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after
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aio_suspend
aio_waitcomplete
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at
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chio
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cpp
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dngettext
do
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dtmfdecode
du
dup
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ec
ecdsa
echo
echotc
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edit
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ee
egrep
elf
elfdump
elif
else
enc
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encoding
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endif
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eqn
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eui64
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host
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ifnames259
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limits
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lockf
log
logger
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lp
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lutimes
lynx
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magic
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mc
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mt
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nawk
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neqn
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nex
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nice
nl
nm
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nslookup
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objcopy
objdump
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ocsp
od
onintr
open
openssl
opieaccess
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options
oqmgr
pack
package
packagens
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palette
pam_auth
panedwindow
parray
passwd
paste
patch
pathchk
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pawd
pax
pbm
pcre
pcreapi
pcrebuild
pcrecallout
pcrecompat
pcrecpp
pcregrep
pcrematching
pcrepartial
pcrepattern
pcreperform
pcreposix
pcreprecompile
pcresample
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perl
perl56delta
perl58delta
perl561delta
perl570delta
perl571delta
perl572delta
perl573delta
perl581delta
perl582delta
perl583delta
perl584delta
perl585delta
perl586delta
perl587delta
perl588delta
perl5004delta
perl5005delta
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perlfaq1
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perlfaq3
perlfaq4
perlfaq5
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perlfaq8
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pkcs7
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FreeBSD/Linux/UNIX General Commands Manual
Hypertext Man Pages
eqn
 
EQN(1)									EQN(1)



NAME
       eqn - format equations for troff

SYNOPSIS
       eqn [ -rvCNR ] [ -dxy ] [ -Tname ] [ -Mdir ] [ -fF ] [ -sn ] [ -pn ]
	   [ -mn ] [ files... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its
       parameter.

DESCRIPTION
       This manual page describes the GNU version of eqn, which is part of the
       groff document formatting system.  eqn compiles descriptions  of  equa-
       tions  embedded	within troff input files into commands that are under-
       stood by troff.	Normally, it should be invoked using the -e option  of
       groff.	The  syntax  is quite compatible with Unix eqn.  The output of
       GNU eqn cannot be processed with Unix troff; it must be processed  with
       GNU  troff.   If  no  files are given on the command line, the standard
       input will be read.  A filename of - will cause the standard  input  to
       be read.

       eqn  searches  for  the file eqnrc in the directories given with the -M
       option first, then in /usr/share/tmac, /usr/share/tmac, and finally  in
       the  standard  macro directory /usr/share/tmac.	If it exists, eqn will
       process it before the other input files.  The -R option prevents  this.

       GNU eqn does not provide the functionality of neqn: it does not support
       low-resolution, typewriter-like devices	(although  it  may  work  ade-
       quately for very simple input).

OPTIONS
       -dxy   Specify  delimiters  x and y for the left and right end, respec-
	      tively, of in-line  equations.   Any  delim  statements  in  the
	      source file overrides this.

       -C     Recognize  .EQ  and  .EN even when followed by a character other
	      than space or newline.

       -N     Don't allow newlines within delimiters.  This option allows  eqn
	      to recover better from missing closing delimiters.

       -v     Print the version number.

       -r     Only one size reduction.

       -mn    The  minimum  point-size	is n.  eqn will not reduce the size of
	      subscripts or superscripts to a smaller size than n.

       -Tname The output is for device name.  The only effect of  this	is  to
	      define a macro name with a value of 1.  Typically eqnrc will use
	      this to provide definitions appropriate for the  output  device.
	      The default output device is ps.

       -Mdir  Search dir for eqnrc before the default directories.

       -R     Don't load eqnrc.

       -fF    This is equivalent to a gfont F command.

       -sn    This  is equivalent to a gsize n command.  This option is depre-
	      cated.  eqn will normally set equations at whatever the  current
	      point size is when the equation is encountered.

       -pn    This  says  that	subscripts and superscripts should be n points
	      smaller than the surrounding text.  This option  is  deprecated.
	      Normally	eqn  makes  sets subscripts and superscripts at 70% of
	      the size of the surrounding text.

USAGE
       Only the differences between GNU eqn and Unix eqn are described here.

       Most of the new features of GNU eqn are based on TeX.  There  are  some
       references  to the differences between TeX and GNU eqn below; these may
       safely be ignored if you do not know TeX.

   Automatic spacing
       eqn gives each component of an equation a type, and adjusts the spacing
       between components using that type.  Possible types are:

	      ordinary	   an ordinary character such as `1' or `x';
						     _
	      operator	   a large operator such as `>';

	      binary	   a binary operator such as `+';

	      relation	   a relation such as `=';

	      opening	   a opening bracket such as `(';

	      closing	   a closing bracket such as `)';

	      punctuation  a punctuation character such as `,';

	      inner	   a subformula contained within brackets;

	      suppress	   spacing  that  suppresses automatic spacing adjust-
			   ment.

       Components of an equation get a type in one of two ways.

       type t e
	      This yields an equation component that contains e but  that  has
	      type  t, where t is one of the types mentioned above.  For exam-
	      ple, times is defined as

		     type "binary" \(mu

	      The name of the type doesn't have to be quoted, but quoting pro-
	      tects from macro expansion.

       chartype t text
	      Unquoted groups of characters are split up into individual char-
	      acters, and the type  of	each  character  is  looked  up;  this
	      changes the type that is stored for each character; it says that
	      the characters in text from now on have type t.  For example,

		     chartype "punctuation" .,;:

	      would make the characters `.,;:' have type punctuation  whenever
	      they  subsequently appeared in an equation.  The type t can also
	      be letter or digit; in these cases  chartype  changes  the  font
	      type of the characters.  See the Fonts subsection.

   New primitives
       e1 smallover e2
	      This  is	similar  to over; smallover reduces the size of e1 and
	      e2; it also puts less vertical space between e1 or  e2  and  the
	      fraction	bar.   The over primitive corresponds to the TeX \over
	      primitive in display styles; smallover corresponds to  \over  in
	      non-display styles.

       vcenter e
	      This vertically centers e about the math axis.  The math axis is
	      the vertical position about which characters such as `+' and `-'
	      are  centered; also it is the vertical position used for the bar
	      of fractions.  For example, sum is defined as

		     { type "operator" vcenter size +5 \(*S }

       e1 accent e2
	      This sets e2 as an accent over e1.  e2 is assumed to be  at  the
	      correct  height  for  a  lowercase letter; e2 will be moved down
	      according if e1 is taller or shorter than  a  lowercase  letter.
	      For example, hat is defined as

		     accent { "^" }

	      dotdot,  dot,  tilde,  vec,  and dyad are also defined using the
	      accent primitive.

       e1 uaccent e2
	      This sets e2 as an accent under e1.  e2 is assumed to be at  the
	      correct  height  for a character without a descender; e2 will be
	      moved down if e1 has a descender.  utilde is  pre-defined  using
	      uaccent as a tilde accent below the baseline.

       split "text"
	      This has the same effect as simply

		     text

	      but text is not subject to macro expansion because it is quoted;
	      text will be split up and the spacing between individual charac-
	      ters will be adjusted.

       nosplit text
	      This has the same effect as

		     "text"

	      but  because  text  is  not  quoted  it will be subject to macro
	      expansion; text will not be split up  and  the  spacing  between
	      individual characters will not be adjusted.

       e opprime
	      This  is	a  variant of prime that acts as an operator on e.  It
	      produces a different  result  from  prime  in  a	case  such  as
	      A opprime sub 1:	with  opprime  the  1 will be tucked under the
	      prime as a subscript to the A (as is conventional in  mathemati-
	      cal  typesetting),  whereas with prime the 1 will be a subscript
	      to the prime character.  The precedence of opprime is  the  same
	      as  that	of  bar and under, which is higher than that of every-
	      thing except accent and uaccent.	In unquoted text a '  that  is
	      not the first character will be treated like opprime.

       special text e
	      This constructs a new object from e using a troff(1) macro named
	      text.  When the macro is called, the string 0s will contain  the
	      output  for  e, and the number registers 0w, 0h, 0d, 0skern, and
	      0skew will contain the width, height, depth, subscript kern, and
	      skew  of	e.   (The  subscript kern of an object says how much a
	      subscript on that object should be tucked in;  the  skew	of  an
	      object  says how far to the right of the center of the object an
	      accent over the object should be placed.)  The macro must modify
	      0s  so that it will output the desired result with its origin at
	      the current point, and increase the current horizontal  position
	      by  the  width of the object.  The number registers must also be
	      modified so that they correspond to the result.

	      For example, suppose you wanted a construct  that  `cancels'  an
	      expression by drawing a diagonal line through it.

		     .EQ
		     define cancel 'special Ca'
		     .EN
		     .de Ca
		     .	ds 0s \
		     \Z'\\*(0s'\
		     \v'\\n(0du'\
		     \D'l \\n(0wu -\\n(0hu-\\n(0du'\
		     \v'\\n(0hu'
		     ..

	      Then you could cancel an expression e with cancel { e }

	      Here's  a  more  complicated construct that draws a box round an
	      expression:

		     .EQ
		     define box 'special Bx'
		     .EN
		     .de Bx
		     .	ds 0s \
		     \Z'\h'1n'\\*(0s'\
		     \Z'\
		     \v'\\n(0du+1n'\
		     \D'l \\n(0wu+2n 0'\
		     \D'l 0 -\\n(0hu-\\n(0du-2n'\
		     \D'l -\\n(0wu-2n 0'\
		     \D'l 0 \\n(0hu+\\n(0du+2n'\
		     '\
		     \h'\\n(0wu+2n'
		     .	nr 0w +2n
		     .	nr 0d +1n
		     .	nr 0h +1n
		     ..

       space n
	      A positive value of the integer n (in hundredths of an em)  sets
	      the  vertical spacing before the equation, a negative value sets
	      the spacing after the equation, replacing  the  default  values.
	      This  primitive  provides an interface to groff's \x escape (but
	      with opposite sign).

	      This keyword has no effect if the equation is part of a pic pic-
	      ture.

   Extended primitives
       col n { ... }
       ccol n { ... }
       lcol n { ... }
       rcol n { ... }
       pile n { ... }
       cpile n { ... }
       lpile n { ... }
       rpile n { ... }
	      The  integer value n (in hundredths of an em) increases the ver-
	      tical spacing between rows, using groff's \x  escape.   Negative
	      values are possible but have no effect.  If there is more than a
	      single value given in a matrix, the biggest one is used.

   Customization
       The appearance of equations is controlled by a large number of  parame-
       ters.  These can be set using the set command.

       set p n
	      This sets parameter p to value n; n is an integer.  For example,

		     set x_height 45

	      says that eqn should assume an x height of 0.45 ems.

	      Possible parameters are as follows.  Values are in units of hun-
	      dredths  of  an  em unless otherwise stated.  These descriptions
	      are intended to be expository rather than definitive.

	      minimum_size
		     eqn will not set anything at a  smaller  point-size  than
		     this.  The value is in points.

	      fat_offset
		     The  fat  primitive emboldens an equation by overprinting
		     two copies of the equation horizontally  offset  by  this
		     amount.

	      over_hang
		     A	fraction  bar will be longer by twice this amount than
		     the maximum of the widths of the numerator and  denomina-
		     tor;  in  other words, it will overhang the numerator and
		     denominator by at least this amount.

	      accent_width
		     When bar or under is applied to a single  character,  the
		     line  will be this long.  Normally, bar or under produces
		     a line whose length is the width of the object  to  which
		     it applies; in the case of a single character, this tends
		     to produce a line that looks too long.

	      delimiter_factor
		     Extensible delimiters produced with the  left  and  right
		     primitives  will  have  a combined height and depth of at
		     least this many thousandths of twice the  maximum	amount
		     by  which	the  sub-equation  that the delimiters enclose
		     extends away from the axis.

	      delimiter_shortfall
		     Extensible delimiters produced with the  left  and  right
		     primitives will have a combined height and depth not less
		     than the difference of twice the maximum amount by  which
		     the sub-equation that the delimiters enclose extends away
		     from the axis and this amount.

	      null_delimiter_space
		     This much horizontal space is inserted on each side of  a
		     fraction.

	      script_space
		     The  width of subscripts and superscripts is increased by
		     this amount.

	      thin_space
		     This amount of  space  is	automatically  inserted  after
		     punctuation characters.

	      medium_space
		     This  amount of space is automatically inserted on either
		     side of binary operators.

	      thick_space
		     This amount of space is automatically inserted on	either
		     side of relations.

	      x_height
		     The height of lowercase letters without ascenders such as
		     `x'.

	      axis_height
		     The height above the baseline of the center of characters
		     such  as `+' and `-'.  It is important that this value is
		     correct for the font you are using.

	      default_rule_thickness
		     This should set to the thickness of the  \(ru  character,
		     or the thickness of horizontal lines produced with the \D
		     escape sequence.

	      num1   The over command will shift up the numerator by at  least
		     this amount.

	      num2   The  smallover  command will shift up the numerator by at
		     least this amount.

	      denom1 The over command will shift down the  denominator	by  at
		     least this amount.

	      denom2 The  smallover command will shift down the denominator by
		     at least this amount.

	      sup1   Normally superscripts will be shifted up by at least this
		     amount.

	      sup2   Superscripts  within  superscripts  or  upper  limits  or
		     numerators of smallover fractions will be shifted	up  by
		     at least this amount.  This is usually less than sup1.

	      sup3   Superscripts  within denominators or square roots or sub-
		     scripts or lower limits will be shifted up  by  at  least
		     this amount.  This is usually less than sup2.

	      sub1   Subscripts will normally be shifted down by at least this
		     amount.

	      sub2   When there is both a subscript  and  a  superscript,  the
		     subscript will be shifted down by at least this amount.

	      sup_drop
		     The  baseline  of a superscript will be no more than this
		     much amount below the top of  the	object	on  which  the
		     superscript is set.

	      sub_drop
		     The  baseline  of	a subscript will be at least this much
		     below the bottom of the object on which the subscript  is
		     set.

	      big_op_spacing1
		     The baseline of an upper limit will be at least this much
		     above the top of the object on which the limit is set.

	      big_op_spacing2
		     The baseline of a lower limit will be at least this  much
		     below the bottom of the object on which the limit is set.

	      big_op_spacing3
		     The bottom of an upper limit will be at least  this  much
		     above the top of the object on which the limit is set.

	      big_op_spacing4
		     The top of a lower limit will be at least this much below
		     the bottom of the object on which the limit is set.

	      big_op_spacing5
		     This much vertical space will be added  above  and  below
		     limits.

	      baseline_sep
		     The  baselines  of the rows in a pile or matrix will nor-
		     mally be this far apart.  In most cases  this  should  be
		     equal to the sum of num1 and denom1.

	      shift_down
		     The  midpoint  between  the  top  baseline and the bottom
		     baseline in a matrix or pile will be shifted down by this
		     much  from  the axis.  In most cases this should be equal
		     to axis_height.

	      column_sep
		     This much space  will  be	added  between	columns  in  a
		     matrix.

	      matrix_side_sep
		     This much space will be added at each side of a matrix.

	      draw_lines
		     If  this  is  non-zero,  lines will be drawn using the \D
		     escape sequence, rather than with the \l escape  sequence
		     and the \(ru character.

	      body_height
		     The  amount  by  which the height of the equation exceeds
		     this will be added as extra space before  the  line  con-
		     taining  the  equation  (using \x).  The default value is
		     85.

	      body_depth
		     The amount by which the depth  of	the  equation  exceeds
		     this will be added as extra space after the line contain-
		     ing the equation (using \x).  The default value is 35.

	      nroff  If this is non-zero, then ndefine will behave like define
		     and  tdefine  will  be  ignored,  otherwise  tdefine will
		     behave like define and  ndefine  will  be	ignored.   The
		     default value is 0 (This is typically changed to 1 by the
		     eqnrc file  for  the  ascii,  latin1,  utf8,  and	cp1047
		     devices.)

	      A  more precise description of the role of many of these parame-
	      ters can be found in Appendix H of The TeXbook.

   Macros
       Macros can take arguments.  In a macro body, $n where n	is  between  1
       and  9,	will  be  replaced by the n-th argument if the macro is called
       with arguments; if there  are  fewer  than  n  arguments,  it  will  be
       replaced  by  nothing.	A word containing a left parenthesis where the
       part of the word before the left parenthesis has been defined using the
       define command will be recognized as a macro call with arguments; char-
       acters following the left parenthesis up to a matching right  parenthe-
       sis  will be treated as comma-separated arguments; commas inside nested
       parentheses do not terminate an argument.

       sdefine name X anything X
	      This is like the define command, but name will not be recognized
	      if called with arguments.

       include "file"
       copy "file"
	      Include  the  contents  of file (include and copy are synonyms).
	      Lines of file beginning with .EQ or .EN will be ignored.

       ifdef name X anything X
	      If name has been defined by define (or  has  been  automatically
	      defined  because	name  is  the output device) process anything;
	      otherwise ignore anything.  X can be any character not appearing
	      in anything.

       undef name
	      Remove definition of name, making it undefined.

       Besides	the  macros  mentioned	above,	the  following definitions are
       available: Alpha, Beta, ..., Omega (this is the same  as  ALPHA,  BETA,
       ..., OMEGA), ldots (three dots on the base line), and dollar.

   Fonts
       eqn normally uses at least two fonts to set an equation: an italic font
       for letters, and a roman font for everything else.  The existing  gfont
       command	changes  the font that is used as the italic font.  By default
       this is I.  The font that is used as the  roman	font  can  be  changed
       using the new grfont command.

       grfont f
	      Set the roman font to f.

       The  italic  primitive  uses  the current italic font set by gfont; the
       roman primitive uses the current roman font set by  grfont.   There  is
       also  a	new  gbfont  command,  which changes the font used by the bold
       primitive.  If you only use the roman, italic and  bold	primitives  to
       changes	fonts within an equation, you can change all the fonts used by
       your equations just by using gfont, grfont and gbfont commands.

       You can control which characters are treated as letters (and  therefore
       set  in italics) by using the chartype command described above.	A type
       of letter will cause a character to be set in italic type.  A  type  of
       digit will cause a character to be set in roman type.

FILES
       /usr/share/tmac/eqnrc  Initialization file.

BUGS
       Inline  equations  will be set at the point size that is current at the
       beginning of the input line.

SEE ALSO
       groff(1), troff(1), pic(1), groff_font(5), The TeXbook



Groff Version 1.19.2	       15 November 2005 			EQN(1)
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