podchecker
podselect
poll
popd
popup
posix_madvise
postalias
postcat
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postdrop
postfix
postkick
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postqueue
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pr
pread
preadv
printcap
printenv
printf
proc
procfs
profil
protocols
prove
proxymap
ps
psed
psroff
pstruct
ptrace
publickey
pushd
puts
pwd
pwrite
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qmgr
qmqpd
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quotactl
radiobutton
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rand
ranlib
rcp
rcs
rcsclean
rcsdiff
rcsfile
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rcsintro
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readlink
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realpath
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ree
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registry
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remote
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replace
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resource
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ripemd160
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rpc
rpcgen
rs
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ruptime
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scan
sched
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sched_get_priority_max
sched_get_priority_min
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scon
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script
scrollbar
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sed
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send
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slaptest
sleep
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socketpair
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sort
source
spawn
speed
spinbox
spkac
splain
split
squid
squid_ldap_auth
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sscop
ssh
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ssh_config
stab
startslip
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stop
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strip
stty
su
subst
sum
suspend
swapoff
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switch
symlink
sync
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syscall
sysconftool
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tbl
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tee
tell
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term
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terminfo
test
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text
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top
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tr
trace
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true
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truss
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tty
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wc
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what
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whereis
which
while
who
whoami
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xsubpp
yacc
yes
ypcat
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ypchpass
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ypmatch
yppasswd
ypwhich
yyfix
zcat
zcmp
zdiff
zegrep
zfgrep
zforce
zgrep
zmore
znew
_exit
__syscall
 
FreeBSD/Linux/UNIX General Commands Manual
Hypertext Man Pages
gcov
 
GCOV(1) 			      GNU			       GCOV(1)



NNAAMMEE
       gcov - coverage testing tool

SSYYNNOOPPSSIISS
       gcov [--vv|----vveerrssiioonn] [--hh|----hheellpp]
	    [--bb|----bbrraanncchh--pprroobbaabbiilliittiieess] [--cc|----bbrraanncchh--ccoouunnttss]
	    [--nn|----nnoo--oouuttppuutt] [--ll|----lloonngg--ffiillee--nnaammeess]
	    [--ff|----ffuunnccttiioonn--ssuummmmaarriieess]
	    [--oo|----oobbjjeecctt--ddiirreeccttoorryy directory] sourcefile

DDEESSCCRRIIPPTTIIOONN
       ggccoovv is a test coverage program.  Use it in concert with GCC to analyze
       your programs to help create more efficient, faster running code.  You
       can use ggccoovv as a profiling tool to help discover where your optimiza-
       tion efforts will best affect your code.  You can also use ggccoovv along
       with the other profiling tool, ggpprrooff, to assess which parts of your
       code use the greatest amount of computing time.

       Profiling tools help you analyze your code's performance.  Using a pro-
       filer such as ggccoovv or ggpprrooff, you can find out some basic performance
       statistics, such as:

       o   how often each line of code executes

       o   what lines of code are actually executed

       o   how much computing time each section of code uses

       Once you know these things about how your code works when compiled, you
       can look at each module to see which modules should be optimized.  ggccoovv
       helps you determine where to work on optimization.

       Software developers also use coverage testing in concert with test-
       suites, to make sure software is actually good enough for a release.
       Testsuites can verify that a program works as expected; a coverage pro-
       gram tests to see how much of the program is exercised by the test-
       suite.  Developers can then determine what kinds of test cases need to
       be added to the testsuites to create both better testing and a better
       final product.

       You should compile your code without optimization if you plan to use
       ggccoovv because the optimization, by combining some lines of code into one
       function, may not give you as much information as you need to look for
       `hot spots' where the code is using a great deal of computer time.
       Likewise, because ggccoovv accumulates statistics by line (at the lowest
       resolution), it works best with a programming style that places only
       one statement on each line.  If you use complicated macros that expand
       to loops or to other control structures, the statistics are less help-
       ful---they only report on the line where the macro call appears.  If
       your complex macros behave like functions, you can replace them with
       inline functions to solve this problem.

       ggccoovv creates a logfile called sourcefile.gcov which indicates how many
       times each line of a source file sourcefile.c has executed.  You can
       use these logfiles along with ggpprrooff to aid in fine-tuning the perfor-
       mance of your programs.	ggpprrooff gives timing information you can use
       along with the information you get from ggccoovv.

       ggccoovv works only on code compiled with GCC.  It is not compatible with
       any other profiling or test coverage mechanism.

OOPPTTIIOONNSS
       --hh
       ----hheellpp
	   Display help about using ggccoovv (on the standard output), and exit
	   without doing any further processing.

       --vv
       ----vveerrssiioonn
	   Display the ggccoovv version number (on the standard output), and exit
	   without doing any further processing.

       --bb
       ----bbrraanncchh--pprroobbaabbiilliittiieess
	   Write branch frequencies to the output file, and write branch sum-
	   mary info to the standard output.  This option allows you to see
	   how often each branch in your program was taken.

       --cc
       ----bbrraanncchh--ccoouunnttss
	   Write branch frequencies as the number of branches taken, rather
	   than the percentage of branches taken.

       --nn
       ----nnoo--oouuttppuutt
	   Do not create the ggccoovv output file.

       --ll
       ----lloonngg--ffiillee--nnaammeess
	   Create long file names for included source files.  For example, if
	   the header file x.h contains code, and was included in the file
	   a.c, then running ggccoovv on the file a.c will produce an output file
	   called a.c.x.h.gcov instead of x.h.gcov.  This can be useful if x.h
	   is included in multiple source files.

       --ff
       ----ffuunnccttiioonn--ssuummmmaarriieess
	   Output summaries for each function in addition to the file level
	   summary.

       --oo directory
       ----oobbjjeecctt--ddiirreeccttoorryy directory
	   The directory where the object files live.  Gcov will search for
	   .bb, .bbg, and .da files in this directory.

       When using ggccoovv, you must first compile your program with two special
       GCC options: --ffpprrooffiillee--aarrccss --fftteesstt--ccoovveerraaggee.  This tells the compiler
       to generate additional information needed by gcov (basically a flow
       graph of the program) and also includes additional code in the object
       files for generating the extra profiling information needed by gcov.
       These additional files are placed in the directory where the source
       code is located.

       Running the program will cause profile output to be generated.  For
       each source file compiled with --ffpprrooffiillee--aarrccss, an accompanying .da file
       will be placed in the source directory.

       Running ggccoovv with your program's source file names as arguments will
       now produce a listing of the code along with frequency of execution for
       each line.  For example, if your program is called tmp.c, this is what
       you see when you use the basic ggccoovv facility:

	       $ gcc -fprofile-arcs -ftest-coverage tmp.c
	       $ a.out
	       $ gcov tmp.c
		87.50% of 8 source lines executed in file tmp.c
	       Creating tmp.c.gcov.

       The file tmp.c.gcov contains output from ggccoovv.  Here is a sample:

			       main()
			       {
			  1	 int i, total;

			  1	 total = 0;

			 11	 for (i = 0; i < 10; i++)
			 10	   total += i;

			  1	 if (total != 45)
		     ######	   printf ("Failure\n");
				 else
			  1	   printf ("Success\n");
			  1    }

       When you use the --bb option, your output looks like this:

	       $ gcov -b tmp.c
		87.50% of 8 source lines executed in file tmp.c
		80.00% of 5 branches executed in file tmp.c
		80.00% of 5 branches taken at least once in file tmp.c
		50.00% of 2 calls executed in file tmp.c
	       Creating tmp.c.gcov.

       Here is a sample of a resulting tmp.c.gcov file:

			       main()
			       {
			  1	 int i, total;

			  1	 total = 0;

			 11	 for (i = 0; i < 10; i++)
	       branch 0 taken = 91%
	       branch 1 taken = 100%
	       branch 2 taken = 100%
			 10	   total += i;

			  1	 if (total != 45)
	       branch 0 taken = 100%
		     ######	   printf ("Failure\n");
	       call 0 never executed
	       branch 1 never executed
				 else
			  1	   printf ("Success\n");
	       call 0 returns = 100%
			  1    }

       For each basic block, a line is printed after the last line of the
       basic block describing the branch or call that ends the basic block.
       There can be multiple branches and calls listed for a single source
       line if there are multiple basic blocks that end on that line.  In this
       case, the branches and calls are each given a number.  There is no sim-
       ple way to map these branches and calls back to source constructs.  In
       general, though, the lowest numbered branch or call will correspond to
       the leftmost construct on the source line.

       For a branch, if it was executed at least once, then a percentage indi-
       cating the number of times the branch was taken divided by the number
       of times the branch was executed will be printed.  Otherwise, the mes-
       sage ``never executed'' is printed.

       For a call, if it was executed at least once, then a percentage indi-
       cating the number of times the call returned divided by the number of
       times the call was executed will be printed.  This will usually be
       100%, but may be less for functions call "exit" or "longjmp", and thus
       may not return every time they are called.

       The execution counts are cumulative.  If the example program were exe-
       cuted again without removing the .da file, the count for the number of
       times each line in the source was executed would be added to the
       results of the previous run(s).	This is potentially useful in several
       ways.  For example, it could be used to accumulate data over a number
       of program runs as part of a test verification suite, or to provide
       more accurate long-term information over a large number of program
       runs.

       The data in the .da files is saved immediately before the program
       exits.  For each source file compiled with --ffpprrooffiillee--aarrccss, the profil-
       ing code first attempts to read in an existing .da file; if the file
       doesn't match the executable (differing number of basic block counts)
       it will ignore the contents of the file.  It then adds in the new exe-
       cution counts and finally writes the data to the file.

       UUssiinngg ggccoovv wwiitthh GGCCCC OOppttiimmiizzaattiioonn

       If you plan to use ggccoovv to help optimize your code, you must first com-
       pile your program with two special GCC options: --ffpprrooffiillee--aarrccss --fftteesstt--
       ccoovveerraaggee.  Aside from that, you can use any other GCC options; but if
       you want to prove that every single line in your program was executed,
       you should not compile with optimization at the same time.  On some
       machines the optimizer can eliminate some simple code lines by combin-
       ing them with other lines.  For example, code like this:

	       if (a != b)
		 c = 1;
	       else
		 c = 0;

       can be compiled into one instruction on some machines.  In this case,
       there is no way for ggccoovv to calculate separate execution counts for
       each line because there isn't separate code for each line.  Hence the
       ggccoovv output looks like this if you compiled the program with optimiza-
       tion:

		     100  if (a != b)
		     100    c = 1;
		     100  else
		     100    c = 0;

       The output shows that this block of code, combined by optimization,
       executed 100 times.  In one sense this result is correct, because there
       was only one instruction representing all four of these lines.  How-
       ever, the output does not indicate how many times the result was 0 and
       how many times the result was 1.

SSEEEE AALLSSOO
       gpl(7), gfdl(7), fsf-funding(7), gcc(1) and the Info entry for gcc.

CCOOPPYYRRIIGGHHTT
       Copyright (c) 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001 Free Software Foundation,
       Inc.

       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or
       any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the
       Invariant Sections being ``GNU General Public License'' and ``Funding
       Free Software'', the Front-Cover texts being (a) (see below), and with
       the Back-Cover Texts being (b) (see below).  A copy of the license is
       included in the gfdl(7) man page.

       (a) The FSF's Front-Cover Text is:

	    A GNU Manual

       (b) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is:

	    You have freedom to copy and modify this GNU Manual, like GNU
	    software.  Copies published by the Free Software Foundation raise
	    funds for GNU development.




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