a2p
accept
access
acct
addftinfo
addr2line
adjtime
afmtodit
after
aio_cancel
aio_error
aio_read
aio_return
aio_suspend
aio_waitcomplete
aio_write
alias
aliases
alloc
anvil
append
apply
apropos
ar
array
as
asa
asn1parse
at
atq
atrm
attemptckalloc
attemptckrealloc
authlib
authtest
autopoint
awk
b64decode
b64encode
basename
batch
bc
bdes
bell
bg
bgerror
biff
big5
binary
bind
bindkey
bindtags
bindtextdomain
bio
bitmap
blowfish
bn
bootparams
bootptab
bounce
brandelf
break
breaksw
brk
bsdiff
bsdtar
bsnmpd
bspatch
bthost
btsockstat
buffer
builtin
builtins
bunzip2
button
byacc
bzcat
bzegrep
bzfgrep
bzgrep
bzip2
c2ph
c89
c99
ca
cal
calendar
canvas
cap_mkdb
case
cat
catch
catman
cc
cd
cdcontrol
chdir
checkbutton
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chfn
chgrp
chio
chkey
chmod
chown
chpass
chroot
chsh
ci
ciphers
ckalloc
ckdist
ckfree
ckrealloc
cksum
cleanup
clear
clipboard
clock
clock_getres
clock_gettime
clock_settime
close
cmp
co
col
colcrt
colldef
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colrm
column
comm
command
compile_et
complete
compress
concat
config
connect
console
continue
core
courierlogger
couriertcpd
cp
cpan
cpio
cpp
creat
crl
crontab
crunchgen
crunchide
crypt
crypto
csh
csplit
ctags
ctm
ctm_dequeue
ctm_rmail
ctm_smail
cu
cursor
cursors
cut
cvs
date
dbiprof
dbiproxy
dc
dcgettext
dcngettext
dd
dde
default
defer
deliverquota
des
destroy
devfs
df
dgettext
dgst
dh
dhparam
dialog
diff
diff3
dig
dir
dirent
dirname
dirs
discard
disktab
dngettext
do
domainname
done
dprofpp
dsa
dsaparam
dtmfdecode
du
dup
dup2
eaccess
ec
ecdsa
echo
echotc
ecparam
ed
edit
editrc
ee
egrep
elf
elfdump
elif
else
enc
enc2xs
encoding
end
endif
endsw
engine
enigma
entry
env
envsubst
eof
eqn
err
errno
error
errstr
esac
ethers
euc
eui64
eval
event
evp
ex
exec
execve
exit
expand
export
exports
expr
extattr
extattr_delete_fd
extattr_delete_file
extattr_get_fd
extattr_get_file
extattr_set_fd
extattr_set_file
f77
false
famm
famx
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fbtab
fc
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fdformat
fdread
fdwrite
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fg
fgrep
fhopen
fhstat
fhstatfs
fi
file
file2c
fileevent
filename
filetest
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find2perl
finger
flex
flock
flush
fmt
focus
fold
font
fontedit
for
foreach
fork
format
forward
fpathconf
frame
from
fs
fstab
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fsync
ftp
ftpchroot
ftpusers
ftruncate
futimes
g711conv
gb2312
gb18030
gbk
gcc
gcore
gcov
gdb
gencat
gendsa
genrsa
gensnmptree
getconf
getdents
getdirentries
getdtablesize
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geteuid
getfacl
getfh
getfsstat
getgid
getgroups
getitimer
getlogin
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getopts
getpeername
getpgid
getpgrp
getpid
getppid
getpriority
getresgid
getresuid
getrlimit
getrusage
gets
getsid
getsockname
getsockopt
gettext
gettextize
gettimeofday
gettytab
getuid
glob
global
gmake
goto
gperf
gprof
grab
grep
grid
grn
grodvi
groff
groff_font
groff_out
groff_tmac
grog
grolbp
grolj4
grops
grotty
group
groups
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gzcat
gzexe
gzip
h2ph
h2xs
hash
hashstat
hd
head
help2man
hesinfo
hexdump
history
host
hostname
hosts
hosts_access
hosts_options
hpftodit
http
hup
i386_get_ioperm
i386_get_ldt
i386_set_ioperm
i386_set_ldt
i386_vm86
iconv
id
ident
idprio
if
ifnames253
ifnames259
image
imapd
incr
indent
indxbib
info
infokey
inode
install
instmodsh
interp
intro
introduction
ioctl
ipcrm
ipcs
ipf
ipftest
ipnat
ippool
ipresend
issetugid
jail
jail_attach
jobid
jobs
join
jot
kbdcontrol
kbdmap
kcon
kdestroy
kdump
kenv
kevent
keycap
keylogin
keylogout
keymap
keysyms
kgdb
kill
killall
killpg
kinit
kldfind
kldfirstmod
kldload
kldnext
kldstat
kldsym
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kse_create
kse_exit
kse_release
kse_switchin
kse_thr_interrupt
kse_wakeup
ktrace
label
labelframe
lam
lappend
last
lastcomm
lastlog
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lchmod
lchown
ld
ldap
ldapadd
ldapcompare
ldapdelete
ldapmodify
ldapmodrdn
ldappasswd
ldapsearch
ldapwhoami
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leave
less
lesskey
lex
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lhash
libnetcfg
library
limit
limits
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link
linprocfs
linsert
lint
lio_listio
list
listbox
listen
lj4_font
lkbib
llength
lmtp
ln
load
loadfont
local
locale
locate
lock
lockf
log
logger
login
logins
logname
logout
look
lookbib
lorder
lower
lp
lpq
lpr
lprm
lptest
lrange
lreplace
ls
lsearch
lseek
lset
lsort
lstat
lsvfs
lutimes
lynx
m4
madvise
magic
mail
maildiracl
maildirkw
maildirmake
mailq
mailx
make
makeinfo
makewhatis
man
manpath
master
mc
mcedit
mcview
md2
md4
md5
mdc2
memory
menu
menubar
menubutton
merge
mesg
message
mincore
minherit
minigzip
mkdep
mkdir
mkfifo
mkimapdcert
mklocale
mknod
mkpop3dcert
mkstr
mktemp
mlock
mlockall
mmap
mmroff
modfind
modfnext
modnext
modstat
moduli
more
motd
mount
mprotect
mptable
msdos
msdosfs
msgattrib
msgcat
msgcmp
msgcomm
msgconv
msgen
msgexec
msgfilter
msgfmt
msggrep
msginit
msgmerge
msgs
msgunfmt
msguniq
mskanji
msql2mysql
msync
mt
munlock
munlockall
munmap
mv
myisamchk
myisamlog
myisampack
mysql
mysqlaccess
mysqladmin
mysqlbinlog
mysqlcheck
mysqld
mysqldump
mysqld_multi
mysqld_safe
mysqlhotcopy
mysqlimport
mysqlshow
mysql_config
mysql_fix_privilege_tables
mysql_zap
namespace
nanosleep
nawk
nc
ncal
ncplist
ncplogin
ncplogout
neqn
netconfig
netgroup
netid
netstat
networks
newaliases
newgrp
nex
nfsstat
nfssvc
ngettext
nice
nl
nm
nmount
nohup
nologin
notify
nroff
nseq
nslookup
ntp_adjtime
ntp_gettime
nvi
nview
objcopy
objdump
objformat
ocsp
od
onintr
open
openssl
opieaccess
opieinfo
opiekey
opiekeys
opiepasswd
option
options
oqmgr
pack
package
packagens
pagesize
palette
pam_auth
panedwindow
parray
passwd
paste
patch
pathchk
pathconf
pawd
pax
pbm
pcre
pcreapi
pcrebuild
pcrecallout
pcrecompat
pcrecpp
pcregrep
pcrematching
pcrepartial
pcrepattern
pcreperform
pcreposix
pcreprecompile
pcresample
pcretest
perl
perl56delta
perl58delta
perl561delta
perl570delta
perl571delta
perl572delta
perl573delta
perl581delta
perl582delta
perl583delta
perl584delta
perl585delta
perl586delta
perl587delta
perl588delta
perl5004delta
perl5005delta
perlaix
perlamiga
perlapi
perlapio
perlapollo
perlartistic
perlbeos
perlbook
perlboot
perlbot
perlbs2000
perlbug
perlcall
perlcc
perlce
perlcheat
perlclib
perlcn
perlcompile
perlcygwin
perldata
perldbmfilter
perldebguts
perldebtut
perldebug
perldelta
perldgux
perldiag
perldoc
perldos
perldsc
perlebcdic
perlembed
perlepoc
perlfaq
perlfaq1
perlfaq2
perlfaq3
perlfaq4
perlfaq5
perlfaq6
perlfaq7
perlfaq8
perlfaq9
perlfilter
perlfork
perlform
perlfreebsd
perlfunc
perlglossary
perlgpl
perlguts
perlhack
perlhist
perlhpux
perlhurd
perlintern
perlintro
perliol
perlipc
perlirix
perlivp
perljp
perlko
perllexwarn
perllinux
perllocale
perllol
perlmachten
perlmacos
perlmacosx
perlmint
perlmod
perlmodinstall
perlmodlib
perlmodstyle
perlmpeix
perlnetware
perlnewmod
perlnumber
perlobj
perlop
perlopenbsd
perlopentut
perlos2
perlos390
perlos400
perlothrtut
perlpacktut
perlplan9
perlpod
perlpodspec
perlport
perlqnx
perlre
perlref
perlreftut
perlrequick
perlreref
perlretut
perlrun
perlsec
perlsolaris
perlstyle
perlsub
perlsyn
perlthrtut
perltie
perltoc
perltodo
perltooc
perltoot
perltrap
perltru64
perltw
perlunicode
perluniintro
perlutil
perluts
perlvar
perlvmesa
perlvms
perlvos
perlwin32
perlxs
perlxstut
perror
pfbtops
pftp
pgrep
phones
photo
pic
pickup
piconv
pid
pipe
pkcs7
pkcs8
pkcs12
pkg_add
pkg_check
pkg_create
pkg_delete
pkg_info
pkg_sign
pkg_version
pkill
pl2pm
place
pod2html
pod2latex
pod2man
pod2text
pod2usage
podchecker
podselect
poll
popd
popup
posix_madvise
postalias
postcat
postconf
postdrop
postfix
postkick
postlock
postlog
postmap
postqueue
postsuper
pr
pread
preadv
printcap
printenv
printf
proc
procfs
profil
protocols
prove
proxymap
ps
psed
psroff
pstruct
ptrace
publickey
pushd
puts
pwd
pwrite
pwritev
qmgr
qmqpd
quota
quotactl
radiobutton
raise
rand
ranlib
rcp
rcs
rcsclean
rcsdiff
rcsfile
rcsfreeze
rcsintro
rcsmerge
read
readelf
readlink
readonly
readv
realpath
reboot
recv
recvfrom
recvmsg
red
ree
refer
regexp
registry
regsub
rehash
remote
rename
repeat
replace
req
reset
resolver
resource
return
rev
revoke
rfcomm_sppd
rfork
rhosts
ripemd
ripemd160
rlog
rlogin
rm
rmd160
rmdir
rpc
rpcgen
rs
rsa
rsautl
rsh
rtld
rtprio
rup
ruptime
rusers
rwall
rwho
s2p
safe
sasl
sasldblistusers2
saslpasswd2
sbrk
scache
scale
scan
sched
sched_getparam
sched_getscheduler
sched_get_priority_max
sched_get_priority_min
sched_rr_get_interval
sched_setparam
sched_setscheduler
sched_yield
scon
scp
script
scrollbar
sdiff
sed
seek
select
selection
semctl
semget
semop
send
sendbug
sendfile
sendmail
sendmsg
sendto
services
sess_id
set
setegid
setenv
seteuid
setfacl
setgid
setgroups
setitimer
setlogin
setpgid
setpgrp
setpriority
setregid
setresgid
setresuid
setreuid
setrlimit
setsid
setsockopt
settc
settimeofday
setty
setuid
setvar
sftp
sh
sha
sha1
sha256
shar
shells
shift
shmat
shmctl
shmdt
shmget
showq
shutdown
sigaction
sigaltstack
sigblock
sigmask
sigpause
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sigprocmask
sigreturn
sigsetmask
sigstack
sigsuspend
sigvec
sigwait
size
slapadd
slapcat
slapd
slapdn
slapindex
slappasswd
slaptest
sleep
slogin
slurpd
smbutil
smime
smtp
smtpd
socket
socketpair
sockstat
soelim
sort
source
spawn
speed
spinbox
spkac
splain
split
squid
squid_ldap_auth
squid_ldap_group
squid_unix_group
sscop
ssh
sshd_config
ssh_config
stab
startslip
stat
statfs
stop
string
strings
strip
stty
su
subst
sum
suspend
swapoff
swapon
switch
symlink
sync
sysarch
syscall
sysconftool
sysconftoolcheck
systat
s_client
s_server
s_time
tabs
tail
talk
tar
tbl
tclsh
tcltest
tclvars
tcopy
tcpdump
tcpslice
tcsh
tee
tell
telltc
telnet
term
termcap
terminfo
test
texindex
texinfo
text
textdomain
tfmtodit
tftp
then
threads
time
tip
tk
tkerror
tkvars
tkwait
tlsmgr
tmac
top
toplevel
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tput
tr
trace
trafshow
trap
troff
true
truncate
truss
tset
tsort
tty
ttys
type
tzfile
ui
ul
ulimit
umask
unalias
uname
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uncompress
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unhash
unifdef
unifdefall
uniq
units
unknown
unlimit
unlink
unmount
unset
unsetenv
until
unvis
update
uplevel
uptime
upvar
usbhidaction
usbhidctl
users
utf8
utimes
utmp
utrace
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uuencode
uuidgen
vacation
variable
verify
version
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vi
vidcontrol
vidfont
view
virtual
vis
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vwait
w
wait
wait3
wait4
waitpid
wall
wc
wget
what
whatis
where
whereis
which
while
who
whoami
whois
window
winfo
wish
wm
write
writev
wtmp
x509
xargs
xgettext
xmlwf
xstr
xsubpp
yacc
yes
ypcat
ypchfn
ypchpass
ypchsh
ypmatch
yppasswd
ypwhich
yyfix
zcat
zcmp
zdiff
zegrep
zfgrep
zforce
zgrep
zmore
znew
_exit
__syscall
 
FreeBSD/Linux/UNIX General Commands Manual
Hypertext Man Pages
perlvms
 
PERLVMS(1)	       Perl Programmers Reference Guide 	    PERLVMS(1)



NAME
       perlvms - VMS-specific documentation for Perl

DESCRIPTION
       Gathered below are notes describing details of Perl 5's behavior on
       VMS.  They are a supplement to the regular Perl 5 documentation, so we
       have focussed on the ways in which Perl 5 functions differently under
       VMS than it does under Unix, and on the interactions between Perl and
       the rest of the operating system.  We haven't tried to duplicate com-
       plete descriptions of Perl features from the main Perl documentation,
       which can be found in the [.pod] subdirectory of the Perl distribution.

       We hope these notes will save you from confusion and lost sleep when
       writing Perl scripts on VMS.  If you find we've missed something you
       think should appear here, please don't hesitate to drop a line to
       vmsperl@perl.org.

Installation
       Directions for building and installing Perl 5 can be found in the file
       README.vms in the main source directory of the Perl distribution..

Organization of Perl Images
       Core Images

       During the installation process, three Perl images are produced.
       Miniperl.Exe is an executable image which contains all of the basic
       functionality of Perl, but cannot take advantage of Perl extensions.
       It is used to generate several files needed to build the complete Perl
       and various extensions.	Once you've finished installing Perl, you can
       delete this image.

       Most of the complete Perl resides in the shareable image PerlShr.Exe,
       which provides a core to which the Perl executable image and all Perl
       extensions are linked.  You should place this image in Sys$Share, or
       define the logical name PerlShr to translate to the full file specifi-
       cation of this image.  It should be world readable.  (Remember that if
       a user has execute only access to PerlShr, VMS will treat it as if it
       were a privileged shareable image, and will therefore require all down-
       stream shareable images to be INSTALLed, etc.)

       Finally, Perl.Exe is an executable image containing the main entry
       point for Perl, as well as some initialization code.  It should be
       placed in a public directory, and made world executable.  In order to
       run Perl with command line arguments, you should define a foreign com-
       mand to invoke this image.

       Perl Extensions

       Perl extensions are packages which provide both XS and Perl code to add
       new functionality to perl.  (XS is a meta-language which simplifies
       writing C code which interacts with Perl, see perlxs for more details.)
       The Perl code for an extension is treated like any other library module
       - it's made available in your script through the appropriate "use" or
       "require" statement, and usually defines a Perl package containing the
       extension.

       The portion of the extension provided by the XS code may be connected
       to the rest of Perl in either of two ways.  In the static configura-
       tion, the object code for the extension is linked directly into Perl-
       Shr.Exe, and is initialized whenever Perl is invoked.  In the dynamic
       configuration, the extension's machine code is placed into a separate
       shareable image, which is mapped by Perl's DynaLoader when the exten-
       sion is "use"d or "require"d in your script.  This allows you to main-
       tain the extension as a separate entity, at the cost of keeping track
       of the additional shareable image.  Most extensions can be set up as
       either static or dynamic.

       The source code for an extension usually resides in its own directory.
       At least three files are generally provided: Extshortname.xs (where
       Extshortname is the portion of the extension's name following the last
       "::"), containing the XS code, Extshortname.pm, the Perl library module
       for the extension, and Makefile.PL, a Perl script which uses the "Make-
       Maker" library modules supplied with Perl to generate a Descrip.MMS
       file for the extension.

       Installing static extensions

       Since static extensions are incorporated directly into PerlShr.Exe,
       you'll have to rebuild Perl to incorporate a new extension.  You should
       edit the main Descrip.MMS or Makefile you use to build Perl, adding the
       extension's name to the "ext" macro, and the extension's object file to
       the "extobj" macro.  You'll also need to build the extension's object
       file, either by adding dependencies to the main Descrip.MMS, or using a
       separate Descrip.MMS for the extension.	Then, rebuild PerlShr.Exe to
       incorporate the new code.

       Finally, you'll need to copy the extension's Perl library module to the
       [.Extname] subdirectory under one of the directories in @INC, where
       Extname is the name of the extension, with all "::" replaced by "."
       (e.g.  the library module for extension Foo::Bar would be copied to a
       [.Foo.Bar] subdirectory).

       Installing dynamic extensions

       In general, the distributed kit for a Perl extension includes a file
       named Makefile.PL, which is a Perl program which is used to create a
       Descrip.MMS file which can be used to build and install the files
       required by the extension.  The kit should be unpacked into a directory
       tree not under the main Perl source directory, and the procedure for
       building the extension is simply

	   $ perl Makefile.PL  ! Create Descrip.MMS
	   $ mmk	       ! Build necessary files
	   $ mmk test	       ! Run test code, if supplied
	   $ mmk install       ! Install into public Perl tree

       N.B. The procedure by which extensions are built and tested creates
       several levels (at least 4) under the directory in which the exten-
       sion's source files live.  For this reason if you are running a version
       of VMS prior to V7.1 you shouldn't nest the source directory too deeply
       in your directory structure lest you exceed RMS' maximum of 8 levels of
       subdirectory in a filespec.  (You can use rooted logical names to get
       another 8 levels of nesting, if you can't place the files near the top
       of the physical directory structure.)

       VMS support for this process in the current release of Perl is suffi-
       cient to handle most extensions.  However, it does not yet recognize
       extra libraries required to build shareable images which are part of an
       extension, so these must be added to the linker options file for the
       extension by hand.  For instance, if the PGPLOT extension to Perl
       requires the PGPLOTSHR.EXE shareable image in order to properly link
       the Perl extension, then the line "PGPLOTSHR/Share" must be added to
       the linker options file PGPLOT.Opt produced during the build process
       for the Perl extension.

       By default, the shareable image for an extension is placed in the
       [.lib.site_perl.autoArch.Extname] directory of the installed Perl
       directory tree (where Arch is VMS_VAX or VMS_AXP, and Extname is the
       name of the extension, with each "::" translated to ".").  (See the
       MakeMaker documentation for more details on installation options for
       extensions.)  However, it can be manually placed in any of several
       locations:

       o   the [.Lib.Auto.Arch$PVersExtname] subdirectory of one of the direc-
	   tories in @INC (where PVers is the version of Perl you're using, as
	   supplied in $], with '.' converted to '_'), or

       o   one of the directories in @INC, or

       o   a directory which the extensions Perl library module passes to the
	   DynaLoader when asking it to map the shareable image, or

       o   Sys$Share or Sys$Library.

       If the shareable image isn't in any of these places, you'll need to
       define a logical name Extshortname, where Extshortname is the portion
       of the extension's name after the last "::", which translates to the
       full file specification of the shareable image.

File specifications
       Syntax

       We have tried to make Perl aware of both VMS-style and Unix- style file
       specifications wherever possible.  You may use either style, or both,
       on the command line and in scripts, but you may not combine the two
       styles within a single file specification.  VMS Perl interprets Unix
       pathnames in much the same way as the CRTL (e.g. the first component of
       an absolute path is read as the device name for the VMS file specifica-
       tion).  There are a set of functions provided in the "VMS::Filespec"
       package for explicit interconversion between VMS and Unix syntax; its
       documentation provides more details.

       Filenames are, of course, still case-insensitive.  For consistency,
       most Perl routines return  filespecs using lower case letters only,
       regardless of the case used in the arguments passed to them.  (This is
       true  only when running under VMS; Perl respects the case-sensitivity
       of OSs like Unix.)

       We've tried to minimize the dependence of Perl library modules on Unix
       syntax, but you may find that some of these, as well as some scripts
       written for Unix systems, will require that you use Unix syntax, since
       they will assume that '/' is the directory separator, etc.  If you find
       instances of this in the Perl distribution itself, please let us know,
       so we can try to work around them.

       Wildcard expansion

       File specifications containing wildcards are allowed both on the com-
       mand line and within Perl globs (e.g. "<*.c>").	If the wildcard file-
       spec uses VMS syntax, the resultant filespecs will follow VMS syntax;
       if a Unix-style filespec is passed in, Unix-style filespecs will be
       returned.  Similar to the behavior of wildcard globbing for a Unix
       shell, one can escape command line wildcards with double quotation
       marks """ around a perl program command line argument.  However, owing
       to the stripping of """ characters carried out by the C handling of
       argv you will need to escape a construct such as this one (in a direc-
       tory containing the files PERL.C, PERL.EXE, PERL.H, and PERL.OBJ):

	   $ perl -e "print join(' ',@ARGV)" perl.*
	   perl.c perl.exe perl.h perl.obj

       in the following triple quoted manner:

	   $ perl -e "print join(' ',@ARGV)" """perl.*"""
	   perl.*

       In both the case of unquoted command line arguments or in calls to
       "glob()" VMS wildcard expansion is performed. (csh-style wildcard
       expansion is available if you use "File::Glob::glob".)  If the wildcard
       filespec contains a device or directory specification, then the resul-
       tant filespecs will also contain a device and directory; otherwise,
       device and directory information are removed.  VMS-style resultant
       filespecs will contain a full device and directory, while Unix-style
       resultant filespecs will contain only as much of a directory path as
       was present in the input filespec.  For example, if your default direc-
       tory is Perl_Root:[000000], the expansion of "[.t]*.*" will yield file-
       specs  like "perl_root:[t]base.dir", while the expansion of "t/*/*"
       will yield filespecs like "t/base.dir".	(This is done to match the
       behavior of glob expansion performed by Unix shells.)

       Similarly, the resultant filespec will contain the file version only if
       one was present in the input filespec.

       Pipes

       Input and output pipes to Perl filehandles are supported; the "file
       name" is passed to lib$spawn() for asynchronous execution.  You should
       be careful to close any pipes you have opened in a Perl script, lest
       you leave any "orphaned" subprocesses around when Perl exits.

       You may also use backticks to invoke a DCL subprocess, whose output is
       used as the return value of the expression.  The string between the
       backticks is handled as if it were the argument to the "system" opera-
       tor (see below).  In this case, Perl will wait for the subprocess to
       complete before continuing.

       The mailbox (MBX) that perl can create to communicate with a pipe
       defaults to a buffer size of 512.  The default buffer size is
       adjustable via the logical name PERL_MBX_SIZE provided that the value
       falls between 128 and the SYSGEN parameter MAXBUF inclusive.  For exam-
       ple, to double the MBX size from the default within a Perl program, use
       "$ENV{'PERL_MBX_SIZE'} = 1024;" and then open and use pipe constructs.
       An alternative would be to issue the command:

	   $ Define PERL_MBX_SIZE 1024

       before running your wide record pipe program.  A larger value may
       improve performance at the expense of the BYTLM UAF quota.

PERL5LIB and PERLLIB
       The PERL5LIB and PERLLIB logical names work as documented in perl,
       except that the element separator is '|' instead of ':'.  The directory
       specifications may use either VMS or Unix syntax.

Command line
       I/O redirection and backgrounding

       Perl for VMS supports redirection of input and output on the command
       line, using a subset of Bourne shell syntax:

       o   "o   ">file" writes stdout to "file",

       o   ">>file" appends stdout to "file",

       o   "2>file" writes stderr to "file",

       o   "2>>file" appends stderr to "file", and

       o   "2>&1" redirects stderr to stdout.

       In addition, output may be piped to a subprocess, using the character
       '|'.  Anything after this character on the command line is passed to a
       subprocess for execution; the subprocess takes the output of Perl as
       its input.

       Finally, if the command line ends with '&', the entire command is run
       in the background as an asynchronous subprocess.

       Command line switches

       The following command line switches behave differently under VMS than
       described in perlrun.  Note also that in order to pass uppercase
       switches to Perl, you need to enclose them in double-quotes on the com-
       mand line, since the CRTL downcases all unquoted strings.

       -i  If the "-i" switch is present but no extension for a backup copy is
	   given, then inplace editing creates a new version of a file; the
	   existing copy is not deleted.  (Note that if an extension is given,
	   an existing file is renamed to the backup file, as is the case
	   under other operating systems, so it does not remain as a previous
	   version under the original filename.)

       -S  If the "-S" or "-"S"" switch is present and the script name does
	   not contain a directory, then Perl translates the logical name
	   DCL$PATH as a searchlist, using each translation as a directory in
	   which to look for the script.  In addition, if no file type is
	   specified, Perl looks in each directory for a file matching the
	   name specified, with a blank type, a type of .pl, and a type of
	   .com, in that order.

       -u  The "-u" switch causes the VMS debugger to be invoked after the
	   Perl program is compiled, but before it has run.  It does not cre-
	   ate a core dump file.

Perl functions
       As of the time this document was last revised, the following Perl func-
       tions were implemented in the VMS port of Perl (functions marked with *
       are discussed in more detail below):

	   file tests*, abs, alarm, atan, backticks*, binmode*, bless,
	   caller, chdir, chmod, chown, chomp, chop, chr,
	   close, closedir, cos, crypt*, defined, delete,
	   die, do, dump*, each, endpwent, eof, eval, exec*,
	   exists, exit, exp, fileno, getc, getlogin, getppid,
	   getpwent*, getpwnam*, getpwuid*, glob, gmtime*, goto,
	   grep, hex, import, index, int, join, keys, kill*,
	   last, lc, lcfirst, length, local, localtime, log, m//,
	   map, mkdir, my, next, no, oct, open, opendir, ord, pack,
	   pipe, pop, pos, print, printf, push, q//, qq//, qw//,
	   qx//*, quotemeta, rand, read, readdir, redo, ref, rename,
	   require, reset, return, reverse, rewinddir, rindex,
	   rmdir, s///, scalar, seek, seekdir, select(internal),
	   select (system call)*, setpwent, shift, sin, sleep,
	   sort, splice, split, sprintf, sqrt, srand, stat,
	   study, substr, sysread, system*, syswrite, tell,
	   telldir, tie, time, times*, tr///, uc, ucfirst, umask,
	   undef, unlink*, unpack, untie, unshift, use, utime*,
	   values, vec, wait, waitpid*, wantarray, warn, write, y///

       The following functions were not implemented in the VMS port, and call-
       ing them produces a fatal error (usually) or undefined behavior
       (rarely, we hope):

	   chroot, dbmclose, dbmopen, flock, fork*,
	   getpgrp, getpriority, getgrent, getgrgid,
	   getgrnam, setgrent, endgrent, ioctl, link, lstat,
	   msgctl, msgget, msgsend, msgrcv, readlink, semctl,
	   semget, semop, setpgrp, setpriority, shmctl, shmget,
	   shmread, shmwrite, socketpair, symlink, syscall

       The following functions are available on Perls compiled with Dec C 5.2
       or greater and running VMS 7.0 or greater:

	   truncate

       The following functions are available on Perls built on VMS 7.2 or
       greater:

	   fcntl (without locking)

       The following functions may or may not be implemented, depending on
       what type of socket support you've built into your copy of Perl:

	   accept, bind, connect, getpeername,
	   gethostbyname, getnetbyname, getprotobyname,
	   getservbyname, gethostbyaddr, getnetbyaddr,
	   getprotobynumber, getservbyport, gethostent,
	   getnetent, getprotoent, getservent, sethostent,
	   setnetent, setprotoent, setservent, endhostent,
	   endnetent, endprotoent, endservent, getsockname,
	   getsockopt, listen, recv, select(system call)*,
	   send, setsockopt, shutdown, socket

       File tests
	   The tests "-b", "-B", "-c", "-C", "-d", "-e", "-f", "-o", "-M",
	   "-s", "-S", "-t", "-T", and "-z" work as advertised.  The return
	   values for "-r", "-w", and "-x" tell you whether you can actually
	   access the file; this may not reflect the UIC-based file protec-
	   tions.  Since real and effective UIC don't differ under VMS, "-O",
	   "-R", "-W", and "-X" are equivalent to "-o", "-r", "-w", and "-x".
	   Similarly, several other tests, including "-A", "-g", "-k", "-l",
	   "-p", and "-u", aren't particularly meaningful under VMS, and the
	   values returned by these tests reflect whatever your CRTL "stat()"
	   routine does to the equivalent bits in the st_mode field.  Finally,
	   "-d" returns true if passed a device specification without an
	   explicit directory (e.g. "DUA1:"), as well as if passed a direc-
	   tory.

	   Note: Some sites have reported problems when using the file-access
	   tests ("-r", "-w", and "-x") on files accessed via DEC's DFS.
	   Specifically, since DFS does not currently provide access to the
	   extended file header of files on remote volumes, attempts to exam-
	   ine the ACL fail, and the file tests will return false, with $!
	   indicating that the file does not exist.  You can use "stat" on
	   these files, since that checks UIC-based protection only, and then
	   manually check the appropriate bits, as defined by your C com-
	   piler's stat.h, in the mode value it returns, if you need an
	   approximation of the file's protections.

       backticks
	   Backticks create a subprocess, and pass the enclosed string to it
	   for execution as a DCL command.  Since the subprocess is created
	   directly via "lib$spawn()", any valid DCL command string may be
	   specified.

       binmode FILEHANDLE
	   The "binmode" operator will attempt to insure that no translation
	   of carriage control occurs on input from or output to this filehan-
	   dle.  Since this involves reopening the file and then restoring its
	   file position indicator, if this function returns FALSE, the under-
	   lying filehandle may no longer point to an open file, or may point
	   to a different position in the file than before "binmode" was
	   called.

	   Note that "binmode" is generally not necessary when using normal
	   filehandles; it is provided so that you can control I/O to existing
	   record-structured files when necessary.  You can also use the "vms-
	   fopen" function in the VMS::Stdio extension to gain finer control
	   of I/O to files and devices with different record structures.

       crypt PLAINTEXT, USER
	   The "crypt" operator uses the "sys$hash_password" system service to
	   generate the hashed representation of PLAINTEXT.  If USER is a
	   valid username, the algorithm and salt values are taken from that
	   user's UAF record.  If it is not, then the preferred algorithm and
	   a salt of 0 are used.  The quadword encrypted value is returned as
	   an 8-character string.

	   The value returned by "crypt" may be compared against the encrypted
	   password from the UAF returned by the "getpw*" functions, in order
	   to authenticate users.  If you're going to do this, remember that
	   the encrypted password in the UAF was generated using uppercase
	   username and password strings; you'll have to upcase the arguments
	   to "crypt" to insure that you'll get the proper value:

	       sub validate_passwd {
		   my($user,$passwd) = @_;
		   my($pwdhash);
		   if ( !($pwdhash = (getpwnam($user))[1]) ||
			  $pwdhash ne crypt("\U$passwd","\U$name") ) {
		       intruder_alert($name);
		   }
		   return 1;
	       }

       dump
	   Rather than causing Perl to abort and dump core, the "dump" opera-
	   tor invokes the VMS debugger.  If you continue to execute the Perl
	   program under the debugger, control will be transferred to the
	   label specified as the argument to "dump", or, if no label was
	   specified, back to the beginning of the program.  All other state
	   of the program (e.g. values of variables, open file handles) are
	   not affected by calling "dump".

       exec LIST
	   A call to "exec" will cause Perl to exit, and to invoke the command
	   given as an argument to "exec" via "lib$do_command".  If the argu-
	   ment begins with '@' or '$' (other than as part of a filespec),
	   then it is executed as a DCL command.  Otherwise, the first token
	   on the command line is treated as the filespec of an image to run,
	   and an attempt is made to invoke it (using .Exe and the process
	   defaults to expand the filespec) and pass the rest of "exec"'s
	   argument to it as parameters.  If the token has no file type, and
	   matches a file with null type, then an attempt is made to determine
	   whether the file is an executable image which should be invoked
	   using "MCR" or a text file which should be passed to DCL as a com-
	   mand procedure.

       fork
	   While in principle the "fork" operator could be implemented via
	   (and with the same rather severe limitations as) the CRTL "vfork()"
	   routine, and while some internal support to do just that is in
	   place, the implementation has never been completed, making "fork"
	   currently unavailable.  A true kernel "fork()" is expected in a
	   future version of VMS, and the pseudo-fork based on interpreter
	   threads may be available in a future version of Perl on VMS (see
	   perlfork).  In the meantime, use "system", backticks, or piped
	   filehandles to create subprocesses.

       getpwent
       getpwnam
       getpwuid
	   These operators obtain the information described in perlfunc, if
	   you have the privileges necessary to retrieve the named user's UAF
	   information via "sys$getuai".  If not, then only the $name, $uid,
	   and $gid items are returned.  The $dir item contains the login
	   directory in VMS syntax, while the $comment item contains the login
	   directory in Unix syntax. The $gcos item contains the owner field
	   from the UAF record.  The $quota item is not used.

       gmtime
	   The "gmtime" operator will function properly if you have a working
	   CRTL "gmtime()" routine, or if the logical name SYS$TIMEZONE_DIF-
	   FERENTIAL is defined as the number of seconds which must be added
	   to UTC to yield local time.	(This logical name is defined automat-
	   ically if you are running a version of VMS with built-in UTC sup-
	   port.)  If neither of these cases is true, a warning message is
	   printed, and "undef" is returned.

       kill
	   In most cases, "kill" is implemented via the CRTL's "kill()" func-
	   tion, so it will behave according to that function's documentation.
	   If you send a SIGKILL, however, the $DELPRC system service is
	   called directly.  This insures that the target process is actually
	   deleted, if at all possible.  (The CRTL's "kill()" function is
	   presently implemented via $FORCEX, which is ignored by supervisor-
	   mode images like DCL.)

	   Also, negative signal values don't do anything special under VMS;
	   they're just converted to the corresponding positive value.

       qx//
	   See the entry on "backticks" above.

       select (system call)
	   If Perl was not built with socket support, the system call version
	   of "select" is not available at all.  If socket support is present,
	   then the system call version of "select" functions only for file
	   descriptors attached to sockets.  It will not provide information
	   about regular files or pipes, since the CRTL "select()" routine
	   does not provide this functionality.

       stat EXPR
	   Since VMS keeps track of files according to a different scheme than
	   Unix, it's not really possible to represent the file's ID in the
	   "st_dev" and "st_ino" fields of a "struct stat".  Perl tries its
	   best, though, and the values it uses are pretty unlikely to be the
	   same for two different files.  We can't guarantee this, though, so
	   caveat scriptor.

       system LIST
	   The "system" operator creates a subprocess, and passes its argu-
	   ments to the subprocess for execution as a DCL command.  Since the
	   subprocess is created directly via "lib$spawn()", any valid DCL
	   command string may be specified.  If the string begins with '@', it
	   is treated as a DCL command unconditionally.  Otherwise, if the
	   first token contains a character used as a delimiter in file speci-
	   fication (e.g. ":" or "]"), an attempt is made to expand it using
	   a default type of .Exe and the process defaults, and if successful,
	   the resulting file is invoked via "MCR". This allows you to invoke
	   an image directly simply by passing the file specification to "sys-
	   tem", a common Unixish idiom.  If the token has no file type, and
	   matches a file with null type, then an attempt is made to determine
	   whether the file is an executable image which should be invoked
	   using "MCR" or a text file which should be passed to DCL as a com-
	   mand procedure.

	   If LIST consists of the empty string, "system" spawns an interac-
	   tive DCL subprocess, in the same fashion as typing SPAWN at the DCL
	   prompt.

	   Perl waits for the subprocess to complete before continuing execu-
	   tion in the current process.  As described in perlfunc, the return
	   value of "system" is a fake "status" which follows POSIX semantics
	   unless the pragma "use vmsish 'status'" is in effect; see the
	   description of $? in this document for more detail.

       time
	   The value returned by "time" is the offset in seconds from
	   01-JAN-1970 00:00:00 (just like the CRTL's times() routine), in
	   order to make life easier for code coming in from the POSIX/Unix
	   world.

       times
	   The array returned by the "times" operator is divided up according
	   to the same rules the CRTL "times()" routine.  Therefore, the "sys-
	   tem time" elements will always be 0, since there is no difference
	   between "user time" and "system" time under VMS, and the time accu-
	   mulated by a subprocess may or may not appear separately in the
	   "child time" field, depending on whether times keeps track of sub-
	   processes separately.  Note especially that the VAXCRTL (at least)
	   keeps track only of subprocesses spawned using fork and exec; it
	   will not accumulate the times of subprocesses spawned via pipes,
	   system, or backticks.

       unlink LIST
	   "unlink" will delete the highest version of a file only; in order
	   to delete all versions, you need to say

	       1 while unlink LIST;

	   You may need to make this change to scripts written for a Unix sys-
	   tem which expect that after a call to "unlink", no files with the
	   names passed to "unlink" will exist.  (Note: This can be changed at
	   compile time; if you "use Config" and $Config{'d_unlink_all_ver-
	   sions'} is "define", then "unlink" will delete all versions of a
	   file on the first call.)

	   "unlink" will delete a file if at all possible, even if it requires
	   changing file protection (though it won't try to change the protec-
	   tion of the parent directory).  You can tell whether you've got
	   explicit delete access to a file by using the "VMS::Filespec::can-
	   delete" operator.  For instance, in order to delete only files to
	   which you have delete access, you could say something like

	       sub safe_unlink {
		   my($file,$num);
		   foreach $file (@_) {
		       next unless VMS::Filespec::candelete($file);
		       $num += unlink $file;
		   }
		   $num;
	       }

	   (or you could just use "VMS::Stdio::remove", if you've installed
	   the VMS::Stdio extension distributed with Perl). If "unlink" has to
	   change the file protection to delete the file, and you interrupt it
	   in midstream, the file may be left intact, but with a changed ACL
	   allowing you delete access.

       utime LIST
	   Since ODS-2, the VMS file structure for disk files, does not keep
	   track of access times, this operator changes only the modification
	   time of the file (VMS revision date).

       waitpid PID,FLAGS
	   If PID is a subprocess started by a piped "open()" (see open),
	   "waitpid" will wait for that subprocess, and return its final sta-
	   tus value in $?.  If PID is a subprocess created in some other way
	   (e.g.  SPAWNed before Perl was invoked), "waitpid" will simply
	   check once per second whether the process has completed, and return
	   when it has.  (If PID specifies a process that isn't a subprocess
	   of the current process, and you invoked Perl with the "-w" switch,
	   a warning will be issued.)

	   Returns PID on success, -1 on error.  The FLAGS argument is ignored
	   in all cases.

Perl variables
       The following VMS-specific information applies to the indicated "spe-
       cial" Perl variables, in addition to the general information in perl-
       var.  Where there is a conflict, this information takes precedence.

       %ENV
	   The operation of the %ENV array depends on the translation of the
	   logical name PERL_ENV_TABLES.  If defined, it should be a search
	   list, each element of which specifies a location for %ENV elements.
	   If you tell Perl to read or set the element "$ENV{"name"}", then
	   Perl uses the translations of PERL_ENV_TABLES as follows:

	   CRTL_ENV
	       This string tells Perl to consult the CRTL's internal "environ"
	       array of key-value pairs, using name as the key.  In most
	       cases, this contains only a few keys, but if Perl was invoked
	       via the C "exec[lv]e()" function, as is the case for CGI pro-
	       cessing by some HTTP servers, then the "environ" array may have
	       been populated by the calling program.

	   CLISYM_[LOCAL]
	       A string beginning with "CLISYM_"tells Perl to consult the
	       CLI's symbol tables, using name as the name of the symbol.
	       When reading an element of %ENV, the local symbol table is
	       scanned first, followed by the global symbol table..  The char-
	       acters following "CLISYM_" are significant when an element of
	       %ENV is set or deleted: if the complete string is
	       "CLISYM_LOCAL", the change is made in the local symbol table;
	       otherwise the global symbol table is changed.

	   Any other string
	       If an element of PERL_ENV_TABLES translates to any other
	       string, that string is used as the name of a logical name ta-
	       ble, which is consulted using name as the logical name.	The
	       normal search order of access modes is used.

	   PERL_ENV_TABLES is translated once when Perl starts up; any changes
	   you make while Perl is running do not affect the behavior of %ENV.
	   If PERL_ENV_TABLES is not defined, then Perl defaults to consulting
	   first the logical name tables specified by LNM$FILE_DEV, and then
	   the CRTL "environ" array.

	   In all operations on %ENV, the key string is treated as if it were
	   entirely uppercase, regardless of the case actually specified in
	   the Perl expression.

	   When an element of %ENV is read, the locations to which
	   PERL_ENV_TABLES points are checked in order, and the value obtained
	   from the first successful lookup is returned.  If the name of the
	   %ENV element contains a semi-colon, it and any characters after it
	   are removed.  These are ignored when the CRTL "environ" array or a
	   CLI symbol table is consulted.  However, the name is looked up in a
	   logical name table, the suffix after the semi-colon is treated as
	   the translation index to be used for the lookup.   This lets you
	   look up successive values for search list logical names.  For
	   instance, if you say

	      $  Define STORY  once,upon,a,time,there,was
	      $  perl -e "for ($i = 0; $i <= 6; $i++) " -
	      _$ -e "{ print $ENV{'story;'.$i},' '}"

	   Perl will print "ONCE UPON A TIME THERE WAS", assuming, of course,
	   that PERL_ENV_TABLES is set up so that the logical name "story" is
	   found, rather than a CLI symbol or CRTL "environ" element with the
	   same name.

	   When an element of %ENV is set to a defined string, the correspond-
	   ing definition is made in the location to which the first transla-
	   tion of PERL_ENV_TABLES points.  If this causes a logical name to
	   be created, it is defined in supervisor mode.  (The same is done if
	   an existing logical name was defined in executive or kernel mode;
	   an existing user or supervisor mode logical name is reset to the
	   new value.)	If the value is an empty string, the logical name's
	   translation is defined as a single NUL (ASCII 00) character, since
	   a logical name cannot translate to a zero-length string.  (This
	   restriction does not apply to CLI symbols or CRTL "environ" values;
	   they are set to the empty string.)  An element of the CRTL "envi-
	   ron" array can be set only if your copy of Perl knows about the
	   CRTL's "setenv()" function.	(This is present only in some versions
	   of the DECCRTL; check $Config{d_setenv} to see whether your copy of
	   Perl was built with a CRTL that has this function.)

	   When an element of %ENV is set to "undef", the element is looked up
	   as if it were being read, and if it is found, it is deleted.  (An
	   item "deleted" from the CRTL "environ" array is set to the empty
	   string; this can only be done if your copy of Perl knows about the
	   CRTL "setenv()" function.)  Using "delete" to remove an element
	   from %ENV has a similar effect, but after the element is deleted,
	   another attempt is made to look up the element, so an inner-mode
	   logical name or a name in another location will replace the logical
	   name just deleted.  In either case, only the first value found
	   searching PERL_ENV_TABLES is altered.  It is not possible at
	   present to define a search list logical name via %ENV.

	   The element $ENV{DEFAULT} is special: when read, it returns Perl's
	   current default device and directory, and when set, it resets them,
	   regardless of the definition of PERL_ENV_TABLES.  It cannot be
	   cleared or deleted; attempts to do so are silently ignored.

	   Note that if you want to pass on any elements of the C-local envi-
	   ron array to a subprocess which isn't started by fork/exec, or
	   isn't running a C program, you can "promote" them to logical names
	   in the current process, which will then be inherited by all subpro-
	   cesses, by saying

	       foreach my $key (qw[C-local keys you want promoted]) {
		   my $temp = $ENV{$key}; # read from C-local array
		   $ENV{$key} = $temp;	  # and define as logical name
	       }

	   (You can't just say $ENV{$key} = $ENV{$key}, since the Perl opti-
	   mizer is smart enough to elide the expression.)

	   Don't try to clear %ENV by saying "%ENV = ();", it will throw a
	   fatal error.  This is equivalent to doing the following from DCL:

	       DELETE/LOGICAL *

	   You can imagine how bad things would be if, for example, the
	   SYS$MANAGER or SYS$SYSTEM logicals were deleted.

	   At present, the first time you iterate over %ENV using "keys", or
	   "values",  you will incur a time penalty as all logical names are
	   read, in order to fully populate %ENV.  Subsequent iterations will
	   not reread logical names, so they won't be as slow, but they also
	   won't reflect any changes to logical name tables caused by other
	   programs.

	   You do need to be careful with the logicals representing process-
	   permanent files, such as "SYS$INPUT" and "SYS$OUTPUT".  The trans-
	   lations for these logicals are prepended with a two-byte binary
	   value (0x1B 0x00) that needs to be stripped off if you want to use
	   it. (In previous versions of Perl it wasn't possible to get the
	   values of these logicals, as the null byte acted as an end-of-
	   string marker)

       $!  The string value of $! is that returned by the CRTL's strerror()
	   function, so it will include the VMS message for VMS-specific
	   errors.  The numeric value of $! is the value of "errno", except if
	   errno is EVMSERR, in which case $! contains the value of
	   vaxc$errno.	Setting $!  always sets errno to the value specified.
	   If this value is EVMSERR, it also sets vaxc$errno to 4 (NO-
	   NAME-F-NOMSG), so that the string value of $! won't reflect the VMS
	   error message from before $! was set.

       $^E This variable provides direct access to VMS status values in
	   vaxc$errno, which are often more specific than the generic Unix-
	   style error messages in $!.	Its numeric value is the value of
	   vaxc$errno, and its string value is the corresponding VMS message
	   string, as retrieved by sys$getmsg().  Setting $^E sets vaxc$errno
	   to the value specified.

       $?  The "status value" returned in $? is synthesized from the actual
	   exit status of the subprocess in a way that approximates POSIX
	   wait(5) semantics, in order to allow Perl programs to portably test
	   for successful completion of subprocesses.  The low order 8 bits of
	   $? are always 0 under VMS, since the termination status of a
	   process may or may not have been generated by an exception.	The
	   next 8 bits are derived from the severity portion of the subpro-
	   cess' exit status: if the severity was success or informational,
	   these bits are all 0; if the severity was warning, they contain a
	   value of 1; if the severity was error or fatal error, they contain
	   the actual severity bits, which turns out to be a value of 2 for
	   error and 4 for fatal error.

	   As a result, $? will always be zero if the subprocess' exit status
	   indicated successful completion, and non-zero if a warning or error
	   occurred.  Conversely, when setting $? in an END block, an attempt
	   is made to convert the POSIX value into a native status intelligi-
	   ble to the operating system upon exiting Perl.  What this boils
	   down to is that setting $?  to zero results in the generic success
	   value SS$_NORMAL, and setting $? to a non-zero value results in the
	   generic failure status SS$_ABORT.  See also "exit" in perlport.

	   The pragma "use vmsish 'status'" makes $? reflect the actual VMS
	   exit status instead of the default emulation of POSIX status
	   described above.  This pragma also disables the conversion of non-
	   zero values to SS$_ABORT when setting $? in an END block (but zero
	   will still be converted to SS$_NORMAL).

       $|  Setting $| for an I/O stream causes data to be flushed all the way
	   to disk on each write (i.e. not just to the underlying RMS buffers
	   for a file).  In other words, it's equivalent to calling fflush()
	   and fsync() from C.

Standard modules with VMS-specific differences
       SDBM_File

       SDBM_File works properly on VMS. It has, however, one minor difference.
       The database directory file created has a .sdbm_dir extension rather
       than a .dir extension. .dir files are VMS filesystem directory files,
       and using them for other purposes could cause unacceptable problems.

Revision date
       This document was last updated on 01-May-2002, for Perl 5, patchlevel
       8.

AUTHOR
       Charles Bailey  bailey@cor.newman.upenn.edu Craig Berry	craig-
       berry@mac.com Dan Sugalski  dan@sidhe.org



perl v5.8.8			  2006-01-07			    PERLVMS(1)
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