a2p
accept
access
acct
addftinfo
addr2line
adjtime
afmtodit
after
aio_cancel
aio_error
aio_read
aio_return
aio_suspend
aio_waitcomplete
aio_write
alias
aliases
alloc
anvil
append
apply
apropos
ar
array
as
asa
asn1parse
at
atq
atrm
attemptckalloc
attemptckrealloc
authlib
authtest
autopoint
awk
b64decode
b64encode
basename
batch
bc
bdes
bell
bg
bgerror
biff
big5
binary
bind
bindkey
bindtags
bindtextdomain
bio
bitmap
blowfish
bn
bootparams
bootptab
bounce
brandelf
break
breaksw
brk
bsdiff
bsdtar
bsnmpd
bspatch
bthost
btsockstat
buffer
builtin
builtins
bunzip2
button
byacc
bzcat
bzegrep
bzfgrep
bzgrep
bzip2
c2ph
c89
c99
ca
cal
calendar
canvas
cap_mkdb
case
cat
catch
catman
cc
cd
cdcontrol
chdir
checkbutton
checknr
chflags
chfn
chgrp
chio
chkey
chmod
chown
chpass
chroot
chsh
ci
ciphers
ckalloc
ckdist
ckfree
ckrealloc
cksum
cleanup
clear
clipboard
clock
clock_getres
clock_gettime
clock_settime
close
cmp
co
col
colcrt
colldef
colors
colrm
column
comm
command
compile_et
complete
compress
concat
config
connect
console
continue
core
courierlogger
couriertcpd
cp
cpan
cpio
cpp
creat
crl
crontab
crunchgen
crunchide
crypt
crypto
csh
csplit
ctags
ctm
ctm_dequeue
ctm_rmail
ctm_smail
cu
cursor
cursors
cut
cvs
date
dbiprof
dbiproxy
dc
dcgettext
dcngettext
dd
dde
default
defer
deliverquota
des
destroy
devfs
df
dgettext
dgst
dh
dhparam
dialog
diff
diff3
dig
dir
dirent
dirname
dirs
discard
disktab
dngettext
do
domainname
done
dprofpp
dsa
dsaparam
dtmfdecode
du
dup
dup2
eaccess
ec
ecdsa
echo
echotc
ecparam
ed
edit
editrc
ee
egrep
elf
elfdump
elif
else
enc
enc2xs
encoding
end
endif
endsw
engine
enigma
entry
env
envsubst
eof
eqn
err
errno
error
errstr
esac
ethers
euc
eui64
eval
event
evp
ex
exec
execve
exit
expand
export
exports
expr
extattr
extattr_delete_fd
extattr_delete_file
extattr_get_fd
extattr_get_file
extattr_set_fd
extattr_set_file
f77
false
famm
famx
fblocked
fbtab
fc
fchdir
fchflags
fchmod
fchown
fcntl
fconfigure
fcopy
fdescfs
fdformat
fdread
fdwrite
fetch
fg
fgrep
fhopen
fhstat
fhstatfs
fi
file
file2c
fileevent
filename
filetest
find
find2perl
finger
flex
flock
flush
fmt
focus
fold
font
fontedit
for
foreach
fork
format
forward
fpathconf
frame
from
fs
fstab
fstat
fstatfs
fsync
ftp
ftpchroot
ftpusers
ftruncate
futimes
g711conv
gb2312
gb18030
gbk
gcc
gcore
gcov
gdb
gencat
gendsa
genrsa
gensnmptree
getconf
getdents
getdirentries
getdtablesize
getegid
geteuid
getfacl
getfh
getfsstat
getgid
getgroups
getitimer
getlogin
getopt
getopts
getpeername
getpgid
getpgrp
getpid
getppid
getpriority
getresgid
getresuid
getrlimit
getrusage
gets
getsid
getsockname
getsockopt
gettext
gettextize
gettimeofday
gettytab
getuid
glob
global
gmake
goto
gperf
gprof
grab
grep
grid
grn
grodvi
groff
groff_font
groff_out
groff_tmac
grog
grolbp
grolj4
grops
grotty
group
groups
gunzip
gzcat
gzexe
gzip
h2ph
h2xs
hash
hashstat
hd
head
help2man
hesinfo
hexdump
history
host
hostname
hosts
hosts_access
hosts_options
hpftodit
http
hup
i386_get_ioperm
i386_get_ldt
i386_set_ioperm
i386_set_ldt
i386_vm86
iconv
id
ident
idprio
if
ifnames253
ifnames259
image
imapd
incr
indent
indxbib
info
infokey
inode
install
instmodsh
interp
intro
introduction
ioctl
ipcrm
ipcs
ipf
ipftest
ipnat
ippool
ipresend
issetugid
jail
jail_attach
jobid
jobs
join
jot
kbdcontrol
kbdmap
kcon
kdestroy
kdump
kenv
kevent
keycap
keylogin
keylogout
keymap
keysyms
kgdb
kill
killall
killpg
kinit
kldfind
kldfirstmod
kldload
kldnext
kldstat
kldsym
kldunload
klist
kpasswd
kqueue
kse
kse_create
kse_exit
kse_release
kse_switchin
kse_thr_interrupt
kse_wakeup
ktrace
label
labelframe
lam
lappend
last
lastcomm
lastlog
lchflags
lchmod
lchown
ld
ldap
ldapadd
ldapcompare
ldapdelete
ldapmodify
ldapmodrdn
ldappasswd
ldapsearch
ldapwhoami
ldd
leave
less
lesskey
lex
lgetfh
lhash
libnetcfg
library
limit
limits
lindex
link
linprocfs
linsert
lint
lio_listio
list
listbox
listen
lj4_font
lkbib
llength
lmtp
ln
load
loadfont
local
locale
locate
lock
lockf
log
logger
login
logins
logname
logout
look
lookbib
lorder
lower
lp
lpq
lpr
lprm
lptest
lrange
lreplace
ls
lsearch
lseek
lset
lsort
lstat
lsvfs
lutimes
lynx
m4
madvise
magic
mail
maildiracl
maildirkw
maildirmake
mailq
mailx
make
makeinfo
makewhatis
man
manpath
master
mc
mcedit
mcview
md2
md4
md5
mdc2
memory
menu
menubar
menubutton
merge
mesg
message
mincore
minherit
minigzip
mkdep
mkdir
mkfifo
mkimapdcert
mklocale
mknod
mkpop3dcert
mkstr
mktemp
mlock
mlockall
mmap
mmroff
modfind
modfnext
modnext
modstat
moduli
more
motd
mount
mprotect
mptable
msdos
msdosfs
msgattrib
msgcat
msgcmp
msgcomm
msgconv
msgen
msgexec
msgfilter
msgfmt
msggrep
msginit
msgmerge
msgs
msgunfmt
msguniq
mskanji
msql2mysql
msync
mt
munlock
munlockall
munmap
mv
myisamchk
myisamlog
myisampack
mysql
mysqlaccess
mysqladmin
mysqlbinlog
mysqlcheck
mysqld
mysqldump
mysqld_multi
mysqld_safe
mysqlhotcopy
mysqlimport
mysqlshow
mysql_config
mysql_fix_privilege_tables
mysql_zap
namespace
nanosleep
nawk
nc
ncal
ncplist
ncplogin
ncplogout
neqn
netconfig
netgroup
netid
netstat
networks
newaliases
newgrp
nex
nfsstat
nfssvc
ngettext
nice
nl
nm
nmount
nohup
nologin
notify
nroff
nseq
nslookup
ntp_adjtime
ntp_gettime
nvi
nview
objcopy
objdump
objformat
ocsp
od
onintr
open
openssl
opieaccess
opieinfo
opiekey
opiekeys
opiepasswd
option
options
oqmgr
pack
package
packagens
pagesize
palette
pam_auth
panedwindow
parray
passwd
paste
patch
pathchk
pathconf
pawd
pax
pbm
pcre
pcreapi
pcrebuild
pcrecallout
pcrecompat
pcrecpp
pcregrep
pcrematching
pcrepartial
pcrepattern
pcreperform
pcreposix
pcreprecompile
pcresample
pcretest
perl
perl56delta
perl58delta
perl561delta
perl570delta
perl571delta
perl572delta
perl573delta
perl581delta
perl582delta
perl583delta
perl584delta
perl585delta
perl586delta
perl587delta
perl588delta
perl5004delta
perl5005delta
perlaix
perlamiga
perlapi
perlapio
perlapollo
perlartistic
perlbeos
perlbook
perlboot
perlbot
perlbs2000
perlbug
perlcall
perlcc
perlce
perlcheat
perlclib
perlcn
perlcompile
perlcygwin
perldata
perldbmfilter
perldebguts
perldebtut
perldebug
perldelta
perldgux
perldiag
perldoc
perldos
perldsc
perlebcdic
perlembed
perlepoc
perlfaq
perlfaq1
perlfaq2
perlfaq3
perlfaq4
perlfaq5
perlfaq6
perlfaq7
perlfaq8
perlfaq9
perlfilter
perlfork
perlform
perlfreebsd
perlfunc
perlglossary
perlgpl
perlguts
perlhack
perlhist
perlhpux
perlhurd
perlintern
perlintro
perliol
perlipc
perlirix
perlivp
perljp
perlko
perllexwarn
perllinux
perllocale
perllol
perlmachten
perlmacos
perlmacosx
perlmint
perlmod
perlmodinstall
perlmodlib
perlmodstyle
perlmpeix
perlnetware
perlnewmod
perlnumber
perlobj
perlop
perlopenbsd
perlopentut
perlos2
perlos390
perlos400
perlothrtut
perlpacktut
perlplan9
perlpod
perlpodspec
perlport
perlqnx
perlre
perlref
perlreftut
perlrequick
perlreref
perlretut
perlrun
perlsec
perlsolaris
perlstyle
perlsub
perlsyn
perlthrtut
perltie
perltoc
perltodo
perltooc
perltoot
perltrap
perltru64
perltw
perlunicode
perluniintro
perlutil
perluts
perlvar
perlvmesa
perlvms
perlvos
perlwin32
perlxs
perlxstut
perror
pfbtops
pftp
pgrep
phones
photo
pic
pickup
piconv
pid
pipe
pkcs7
pkcs8
pkcs12
pkg_add
pkg_check
pkg_create
pkg_delete
pkg_info
pkg_sign
pkg_version
pkill
pl2pm
place
pod2html
pod2latex
pod2man
pod2text
pod2usage
podchecker
podselect
poll
popd
popup
posix_madvise
postalias
postcat
postconf
postdrop
postfix
postkick
postlock
postlog
postmap
postqueue
postsuper
pr
pread
preadv
printcap
printenv
printf
proc
procfs
profil
protocols
prove
proxymap
ps
psed
psroff
pstruct
ptrace
publickey
pushd
puts
pwd
pwrite
pwritev
qmgr
qmqpd
quota
quotactl
radiobutton
raise
rand
ranlib
rcp
rcs
rcsclean
rcsdiff
rcsfile
rcsfreeze
rcsintro
rcsmerge
read
readelf
readlink
readonly
readv
realpath
reboot
recv
recvfrom
recvmsg
red
ree
refer
regexp
registry
regsub
rehash
remote
rename
repeat
replace
req
reset
resolver
resource
return
rev
revoke
rfcomm_sppd
rfork
rhosts
ripemd
ripemd160
rlog
rlogin
rm
rmd160
rmdir
rpc
rpcgen
rs
rsa
rsautl
rsh
rtld
rtprio
rup
ruptime
rusers
rwall
rwho
s2p
safe
sasl
sasldblistusers2
saslpasswd2
sbrk
scache
scale
scan
sched
sched_getparam
sched_getscheduler
sched_get_priority_max
sched_get_priority_min
sched_rr_get_interval
sched_setparam
sched_setscheduler
sched_yield
scon
scp
script
scrollbar
sdiff
sed
seek
select
selection
semctl
semget
semop
send
sendbug
sendfile
sendmail
sendmsg
sendto
services
sess_id
set
setegid
setenv
seteuid
setfacl
setgid
setgroups
setitimer
setlogin
setpgid
setpgrp
setpriority
setregid
setresgid
setresuid
setreuid
setrlimit
setsid
setsockopt
settc
settimeofday
setty
setuid
setvar
sftp
sh
sha
sha1
sha256
shar
shells
shift
shmat
shmctl
shmdt
shmget
showq
shutdown
sigaction
sigaltstack
sigblock
sigmask
sigpause
sigpending
sigprocmask
sigreturn
sigsetmask
sigstack
sigsuspend
sigvec
sigwait
size
slapadd
slapcat
slapd
slapdn
slapindex
slappasswd
slaptest
sleep
slogin
slurpd
smbutil
smime
smtp
smtpd
socket
socketpair
sockstat
soelim
sort
source
spawn
speed
spinbox
spkac
splain
split
squid
squid_ldap_auth
squid_ldap_group
squid_unix_group
sscop
ssh
sshd_config
ssh_config
stab
startslip
stat
statfs
stop
string
strings
strip
stty
su
subst
sum
suspend
swapoff
swapon
switch
symlink
sync
sysarch
syscall
sysconftool
sysconftoolcheck
systat
s_client
s_server
s_time
tabs
tail
talk
tar
tbl
tclsh
tcltest
tclvars
tcopy
tcpdump
tcpslice
tcsh
tee
tell
telltc
telnet
term
termcap
terminfo
test
texindex
texinfo
text
textdomain
tfmtodit
tftp
then
threads
time
tip
tk
tkerror
tkvars
tkwait
tlsmgr
tmac
top
toplevel
touch
tput
tr
trace
trafshow
trap
troff
true
truncate
truss
tset
tsort
tty
ttys
type
tzfile
ui
ul
ulimit
umask
unalias
uname
uncomplete
uncompress
undelete
unexpand
unhash
unifdef
unifdefall
uniq
units
unknown
unlimit
unlink
unmount
unset
unsetenv
until
unvis
update
uplevel
uptime
upvar
usbhidaction
usbhidctl
users
utf8
utimes
utmp
utrace
uudecode
uuencode
uuidgen
vacation
variable
verify
version
vfork
vgrind
vgrindefs
vi
vidcontrol
vidfont
view
virtual
vis
vt220keys
vwait
w
wait
wait3
wait4
waitpid
wall
wc
wget
what
whatis
where
whereis
which
while
who
whoami
whois
window
winfo
wish
wm
write
writev
wtmp
x509
xargs
xgettext
xmlwf
xstr
xsubpp
yacc
yes
ypcat
ypchfn
ypchpass
ypchsh
ypmatch
yppasswd
ypwhich
yyfix
zcat
zcmp
zdiff
zegrep
zfgrep
zforce
zgrep
zmore
znew
_exit
__syscall
 
FreeBSD/Linux/UNIX General Commands Manual
Hypertext Man Pages
ex
 
VI(1)									 VI(1)



NAME
       ex, vi, view - text editors

SYNOPSIS
       ex [-eFGRrSsv] [-c cmd] [-t tag] [-w size] [file ...]
       vi [-eFGlRrSv] [-c cmd] [-t tag] [-w size] [file ...]
       view [-eFGRrSv] [-c cmd] [-t tag] [-w size] [file ...]

LICENSE
       The  vi	program  is  freely redistributable.  You are welcome to copy,
       modify and share it with others under  the  conditions  listed  in  the
       LICENSE	file.	If any company (not individual!) finds vi sufficiently
       useful that you would have purchased it, or if any  company  wishes  to
       redistribute it, contributions to the authors would be appreciated.

DESCRIPTION
       Vi  is  a screen oriented text editor.  Ex is a line-oriented text edi-
       tor.  Ex and vi are different interfaces to the same program, and it is
       possible  to switch back and forth during an edit session.  View is the
       equivalent of using the -R (read-only) option of vi.

       This manual page is the one provided with the nex/nvi versions  of  the
       ex/vi  text  editors.   Nex/nvi	are intended as bug-for-bug compatible
       replacements for the original  Fourth  Berkeley	Software  Distribution
       (4BSD)  ex  and vi programs.  For the rest of this manual page, nex/nvi
       is used only when it's necessary to distinguish it  from  the  historic
       implementations of ex/vi.

       This  manual  page  is  intended for users already familiar with ex/vi.
       Anyone else should almost certainly read a good tutorial on the	editor
       before  this  manual page.  If you're in an unfamiliar environment, and
       you absolutely have to get work	done  immediately,  read  the  section
       after  the options description, entitled ``Fast Startup''.  It's proba-
       bly enough to get you going.

       The following options are available:

       -c     Execute cmd immediately after starting the edit  session.   Par-
	      ticularly  useful  for  initial positioning in the file, however
	      cmd is not limited to positioning commands.  This is  the  POSIX
	      1003.2 interface for the historic ``+cmd'' syntax.  Nex/nvi sup-
	      ports both the old and new syntax.

       -e     Start editing in ex mode, as if the command name were ex.

       -F     Don't copy the entire file when first starting  to  edit.   (The
	      default is to make a copy in case someone else modifies the file
	      during your edit session.)

       -l     Start editing with the lisp and showmatch options set.

       -G     Start editing in gtags mode, as if the gtagsmode option was set.

       -R     Start  editing  in  read-only  mode,  as if the command name was
	      view, or the readonly option was set.

       -r     Recover the specified files, or, if no files are specified, list
	      the  files  that could be recovered.  If no recoverable files by
	      the specified name exist, the file is edited as if the -r option
	      had not been specified.

       -S     Run  with  the secure edit option set, disallowing all access to
	      external programs.

       -s     Enter batch mode; applicable only to ex  edit  sessions.	 Batch
	      mode  is	useful	when running ex scripts.  Prompts, informative
	      messages and other user oriented message are turned off, and  no
	      startup  files  or  environment variables are read.  This is the
	      POSIX 1003.2 interface for the historic ``-'' argument.  Nex/nvi
	      supports both the old and new syntax.

       -t     Start editing at the specified tag.  (See ctags(1)).

       -w     Set the initial window size to the specified number of lines.

       -v     Start editing in vi mode, as if the command name was vi or view.

       Command input for ex/vi is read from the standard  input.   In  the  vi
       interface,  it is an error if standard input is not a terminal.	In the
       ex interface, if standard input is not a terminal, ex  will  read  com-
       mands  from  it	regardless,  however, the session will be a batch mode
       session, exactly as if the -s option had been specified.

       Ex/vi exits 0 on success, and greater than 0 if an error occurs.

FAST STARTUP
       This section will tell you the minimum amount that you need to do  sim-
       ple  editing  tasks  using  vi.	If you've never used any screen editor
       before, you're likely to have problems even with this simple  introduc-
       tion.   In  that case you should find someone that already knows vi and
       have them walk you through this section.

       Vi is a screen editor.  This means that it takes up almost  the	entire
       screen, displaying part of the file on each screen line, except for the
       last line of the screen.  The last line of the screen is used  for  you
       to give commands to vi, and for vi to give information to you.

       The other fact that you need to understand is that vi is a modeful edi-
       tor, i.e. you are either entering text or you are  executing  commands,
       and  you have to be in the right mode to do one or the other.  You will
       be in command mode when you first start editing a file.	There are com-
       mands  that  switch  you  into  input mode.  There is only one key that
       takes you out of input mode, and that is the  key.  (Key  names
       are  written  using  less-than  and  greater-than signs, e.g.  
       means the ``escape'' key, usually labeled ``esc''  on  your  terminal's
       keyboard.)   If	you're	ever confused as to which mode you're in, keep
       entering the  key until vi beeps at you.  (Generally,  vi  will
       beep  at  you  if you try and do something that's not allowed.  It will
       also display error messages.)

       To start editing a file, enter  the  command  ``vi  file_name''.   The  command you should enter as soon as you start editing
       is ``:set verbose showmode''.  This will make the edi-
       tor give you verbose error messages and display the current mode at the
       bottom of the screen.

       The commands to move around the file are:

       h      Move the cursor left one character.

       j      Move the cursor down one line.

       k      Move the cursor up one line.

       l      Move the cursor right one character.

       
	      The cursor arrow keys should work, too.

       /text
	      Search for the string ``text'' in the file, and move the	cursor
	      to its first character.

       The commands to enter new text are:

       a      Append new text, after the cursor.

       i      Insert new text, before the cursor.

       o      Open  a  new  line  below  the  line the cursor is on, and start
	      entering text.

       O      Open a new line above the line  the  cursor  is  on,  and  start
	      entering text.

       
	      Once you've entered input mode using the one of the a, i, O or o
	      commands, use  to quit entering text and return to  com-
	      mand mode.

       The commands to copy text are:

       yy     Copy the line the cursor is on.

       p      Append the copied line after the line the cursor is on.

       The commands to delete text are:

       dd     Delete the line the cursor is on.

       x      Delete the character the cursor is on.

       The commands to write the file are:

       :w
	      Write  the  file	back to the file with the name that you origi-
	      nally used as an argument on the vi command line.

       :w file_name
	      Write the file back to the file with the name ``file_name''.

       The commands to quit editing and exit the editor are:

       :q
	      Quit editing and leave vi (if you've modified the file, but  not
	      saved your changes, vi will refuse to quit).

       :q!
	      Quit, discarding any modifications that you may have made.

       One final caution.  Unusual characters can take up more than one column
       on the screen, and long lines can take up more  than  a	single	screen
       line.   The  above  commands work on ``physical'' characters and lines,
       i.e. they affect the entire line no matter how  many  screen  lines  it
       takes  up and the entire character no matter how many screen columns it
       takes up.

VI COMMANDS
       The following section describes the commands available in  the  command
       mode  of  the  vi editor.  In each entry below, the tag line is a usage
       synopsis for the command character.


       [count] 
	      Search forward count times for the current word.

       [count] 
	      Page backwards count screens.

       [count] 
	      Scroll forward count lines.

       [count] 
	      Scroll forward count lines, leaving the current line and	column
	      as is, if possible.

       [count] 
	      Page forward count screens.

       
	      Display the file information.

       

       [count] h
	      Move the cursor back count characters in the current line.

       [count] 

       [count] 

       [count] j
	      Move  the  cursor  down count lines without changing the current
	      column.

       

       
	      Repaint the screen.

       [count] 

       [count] +
	      Move the cursor down count lines to the first nonblank character
	      of that line.

       [count] 

       [count] k
	      Move  the  cursor  up  count lines, without changing the current
	      column.

       
	      Return to the most recent tag context.

       
	      Scroll backwards count lines.

       
	      Switch to the next lower screen in the window, or, to the  first
	      screen if there are no lower screens in the window.

       
	      Scroll  backwards count lines, leaving the current line and col-
	      umn as is, if possible.

       
	      Suspend the current editor session.

       
	      Execute ex commands or cancel partial commands.

       
	      Push a tag reference onto the tag stack.	In  gtagsmode,	if  at
	      the  first  column of line, locate function references otherwise
	      function definitions.

       
	      Switch to the most recently edited file.

       [count] 

       [count] l
	      Move the cursor forward count characters	without  changing  the
	      current line.

       [count] ! motion shell-argument(s)
	      Replace text with results from a shell command.

       [count] # #|+|-
	      Increment or decrement the cursor number.

       [count] $
	      Move the cursor to the end of a line.

       %      Move to the matching character.

       &      Repeat the previous substitution command on the current line.

       '

       `
	      Return to a context marked by the character .

       [count] (
	      Back up count sentences.

       [count] )
	      Move forward count sentences.

       [count] ,
	      Reverse find character count times.

       [count] -
	      Move to first nonblank of the previous line, count times.

       [count] .
	      Repeat the last vi command that modified text.

       /RE

       /RE/ [offset]

       ?RE

       ?RE? [offset]

       N

       n      Search forward or backward for a regular expression.

       0      Move to the first character in the current line.

       :      Execute an ex command.

       [count] ;
	      Repeat the last character find count times.

       [count] < motion

       [count] > motion
	      Shift lines left or right.

       @ buffer
	      Execute a named buffer.

       [count] A
	      Enter  input mode, appending the text after the end of the line.

       [count] B
	      Move backwards count bigwords.

       [buffer] [count] C
	      Change text from the current position to the end-of-line.

       [buffer] D
	      Delete text from the current position to the end-of-line.

       [count] E
	      Move forward count end-of-bigwords.

       [count] F 
	      Search count times backward through the current line for	
	      acter>.

       [count] G
	      Move  to	line  count, or the last line of the file if count not
	      specified.

       [count] H
	      Move to the screen line count - 1 lines below  the  top  of  the
	      screen.

       [count] I
	      Enter  input  mode,  inserting  the text at the beginning of the
	      line.

       [count] J
	      Join lines.

       [count] L
	      Move to the screen line count - 1 lines above the bottom of  the
	      screen.

	M     Move to the screen line in the middle of the screen.

       [count] O
	      Enter input mode, appending text in a new line above the current
	      line.

       [buffer] P
	      Insert text from a buffer.

       Q      Exit vi (or visual) mode and switch to ex mode.

       [count] R
	      Enter input mode, replacing the characters in the current  line.

       [buffer] [count] S
	      Substitute count lines.

       [count] T 
	      Search  backwards, count times, through the current line for the
	      character after the specified .

       U      Restore the current line to its state  before  the  cursor  last
	      moved to it.

       [count] W
	      Move forward count bigwords.

       [buffer] [count] X
	      Delete count characters before the cursor.

       [buffer] [count] Y
	      Copy (or ``yank'') count lines into the specified buffer.

       ZZ     Write the file and exit vi.

       [count] [[
	      Back up count section boundaries.

       [count] ]]
	      Move forward count section boundaries.

       ^      Move to first nonblank character on the current line.

       [count] _
	      Move down count - 1 lines, to the first nonblank character.

       [count] a
	      Enter input mode, appending the text after the cursor.

       [count] b
	      Move backwards count words.

       [buffer] [count] c motion
	      Change a region of text.

       [buffer] [count] d motion
	      Delete a region of text.

       [count] e
	      Move forward count end-of-words.

       [count] f
	      Search  forward,	count  times,  through the rest of the current
	      line for .

       [count] i
	      Enter input mode, inserting the text before the cursor.

       m 
	      Save the current context (line and column) as .

       [count] o
	      Enter input mode, appending text in a new line under the current
	      line.

       [buffer] p
	      Append text from a buffer.

       [count] r 
	      Replace count characters.

       [buffer] [count] s
	      Substitute  count  characters  in the current line starting with
	      the current character.

       [count] t 
	      Search forward, count times, through the current	line  for  the
	      character immediately before .

       u      Undo the last change made to the file.

       [count] w
	      Move forward count words.

       [buffer] [count] x
	      Delete count characters.

       [buffer] [count] y motion
	      Copy  (or  ``yank'')  a  text  region specified by the count and
	      motion into a buffer.

       [count1] z [count2] -|.|+|^|
	      Redraw, optionally repositioning and resizing the screen.

       [count] {
	      Move backward count paragraphs.

       [count] |
	      Move to a specific column position on the current line.

       [count] }
	      Move forward count paragraphs.

       [count] ~
	      Reverse the case of the next count character(s).

       [count] ~ motion
	      Reverse the case of the characters in a text region specified by
	      the count and motion.

       
	      Interrupt the current operation.

VI TEXT INPUT COMMANDS
       The  following  section	describes  the	commands available in the text
       input mode of the vi editor.


         Replay the previous input.

       
	      Erase to the previous shiftwidth column boundary.

       ^
	      Erase all of the autoindent characters, and reset the autoindent
	      level.

       0
	      Erase all of the autoindent characters.

       
	      Insert  sufficient   and  characters to move forward
	      to the next shiftwidth column boundary.

       

       
	      Erase the last character.

        next>
	      Quote the next character.

       
	      Resolve all text input into the  file,  and  return  to  command
	      mode.

        erase>
	      Erase the current line.

       

        erase>
	      Erase the last word.  The definition of word is dependent on the
	      altwerase and ttywerase options.

       [0-9A-Fa-f]+
	      Insert a character with the specified hexadecimal value into the
	      text.

       
	      Interrupt text input mode, returning to command mode.

EX COMMANDS
       The  following  section describes the commands available in the ex edi-
       tor.  In each entry below, the tag line is a  usage  synopsis  for  the
       command.


       
	      Scroll the screen.

       ! argument(s)

       [range]! argument(s)
	      Execute  a  shell  command, or filter lines through a shell com-
	      mand.

       "      A comment.

       [range] nu[mber] [count] [flags]

       [range] # [count] [flags]
	      Display the selected lines, each preceded with its line  number.

       @ buffer

       * buffer
	      Execute a buffer.

       [line] a[ppend][!]
	      The input text is appended after the specified line.

       [range] c[hange][!] [count]
	      The input text replaces the specified range.

       cs[cope] add | find | help | kill | reset
	      Execute a Cscope command.

       [range] d[elete] [buffer] [count] [flags]
	      Delete the lines from the file.

       di[splay] b[uffers] | c[onnections] | s[creens] | t[ags]
	      Display buffers, Cscope connections, screens or tags.

       [Ee][dit][!] [+cmd] [file]

       [Ee]x[!] [+cmd] [file]
	      Edit a different file.

       exu[sage] [command]
	      Display usage for an ex command.

       f[ile] [file]
	      Display and optionally change the file name.

       [Ff]g [name]
	      Vi mode only.  Foreground the specified screen.

       [range] g[lobal] /pattern/ [commands]

       [range] v /pattern/ [commands]
	      Apply commands to lines matching (or not matching) a pattern.

       he[lp] Display a help message.

       [line] i[nsert][!]
	      The input text is inserted before the specified line.

       [range] j[oin][!] [count] [flags]
	      Join lines of text together.

       [range] l[ist] [count] [flags]
	      Display the lines unambiguously.

       map[!] [lhs rhs]
	      Define or display maps (for vi only).

       [line] ma[rk] 

       [line] k 
	      Mark the line with the mark .

       [range] m[ove] line
	      Move the specified lines after the target line.

       mk[exrc][!] file
	      Write  the  abbreviations, editor options and maps to the speci-
	      fied file.

       [Nn][ext][!] [file ...]
	      Edit the next file from the argument list.

       [line] o[pen] /pattern/ [flags]
	      Enter open mode.

       pre[serve]
	      Save the file in a form that can later be recovered using the ex
	      -r option.

       [Pp]rev[ious][!]
	      Edit the previous file from the argument list.

       [range] p[rint] [count] [flags]
	      Display the specified lines.

       [line] pu[t] [buffer]
	      Append buffer contents to the current line.

       q[uit][!]
	      End the editing session.

       [line] r[ead][!] [file]
	      Read a file.

       rec[over] file
	      Recover file if it was previously saved.

       res[ize] [+|-]size
	      Vi mode only.  Grow or shrink the current screen.

       rew[ind][!]
	      Rewind the argument list.

       rta[g][!] tagstring
	      Edit the file referring the specified tag. (Only in gtagsmode)

       se[t] [option[=[value]] ...] [nooption ...] [option? ...] [all]
	      Display or set editor options.

       sh[ell]
	      Run a shell program.

       so[urce] file
	      Read and execute ex commands from a file.

       [range] s[ubstitute] [/pattern/replace/] [options] [count] [flags]

       [range] & [options] [count] [flags]

       [range] ~ [options] [count] [flags]
	      Make substitutions.

       su[spend][!]

       st[op][!]

       
	      Suspend the edit session.

       [Tt]a[g][!] tagstring
	      Edit the file containing the specified tag.

       tagn[ext][!]
	      Edit the file containing the next context for the current tag.

       tagp[op][!] [file | number]
	      Pop to the specified tag in the tags stack.

       tagp[rev][!]
	      Edit  the  file  containing the previous context for the current
	      tag.

       unm[ap][!] lhs
	      Unmap a mapped string.

       ve[rsion]
	      Display the version of the ex/vi editor.

       [line] vi[sual] [type] [count] [flags]
	      Ex mode only.  Enter vi.

       [Vi]i[sual][!] [+cmd] [file]
	      Vi mode only.  Edit a new file.

       viu[sage] [command]
	      Display usage for a vi command.

       [range] w[rite][!] [>>] [file]

       [range] w[rite] [!] [file]

       [range] wn[!] [>>] [file]

       [range] wq[!] [>>] [file]
	      Write the file.

       [range] x[it][!] [file]
	      Write the file if it has been modified.

       [range] ya[nk] [buffer] [count]
	      Copy the specified lines to a buffer.

       [line] z [type] [count] [flags]
	      Adjust the window.

SET OPTIONS
       There are a large number of options that  may  be  set  (or  unset)  to
       change  the  editor's  behavior.   This	section describes the options,
       their abbreviations and their default values.

       In each entry below, the first part of the tag line is the full name of
       the  option,  followed  by  any	equivalent abbreviations.  The part in
       square brackets is the default  value  of  the  option.	 Most  of  the
       options are boolean, i.e. they are either on or off, and do not have an
       associated value.

       Options apply to both ex and vi modes, unless otherwise specified.


       altwerase [off]
	      Vi only.	Select an alternate word erase algorithm.

       autoindent, ai [off]
	      Automatically indent new lines.

       autoprint, ap [off]
	      Ex only.	Display the current line automatically.

       autowrite, aw [off]
	      Write modified files automatically when changing files.

       backup [""]
	      Backup files before they are overwritten.

       beautify, bf [off]
	      Discard control characters.

       cdpath [environment variable CDPATH, or current directory]
	      The directory paths used as path prefixes for the cd command.

       cedit [no default]
	      Set the character to edit the colon command-line history.

       columns, co [80]
	      Set the number of columns in the screen.

       comment [off]
	      Vi only.	Skip leading comments in shell,  C  and  C++  language
	      files.

       directory, dir [environment variable TMPDIR, or /tmp]
	      The directory where temporary files are created.

       edcompatible, ed [off]
	      Remember	the values of the ``c'' and ``g'' suffices to the sub-
	      stitute commands, instead of initializing them as unset for each
	      new command.

       errorbells, eb [off]
	      Ex only.	Announce error messages with a bell.

       exrc, ex [off]
	      Read the startup files in the local directory.

       extended [off]
	      Regular  expressions are extended (i.e.  egrep(1)-style) expres-
	      sions.

       filec [no default]
	      Set the character to perform file path completion on  the  colon
	      command line.

       flash [on]
	      Flash the screen instead of beeping the keyboard on error.

       gtagsmode, gt [off]
	      Use GTAGS and GRTAGS instead of tags.

       hardtabs, ht [8]
	      Set the spacing between hardware tab settings.

       iclower [off]
	      Makes  all  Regular  Expressions case-insensitive, as long as an
	      upper-case letter does not appear in the search string.

       ignorecase, ic [off]
	      Ignore case differences in regular expressions.

       keytime [6]
	      The 10th's of a second ex/vi waits for a subsequent key to  com-
	      plete a key mapping.

       leftright [off]
	      Vi only.	Do left-right scrolling.

       lines, li [24]
	      Vi only.	Set the number of lines in the screen.

       lisp [off]
	      Vi  only.   Modify  various  search commands and options to work
	      with Lisp.  This option is not yet implemented.

       list [off]
	      Display lines in an unambiguous fashion.

       lock [on]
	      Attempt to get an exclusive lock on any file being edited,  read
	      or written.

       magic [on]
	      Treat certain characters specially in regular expressions.

       matchtime [7]
	      Vi  only.   The  10th's of a second ex/vi pauses on the matching
	      character when the showmatch option is set.

       mesg [on]
	      Permit messages from other users.

       modelines, modeline [off]
	      Read the first and last few lines of each file for ex  commands.
	      This option will never be implemented.

       noprint [""]
	      Characters that are never handled as printable characters.

       number, nu [off]
	      Precede each line displayed with its current line number.

       octal [off]
	      Display  unknown	characters  as	octal  numbers, instead of the
	      default hexadecimal.

       open [on]
	      Ex only.	If this option is not set, the open  and  visual  com-
	      mands are disallowed.

       optimize, opt [on]
	      Vi  only.   Optimize  text  throughput  to dumb terminals.  This
	      option is not yet implemented.

       paragraphs, para [IPLPPPQPP LIpplpipbp]
	      Vi only.	Define additional paragraph boundaries for the { and }
	      commands.

       path []
	      Define  additional directories to search for files being edited.

       print [""]
	      Characters that are always handled as printable characters.

       prompt [on]
	      Ex only.	Display a command prompt.

       readonly, ro [off]
	      Mark the file and session as read-only.

       recdir [/var/tmp/vi.recover]
	      The directory where recovery files are stored.

       redraw, re [off]
	      Vi only.	Simulate an intelligent terminal on a dumb one.   This
	      option is not yet implemented.

       remap [on]
	      Remap keys until resolved.

       report [5]
	      Set  the	number of lines about which the editor reports changes
	      or yanks.

       ruler [off]
	      Vi only.	Display a row/column ruler on the colon command  line.

       scroll, scr [window / 2]
	      Set the number of lines scrolled.

       searchincr [off]
	      Makes the / and ?  commands incremental.

       sections, sect [NHSHH HUnhsh]
	      Vi only.	Define additional section boundaries for the [[ and ]]
	      commands.

       secure [off]
	      Turns off all access to external programs.

       shell, sh [environment variable SHELL, or /bin/sh]
	      Select the shell used by the editor.

       shellmeta [~{[*?$`'"\]
	      Set the meta characters checked to determine if file name expan-
	      sion is necessary.

       shiftwidth, sw [8]
	      Set the autoindent and shift command indentation width.

       showmatch, sm [off]
	      Vi  only.   Note	matching  ``{''  and ``('' for ``}'' and ``)''
	      characters.

       showmode, smd [off]
	      Vi only.	Display the current editor  mode  and  a  ``modified''
	      flag.

       sidescroll [16]
	      Vi only.	Set the amount a left-right scroll will shift.

       slowopen, slow [off]
	      Delay  display  updating	during text input.  This option is not
	      yet implemented.

       sourceany [off]
	      Read startup files not owned by the current user.   This	option
	      will never be implemented.

       tabstop, ts [8]
	      This option sets tab widths for the editor display.

       taglength, tl [0]
	      Set the number of significant characters in tag names.

       tags, tag [tags /var/db/libc.tags /sys/kern/tags]
	      Set the list of tags files.

       term, ttytype, tty [environment variable TERM]
	      Set the terminal type.

       terse [off]
	      This  option has historically made editor messages less verbose.
	      It has no effect in this implementation.

       tildeop [off]
	      Modify the ~ command to take an associated motion.

       timeout, to [on]
	      Time out on keys which may be mapped.

       ttywerase [off]
	      Vi only.	Select an alternate erase algorithm.

       verbose [off]
	      Vi only.	Display an error message for every error.

       w300 [no default]
	      Vi only.	Set the window size if the baud rate is less than 1200
	      baud.

       w1200 [no default]
	      Vi  only.  Set the window size if the baud rate is equal to 1200
	      baud.

       w9600 [no default]
	      Vi only.	Set the window size if the baud rate is  greater  than
	      1200 baud.

       warn [on]
	      Ex  only.   This option causes a warning message to the terminal
	      if the file has been modified, since it was last written, before
	      a !  command.

       window, w, wi [environment variable LINES]
	      Set the window size for the screen.

       windowname [off]
	      Change  the icon/window name to the current file name even if it
	      can't be restored on editor exit.

       wraplen, wl [0]
	      Vi only.	Break lines automatically,  the  specified  number  of
	      columns  from  the  left-hand  margin.   If both the wraplen and
	      wrapmargin edit options are set, the wrapmargin value is used.

       wrapmargin, wm [0]
	      Vi only.	Break lines automatically,  the  specified  number  of
	      columns  from  the  right-hand  margin.  If both the wraplen and
	      wrapmargin edit options are set, the wrapmargin value is used.

       wrapscan, ws [on]
	      Set searches to wrap around the end or beginning of the file.

       writeany, wa [off]
	      Turn off file-overwriting checks.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       COLUMNS
	      The number of columns on the screen.  This value	overrides  any
	      system  or terminal specific values.  If the COLUMNS environment
	      variable is not set when ex/vi runs, or the  columns  option  is
	      explicitly  reset  by  the user, ex/vi enters the value into the
	      environment.

       EXINIT A list of ex startup commands, read if the variable  NEXINIT  is
	      not set.

       HOME   The  user's  home  directory, used as the initial directory path
	      for the  startup	``$HOME/.nexrc''  and  ``$HOME/.exrc''	files.
	      This  value  is also used as the default directory for the vi cd
	      command.

       LINES  The number of rows on the screen.  This value overrides any sys-
	      tem or terminal specific values.	If the LINES environment vari-
	      able is not set when ex/vi runs, or the lines option is  explic-
	      itly reset by the user, ex/vi enters the value into the environ-
	      ment.

       NEXINIT
	      A list of ex startup commands.

       SHELL  The user's shell of choice (see also the shell option).

       TERM   The user's terminal type.  The default is the type  ``unknown''.
	      If  the TERM environment variable is not set when ex/vi runs, or
	      the term option is explicitly reset by the  user,  ex/vi	enters
	      the value into the environment.

       TMPDIR The location used to stored temporary files (see also the direc-
	      tory edit option).

ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS
       SIGALRM
	      Vi/ex uses this signal for periodic backups  of  file  modifica-
	      tions  and  to  display  ``busy''  messages  when operations are
	      likely to take a long time.

       SIGHUP

       SIGTERM
	      If the current buffer has changed since it was last  written  in
	      its  entirety,  the editor attempts to save the modified file so
	      it can be later recovered.  See the vi/ex Reference manual  sec-
	      tion entitled ``Recovery'' for more information.

       SIGINT When  an	interrupt occurs, the current operation is halted, and
	      the editor returns to the command level.	If interrupted	during
	      text  input, the text already input is resolved into the file as
	      if the text input had been normally terminated.

       SIGWINCH
	      The screen is resized.  See the vi/ex Reference  manual  section
	      entitled ``Sizing the Screen'' for more information.

       SIGCONT

       SIGQUIT

       SIGTSTP
	      Vi/ex ignores these signals.

FILES
       /bin/sh
	      The default user shell.

       /etc/vi.exrc
	      System-wide vi startup file.

       /tmp   Temporary file directory.

       /var/tmp/vi.recover
	      The default recovery file directory.

       $HOME/.nexrc
	      1st choice for user's home directory startup file.

       $HOME/.exrc
	      2nd choice for user's home directory startup file.

       .nexrc 1st choice for local directory startup file.

       .exrc  2nd choice for local directory startup file.

SEE ALSO
       ctags(1), more(1), curses(3), dbopen(3)

       The ``Vi Quick Reference'' card.

       ``An  Introduction  to  Display	Editing with Vi'', found in the ``UNIX
       User's Manual Supplementary Documents'' section of both the 4.3BSD  and
       4.4BSD manual sets.  This document is the closest thing available to an
       introduction to the vi screen editor.

       ``Ex Reference Manual (Version 3.7)'', found in the ``UNIX User's  Man-
       ual  Supplementary  Documents''	section  of both the 4.3BSD and 4.4BSD
       manual sets.  This document is the final reference for the  ex  editor,
       as distributed in most historic 4BSD and System V systems.

       ``Edit:	A  tutorial'', found in the ``UNIX User's Manual Supplementary
       Documents'' section of the 4.3BSD manual  set.	This  document	is  an
       introduction to a simple version of the ex screen editor.

       ``Ex/Vi	Reference  Manual'', found in the ``UNIX User's Manual Supple-
       mentary Documents'' section of the 4.4BSD manual set.  This document is
       the  final  reference  for  the nex/nvi text editors, as distributed in
       4.4BSD and 4.4BSD-Lite.

       Roff source for all of these documents is distributed with  nex/nvi  in
       the nvi/USD.doc directory of the nex/nvi source code.

       The  files  ``autowrite'',  ``input'',  ``quoting''  and ``structures''
       found in the nvi/docs/internals directory of the nex/nvi source code.

HISTORY
       The nex/nvi replacements for the ex/vi editor first appeared in 4.4BSD.

STANDARDS
       Nex/nvi	is close to IEEE Std1003.2 (``POSIX'').  That document differs
       from historical ex/vi practice in several places; there are changes  to
       be made on both sides.



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