a2p
accept
access
acct
addftinfo
addr2line
adjtime
afmtodit
after
aio_cancel
aio_error
aio_read
aio_return
aio_suspend
aio_waitcomplete
aio_write
alias
aliases
alloc
anvil
append
apply
apropos
ar
array
as
asa
asn1parse
at
atq
atrm
attemptckalloc
attemptckrealloc
authlib
authtest
autopoint
awk
b64decode
b64encode
basename
batch
bc
bdes
bell
bg
bgerror
biff
big5
binary
bind
bindkey
bindtags
bindtextdomain
bio
bitmap
blowfish
bn
bootparams
bootptab
bounce
brandelf
break
breaksw
brk
bsdiff
bsdtar
bsnmpd
bspatch
bthost
btsockstat
buffer
builtin
builtins
bunzip2
button
byacc
bzcat
bzegrep
bzfgrep
bzgrep
bzip2
c2ph
c89
c99
ca
cal
calendar
canvas
cap_mkdb
case
cat
catch
catman
cc
cd
cdcontrol
chdir
checkbutton
checknr
chflags
chfn
chgrp
chio
chkey
chmod
chown
chpass
chroot
chsh
ci
ciphers
ckalloc
ckdist
ckfree
ckrealloc
cksum
cleanup
clear
clipboard
clock
clock_getres
clock_gettime
clock_settime
close
cmp
co
col
colcrt
colldef
colors
colrm
column
comm
command
compile_et
complete
compress
concat
config
connect
console
continue
core
courierlogger
couriertcpd
cp
cpan
cpio
cpp
creat
crl
crontab
crunchgen
crunchide
crypt
crypto
csh
csplit
ctags
ctm
ctm_dequeue
ctm_rmail
ctm_smail
cu
cursor
cursors
cut
cvs
date
dbiprof
dbiproxy
dc
dcgettext
dcngettext
dd
dde
default
defer
deliverquota
des
destroy
devfs
df
dgettext
dgst
dh
dhparam
dialog
diff
diff3
dig
dir
dirent
dirname
dirs
discard
disktab
dngettext
do
domainname
done
dprofpp
dsa
dsaparam
dtmfdecode
du
dup
dup2
eaccess
ec
ecdsa
echo
echotc
ecparam
ed
edit
editrc
ee
egrep
elf
elfdump
elif
else
enc
enc2xs
encoding
end
endif
endsw
engine
enigma
entry
env
envsubst
eof
eqn
err
errno
error
errstr
esac
ethers
euc
eui64
eval
event
evp
ex
exec
execve
exit
expand
export
exports
expr
extattr
extattr_delete_fd
extattr_delete_file
extattr_get_fd
extattr_get_file
extattr_set_fd
extattr_set_file
f77
false
famm
famx
fblocked
fbtab
fc
fchdir
fchflags
fchmod
fchown
fcntl
fconfigure
fcopy
fdescfs
fdformat
fdread
fdwrite
fetch
fg
fgrep
fhopen
fhstat
fhstatfs
fi
file
file2c
fileevent
filename
filetest
find
find2perl
finger
flex
flock
flush
fmt
focus
fold
font
fontedit
for
foreach
fork
format
forward
fpathconf
frame
from
fs
fstab
fstat
fstatfs
fsync
ftp
ftpchroot
ftpusers
ftruncate
futimes
g711conv
gb2312
gb18030
gbk
gcc
gcore
gcov
gdb
gencat
gendsa
genrsa
gensnmptree
getconf
getdents
getdirentries
getdtablesize
getegid
geteuid
getfacl
getfh
getfsstat
getgid
getgroups
getitimer
getlogin
getopt
getopts
getpeername
getpgid
getpgrp
getpid
getppid
getpriority
getresgid
getresuid
getrlimit
getrusage
gets
getsid
getsockname
getsockopt
gettext
gettextize
gettimeofday
gettytab
getuid
glob
global
gmake
goto
gperf
gprof
grab
grep
grid
grn
grodvi
groff
groff_font
groff_out
groff_tmac
grog
grolbp
grolj4
grops
grotty
group
groups
gunzip
gzcat
gzexe
gzip
h2ph
h2xs
hash
hashstat
hd
head
help2man
hesinfo
hexdump
history
host
hostname
hosts
hosts_access
hosts_options
hpftodit
http
hup
i386_get_ioperm
i386_get_ldt
i386_set_ioperm
i386_set_ldt
i386_vm86
iconv
id
ident
idprio
if
ifnames253
ifnames259
image
imapd
incr
indent
indxbib
info
infokey
inode
install
instmodsh
interp
intro
introduction
ioctl
ipcrm
ipcs
ipf
ipftest
ipnat
ippool
ipresend
issetugid
jail
jail_attach
jobid
jobs
join
jot
kbdcontrol
kbdmap
kcon
kdestroy
kdump
kenv
kevent
keycap
keylogin
keylogout
keymap
keysyms
kgdb
kill
killall
killpg
kinit
kldfind
kldfirstmod
kldload
kldnext
kldstat
kldsym
kldunload
klist
kpasswd
kqueue
kse
kse_create
kse_exit
kse_release
kse_switchin
kse_thr_interrupt
kse_wakeup
ktrace
label
labelframe
lam
lappend
last
lastcomm
lastlog
lchflags
lchmod
lchown
ld
ldap
ldapadd
ldapcompare
ldapdelete
ldapmodify
ldapmodrdn
ldappasswd
ldapsearch
ldapwhoami
ldd
leave
less
lesskey
lex
lgetfh
lhash
libnetcfg
library
limit
limits
lindex
link
linprocfs
linsert
lint
lio_listio
list
listbox
listen
lj4_font
lkbib
llength
lmtp
ln
load
loadfont
local
locale
locate
lock
lockf
log
logger
login
logins
logname
logout
look
lookbib
lorder
lower
lp
lpq
lpr
lprm
lptest
lrange
lreplace
ls
lsearch
lseek
lset
lsort
lstat
lsvfs
lutimes
lynx
m4
madvise
magic
mail
maildiracl
maildirkw
maildirmake
mailq
mailx
make
makeinfo
makewhatis
man
manpath
master
mc
mcedit
mcview
md2
md4
md5
mdc2
memory
menu
menubar
menubutton
merge
mesg
message
mincore
minherit
minigzip
mkdep
mkdir
mkfifo
mkimapdcert
mklocale
mknod
mkpop3dcert
mkstr
mktemp
mlock
mlockall
mmap
mmroff
modfind
modfnext
modnext
modstat
moduli
more
motd
mount
mprotect
mptable
msdos
msdosfs
msgattrib
msgcat
msgcmp
msgcomm
msgconv
msgen
msgexec
msgfilter
msgfmt
msggrep
msginit
msgmerge
msgs
msgunfmt
msguniq
mskanji
msql2mysql
msync
mt
munlock
munlockall
munmap
mv
myisamchk
myisamlog
myisampack
mysql
mysqlaccess
mysqladmin
mysqlbinlog
mysqlcheck
mysqld
mysqldump
mysqld_multi
mysqld_safe
mysqlhotcopy
mysqlimport
mysqlshow
mysql_config
mysql_fix_privilege_tables
mysql_zap
namespace
nanosleep
nawk
nc
ncal
ncplist
ncplogin
ncplogout
neqn
netconfig
netgroup
netid
netstat
networks
newaliases
newgrp
nex
nfsstat
nfssvc
ngettext
nice
nl
nm
nmount
nohup
nologin
notify
nroff
nseq
nslookup
ntp_adjtime
ntp_gettime
nvi
nview
objcopy
objdump
objformat
ocsp
od
onintr
open
openssl
opieaccess
opieinfo
opiekey
opiekeys
opiepasswd
option
options
oqmgr
pack
package
packagens
pagesize
palette
pam_auth
panedwindow
parray
passwd
paste
patch
pathchk
pathconf
pawd
pax
pbm
pcre
pcreapi
pcrebuild
pcrecallout
pcrecompat
pcrecpp
pcregrep
pcrematching
pcrepartial
pcrepattern
pcreperform
pcreposix
pcreprecompile
pcresample
pcretest
perl
perl56delta
perl58delta
perl561delta
perl570delta
perl571delta
perl572delta
perl573delta
perl581delta
perl582delta
perl583delta
perl584delta
perl585delta
perl586delta
perl587delta
perl588delta
perl5004delta
perl5005delta
perlaix
perlamiga
perlapi
perlapio
perlapollo
perlartistic
perlbeos
perlbook
perlboot
perlbot
perlbs2000
perlbug
perlcall
perlcc
perlce
perlcheat
perlclib
perlcn
perlcompile
perlcygwin
perldata
perldbmfilter
perldebguts
perldebtut
perldebug
perldelta
perldgux
perldiag
perldoc
perldos
perldsc
perlebcdic
perlembed
perlepoc
perlfaq
perlfaq1
perlfaq2
perlfaq3
perlfaq4
perlfaq5
perlfaq6
perlfaq7
perlfaq8
perlfaq9
perlfilter
perlfork
perlform
perlfreebsd
perlfunc
perlglossary
perlgpl
perlguts
perlhack
perlhist
perlhpux
perlhurd
perlintern
perlintro
perliol
perlipc
perlirix
perlivp
perljp
perlko
perllexwarn
perllinux
perllocale
perllol
perlmachten
perlmacos
perlmacosx
perlmint
perlmod
perlmodinstall
perlmodlib
perlmodstyle
perlmpeix
perlnetware
perlnewmod
perlnumber
perlobj
perlop
perlopenbsd
perlopentut
perlos2
perlos390
perlos400
perlothrtut
perlpacktut
perlplan9
perlpod
perlpodspec
perlport
perlqnx
perlre
perlref
perlreftut
perlrequick
perlreref
perlretut
perlrun
perlsec
perlsolaris
perlstyle
perlsub
perlsyn
perlthrtut
perltie
perltoc
perltodo
perltooc
perltoot
perltrap
perltru64
perltw
perlunicode
perluniintro
perlutil
perluts
perlvar
perlvmesa
perlvms
perlvos
perlwin32
perlxs
perlxstut
perror
pfbtops
pftp
pgrep
phones
photo
pic
pickup
piconv
pid
pipe
pkcs7
pkcs8
pkcs12
pkg_add
pkg_check
pkg_create
pkg_delete
pkg_info
pkg_sign
pkg_version
pkill
pl2pm
place
pod2html
pod2latex
pod2man
pod2text
pod2usage
podchecker
podselect
poll
popd
popup
posix_madvise
postalias
postcat
postconf
postdrop
postfix
postkick
postlock
postlog
postmap
postqueue
postsuper
pr
pread
preadv
printcap
printenv
printf
proc
procfs
profil
protocols
prove
proxymap
ps
psed
psroff
pstruct
ptrace
publickey
pushd
puts
pwd
pwrite
pwritev
qmgr
qmqpd
quota
quotactl
radiobutton
raise
rand
ranlib
rcp
rcs
rcsclean
rcsdiff
rcsfile
rcsfreeze
rcsintro
rcsmerge
read
readelf
readlink
readonly
readv
realpath
reboot
recv
recvfrom
recvmsg
red
ree
refer
regexp
registry
regsub
rehash
remote
rename
repeat
replace
req
reset
resolver
resource
return
rev
revoke
rfcomm_sppd
rfork
rhosts
ripemd
ripemd160
rlog
rlogin
rm
rmd160
rmdir
rpc
rpcgen
rs
rsa
rsautl
rsh
rtld
rtprio
rup
ruptime
rusers
rwall
rwho
s2p
safe
sasl
sasldblistusers2
saslpasswd2
sbrk
scache
scale
scan
sched
sched_getparam
sched_getscheduler
sched_get_priority_max
sched_get_priority_min
sched_rr_get_interval
sched_setparam
sched_setscheduler
sched_yield
scon
scp
script
scrollbar
sdiff
sed
seek
select
selection
semctl
semget
semop
send
sendbug
sendfile
sendmail
sendmsg
sendto
services
sess_id
set
setegid
setenv
seteuid
setfacl
setgid
setgroups
setitimer
setlogin
setpgid
setpgrp
setpriority
setregid
setresgid
setresuid
setreuid
setrlimit
setsid
setsockopt
settc
settimeofday
setty
setuid
setvar
sftp
sh
sha
sha1
sha256
shar
shells
shift
shmat
shmctl
shmdt
shmget
showq
shutdown
sigaction
sigaltstack
sigblock
sigmask
sigpause
sigpending
sigprocmask
sigreturn
sigsetmask
sigstack
sigsuspend
sigvec
sigwait
size
slapadd
slapcat
slapd
slapdn
slapindex
slappasswd
slaptest
sleep
slogin
slurpd
smbutil
smime
smtp
smtpd
socket
socketpair
sockstat
soelim
sort
source
spawn
speed
spinbox
spkac
splain
split
squid
squid_ldap_auth
squid_ldap_group
squid_unix_group
sscop
ssh
sshd_config
ssh_config
stab
startslip
stat
statfs
stop
string
strings
strip
stty
su
subst
sum
suspend
swapoff
swapon
switch
symlink
sync
sysarch
syscall
sysconftool
sysconftoolcheck
systat
s_client
s_server
s_time
tabs
tail
talk
tar
tbl
tclsh
tcltest
tclvars
tcopy
tcpdump
tcpslice
tcsh
tee
tell
telltc
telnet
term
termcap
terminfo
test
texindex
texinfo
text
textdomain
tfmtodit
tftp
then
threads
time
tip
tk
tkerror
tkvars
tkwait
tlsmgr
tmac
top
toplevel
touch
tput
tr
trace
trafshow
trap
troff
true
truncate
truss
tset
tsort
tty
ttys
type
tzfile
ui
ul
ulimit
umask
unalias
uname
uncomplete
uncompress
undelete
unexpand
unhash
unifdef
unifdefall
uniq
units
unknown
unlimit
unlink
unmount
unset
unsetenv
until
unvis
update
uplevel
uptime
upvar
usbhidaction
usbhidctl
users
utf8
utimes
utmp
utrace
uudecode
uuencode
uuidgen
vacation
variable
verify
version
vfork
vgrind
vgrindefs
vi
vidcontrol
vidfont
view
virtual
vis
vt220keys
vwait
w
wait
wait3
wait4
waitpid
wall
wc
wget
what
whatis
where
whereis
which
while
who
whoami
whois
window
winfo
wish
wm
write
writev
wtmp
x509
xargs
xgettext
xmlwf
xstr
xsubpp
yacc
yes
ypcat
ypchfn
ypchpass
ypchsh
ypmatch
yppasswd
ypwhich
yyfix
zcat
zcmp
zdiff
zegrep
zfgrep
zforce
zgrep
zmore
znew
_exit
__syscall
 
FreeBSD/Linux/UNIX General Commands Manual
Hypertext Man Pages
mysql
 
MYSQL(1)		     MySQL Database System		      MYSQL(1)



NAME
       mysql - the MySQL command-line tool

SYNOPSIS
       mysql [options] db_name

DESCRIPTION
       mysql is a simple SQL shell (with GNU readline capabilities). It
       supports interactive and non-interactive use. When used interactively,
       query results are presented in an ASCII-table format. When used
       non-interactively (for example, as a filter), the result is presented
       in tab-separated format. The output format can be changed using command
       options.

       If you have problems due to insufficient memory for large result sets,
       use the --quick option. This forces mysql to retrieve results from the
       server a row at a time rather than retrieving the entire result set and
       buffering it in memory before displaying it. This is done by returning
       the result set using the mysql_use_result() C API function in the
       client/server library rather than mysql_store_result().

       Using mysql is very easy. Invoke it from the prompt of your command
       interpreter as follows:

       shell> mysql db_name

       Or:

       shell> mysql --user=user_name --password=your_password db_name

       Then type an SQL statement, end it with `;', \g, or \G and press Enter.

       You can execute SQL statements in a script file (batch file) like this:

       shell> mysql db_name < script.sql > output.tab

MYSQL OPTIONS
       mysql supports the following options:

       o  --help, -?

	  Display a help message and exit.

       o  --batch, -B

	  Print results using tab as the column separator, with each row on a
	  new line. With this option, mysql does not use the history file.

       o  --character-sets-dir=path

	  The directory where character sets are installed. See Section 8.1,
	  "The Character Set Used for Data and Sorting".

       o  --compress, -C

	  Compress all information sent between the client and the server if
	  both support compression.

       o  --database=db_name, -D db_name

	  The database to use. This is useful primarily in an option file.

       o  --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

	  Write a debugging log. The debug_options string often is
	  'd:t:o,file_name'. The default is 'd:t:o,/tmp/mysql.trace'.

       o  --debug-info, -T

	  Print some debugging information when the program exits.

       o  --default-character-set=charset_name

	  Use charset_name as the default character set. See Section 8.1, "The
	  Character Set Used for Data and Sorting".

       o  --execute=statement, -e statement

	  Execute the statement and quit. The default output format is like
	  that produced with --batch. See Section 3.1, "Using Options on the
	  Command Line", for some examples.

       o  --force, -f

	  Continue even if an SQL error occurs.

       o  --host=host_name, -h host_name

	  Connect to the MySQL server on the given host.

       o  --html, -H

	  Produce HTML output.

       o  --ignore-space, -i

	  Ignore spaces after function names. The effect of this is described
	  in the discussion for IGNORE_SPACE in the section called "THE SERVER
	  SQL MODE".

       o  --local-infile[={0|1}]

	  Enable or disable LOCAL capability for LOAD DATA INFILE. With no
	  value, the option enables LOCAL. The option may be given as
	  --local-infile=0 or --local-infile=1 to explicitly disable or enable
	  LOCAL. Enabling LOCAL has no effect if the server does not also
	  support it.

       o  --named-commands, -G

	  Enable named mysql commands. Long-format commands are allowed, not
	  just short-format commands. For example, quit and \q both are
	  recognized. See the section called "\FBMYSQL\FR COMMANDS".

       o  --no-auto-rehash, -A

	  No automatic rehashing. This option causes mysql to start faster,
	  but you must issue the rehash command if you want to use table and
	  column name completion.

       o  --no-beep, -b

	  Do not beep when errors occur.

       o  --no-named-commands, -g

	  Disable named commands. Use the \* form only, or use named commands
	  only at the beginning of a line ending with a semicolon (`;'). As of
	  MySQL 3.23.22, mysql starts with this option enabled by default.
	  However, even with this option, long-format commands still work from
	  the first line. See the section called "\FBMYSQL\FR COMMANDS".

       o  --no-pager

	  Do not use a pager for displaying query output.  the section called
	  "\FBMYSQL\FR COMMANDS", discusses output paging further.

       o  --no-tee

	  Do not copy output to a file.  the section called "\FBMYSQL\FR
	  COMMANDS", discusses tee files further.

       o  --one-database, -o

	  Ignore statements except those for the default database named on the
	  command line. This is useful for skipping updates to other databases
	  in the binary log.

       o  --pager[=command]

	  Use the given command for paging query output. If the command is
	  omitted, the default pager is the value of your PAGER environment
	  variable. Valid pagers are less, more, cat [> filename], and so
	  forth. This option works only on Unix. It does not work in batch
	  mode.  the section called "\FBMYSQL\FR COMMANDS", discusses output
	  paging further.

       o  --password[=password], -p[password]

	  The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the
	  short option form (-p), you cannot have a space between the option
	  and the password. If you omit the password value following the
	  --password or -p option on the command line, you are prompted for
	  one.

	  Specifying a password on the command line should be considered
	  insecure. See Section 6.6, "Keeping Your Password Secure".

       o  --port=port_num, -P port_num

	  The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.

       o  --prompt=format_str

	  Set the prompt to the specified format. The default is mysql>. The
	  special sequences that the prompt can contain are described in the
	  section called "\FBMYSQL\FR COMMANDS".

       o  --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

	  The connection protocol to use. Added in MySQL 4.1.

       o  --quick, -q

	  Do not cache each query result, print each row as it is received.
	  This may slow down the server if the output is suspended. With this
	  option, mysql does not use the history file.

       o  --raw, -r

	  Write column values without escape conversion. Often used with the
	  --batch option.

       o  --reconnect

	  If the connection to the server is lost, automatically try to
	  reconnect. A single reconnect attempt is made each time the
	  connection is lost. To suppress reconnection behavior, use
	  --skip-reconnect. Added in MySQL 4.1.0.

       o  --safe-updates, --i-am-a-dummy, -U

	  Allow only those UPDATE and DELETE statements that specify which
	  rows to modify by using key values. If you have set this option in
	  an option file, you can override it by using --safe-updates on the
	  command line. See the section called "\FBMYSQL\FR TIPS", for more
	  information about this option.

       o  --secure-auth

	  Do not send passwords to the server in old (pre-4.1.1) format. This
	  prevents connections except for servers that use the newer password
	  format. This option was added in MySQL 4.1.1.

       o  --sigint-ignore

	  Ignore SIGINT signals (typically the result of typing Control-C).
	  This option was added in MySQL 4.1.6.

       o  --silent, -s

	  Silent mode. Produce less output. This option can be given multiple
	  times to produce less and less output.

       o  --skip-column-names, -N

	  Do not write column names in results.

       o  --skip-line-numbers, -L

	  Do not write line numbers for errors. Useful when you want to
	  compare result files that include error messages.

       o  --socket=path, -S path

	  For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on
	  Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.

       o  --table, -t

	  Display output in table format. This is the default for interactive
	  use, but can be used to produce table output in batch mode.

       o  --tee=file_name

	  Append a copy of output to the given file. This option does not work
	  in batch mode. in the section called "\FBMYSQL\FR COMMANDS",
	  discusses tee files further.

       o  --unbuffered, -n

	  Flush the buffer after each query.

       o  --user=user_name, -u user_name

	  The MySQL username to use when connecting to the server.

       o  --verbose, -v

	  Verbose mode. Produce more output about what the program does. This
	  option can be given multiple times to produce more and more output.
	  (For example, -v -v -v produces table output format even in batch
	  mode.)

       o  --version, -V

	  Display version information and exit.

       o  --vertical, -E

	  Print query output rows vertically (one line per coluumn value).
	  Without this option, you can specify vertical output for individual
	  statements by terminating them with \G.

       o  --wait, -w

	  If the connection cannot be established, wait and retry instead of
	  aborting.

       o  --xml, -X

	  Produce XML output.

       You can also set the following variables by using --var_name=value
       syntax:

       o  connect_timeout

	  The number of seconds before connection timeout. (Default value is
	  0.)

       o  max_allowed_packet

	  The maximum packet length to send to or receive from the server.
	  (Default value is 16MB.)

       o  max_join_size

	  The automatic limit for rows in a join when using --safe-updates.
	  (Default value is 1,000,000.)

       o  net_buffer_length

	  The buffer size for TCP/IP and socket communication. (Default value
	  is 16KB.)

       o  select_limit

	  The automatic limit for SELECT statements when using --safe-updates.
	  (Default value is 1,000.)

       It is also possible to set variables by using
       --set-variable=var_name=value or -O var_name=value syntax. In MySQL
       4.1, this syntax is deprecated.

       On Unix, the mysql client writes a record of executed statements to a
       history file. By default, the history file is named .mysql_history and
       is created in your home directory. To specify a different file, set the
       value of the MYSQL_HISTFILE environment variable.

       If you do not want to maintain a history file, first remove
       .mysql_history if it exists, and then use either of the following
       techniques:

       o  Set the MYSQL_HISTFILE variable to /dev/null. To cause this setting
	  to take effect each time you log in, put the setting in one of your
	  shell's startup files.

       o  Create .mysql_history as a symbolic link to /dev/null:

	  shell> ln -s /dev/null $HOME/.mysql_history
	  You need do this only once.

MYSQL COMMANDS
       mysql sends each SQL statement that you issue to the server to be
       executed. There is also a set of commands that mysql itself interprets.
       For a list of these commands, type help or \h at the mysql> prompt:

       mysql> help
       MySQL commands:
       ?	 (\?) Synonym for `help'.
       clear	 (\c) Clear command.
       connect	 (\r) Reconnect to the server. Optional arguments are db and host.
       delimiter (\d) Set statement delimiter. NOTE: Takes the rest of the line as
		      new delimiter.
       edit	 (\e) Edit command with $EDITOR.
       ego	 (\G) Send command to mysql server, display result vertically.
       exit	 (\q) Exit mysql. Same as quit.
       go	 (\g) Send command to mysql server.
       help	 (\h) Display this help.
       nopager	 (\n) Disable pager, print to stdout.
       notee	 (\t) Don't write into outfile.
       pager	 (\P) Set PAGER [to_pager]. Print the query results via PAGER.
       print	 (\p) Print current command.
       prompt	 (\R) Change your mysql prompt.
       quit	 (\q) Quit mysql.
       rehash	 (\#) Rebuild completion hash.
       source	 (\.) Execute an SQL script file. Takes a file name as an argument.
       status	 (\s) Get status information from the server.
       system	 (\!) Execute a system shell command.
       tee	 (\T) Set outfile [to_outfile]. Append everything into given
		      outfile.
       use	 (\u) Use another database. Takes database name as argument.
       warnings  (\W) Show warnings after every statement.
       nowarning (\w) Don't show warnings after every statement.

       Each command has both a long and short form. The long form is not case
       sensitive; the short form is. The long form can be followed by an
       optional semicolon terminator, but the short form should not.

       In the delimiter command, you should avoid the use of the backslash
       (`\') character because that is the escape character for MySQL.

       The edit, nopager, pager, and system commands work only in Unix.

       The status command provides some information about the connection and
       the server you are using. If you are running in --safe-updates mode,
       status also prints the values for the mysql variables that affect your
       queries.

       To log queries and their output, use the tee command. All the data
       displayed on the screen is appended into a given file. This can be very
       useful for debugging purposes also. You can enable this feature on the
       command line with the --tee option, or interactively with the tee
       command. The tee file can be disabled interactively with the notee
       command. Executing tee again re-enables logging. Without a parameter,
       the previous file is used. Note that tee flushes query results to the
       file after each statement, just before mysql prints its next prompt.

       By using the --pager option, it is possible to browse or search query
       results in interactive mode with Unix programs such as less, more, or
       any other similar program. If you specify no value for the option,
       mysql checks the value of the PAGER environment variable and sets the
       pager to that. Output paging can be enabled interactively with the
       pager command and disabled with nopager. The command takes an optional
       argument; if given, the paging program is set to that. With no
       argument, the pager is set to the pager that was set on the command
       line, or stdout if no pager was specified.

       Output paging works only in Unix because it uses the popen() function,
       which does not exist on Windows. For Windows, the tee option can be
       used instead to save query output, although this is not as convenient
       as pager for browsing output in some situations.

       Here are a few tips about the pager command:

       o  You can use it to write to a file and the results go only to the
	  file:

	  mysql> pager cat > /tmp/log.txt
	  You can also pass any options for the program that you want to use
	  as your pager:

	  mysql> pager less -n -i -S

       o  In the preceding example, note the -S option. You may find it very
	  useful for browsing wide query results. Sometimes a very wide result
	  set is difficult to read on the screen. The -S option to less can
	  make the result set much more readable because you can scroll it
	  horizontally using the left-arrow and right-arrow keys. You can also
	  use -S interactively within less to switch the horizontal-browse
	  mode on and off. For more information, read the less manual page:

	  shell> man less

       o  You can specify very complex pager commands for handling query
	  output:

	  mysql> pager cat | tee /dr1/tmp/res.txt \
		    | tee /dr2/tmp/res2.txt | less -n -i -S
	  In this example, the command would send query results to two files
	  in two different directories on two different filesystems mounted on
	  /dr1 and /dr2, yet still display the results onscreen via less.

       You can also combine the tee and pager functions. Have a tee file
       enabled and pager set to less, and you are able to browse the results
       using the less program and still have everything appended into a file
       the same time. The difference between the Unix tee used with the pager
       command and the mysql built-in tee command is that the built-in tee
       works even if you do not have the Unix tee available. The built-in tee
       also logs everything that is printed on the screen, whereas the Unix
       tee used with pager does not log quite that much. Additionally, tee
       file logging can be turned on and off interactively from within mysql.
       This is useful when you want to log some queries to a file, but not
       others.

       From MySQL 4.0.2 on, the default mysql> prompt can be reconfigured. The
       string for defining the prompt can contain the following special
       sequences: OptionDescription\vThe server version\dThe default
       database\hThe server host\pThe current TCP/IP port or socket file\uYour
       username\UYour full
			 user_name@host_name
			 account name\\A literal `\' backslash character\nA
       newline character\tA tab character\ A space (a space follows the
       backslash)\_A space\RThe current time, in 24-hour military time
       (0-23)\rThe current time, standard 12-hour time (1-12)\mMinutes of the
       current time\yThe current year, two digits\YThe current year, four
       digits\DThe full current date\sSeconds of the current time\wThe current
       day of the week in three-letter format (Mon, Tue, ...)\Pam/pm\oThe
       current month in numeric format\OThe current month in three-letter
       format (Jan, Feb, ...)\cA counter that increments for each statement
       you issue\SSemicolon\'Single quote\"Double quote.PP `\' followed by any
       other letter just becomes that letter.

       If you specify the prompt command with no argument, mysql resets the
       prompt to the default of mysql>.

       You can set the prompt in several ways:

       o  Use an environment variable.	You can set the MYSQL_PS1 environment
	  variable to a prompt string. For example:

	  shell> export MYSQL_PS1="(\u@\h) [\d]> "

       o  Use a command-line option.  You can set the --prompt option on the
	  command line to mysql. For example:

	  shell> mysql --prompt="(\u@\h) [\d]> "
	  (user@host) [database]>

       o  Use an option file.  You can set the prompt option in the [mysql]
	  group of any MySQL option file, such as /etc/my.cnf or the .my.cnf
	  file in your home directory. For example:

	  [mysql]
	  prompt=(\\u@\\h) [\\d]>\\_
	  In this example, note that the backslashes are doubled. If you set
	  the prompt using the prompt option in an option file, it is
	  advisable to double the backslashes when using the special prompt
	  options. There is some overlap in the set of allowable prompt
	  options and the set of special escape sequences that are recognized
	  in option files. (These sequences are listed in Section 3.2, "Using
	  Option Files".) The overlap may cause you problems if you use single
	  backslashes. For example, \s is interpreted as a space rather than
	  as the current seconds value. The following example shows how to
	  define a prompt within an option file to include the current time in
	  HH:MM:SS> format:

	  [mysql]
	  prompt="\\r:\\m:\\s> "

       o  Set the prompt interactively.  You can change your prompt
	  interactively by using the prompt (or \R) command. For example:

	  mysql> prompt (\u@\h) [\d]>\_
	  PROMPT set to '(\u@\h) [\d]>\_'
	  (user@host) [database]>
	  (user@host) [database]> prompt
	  Returning to default PROMPT of mysql>
	  mysql>

EXECUTING SQL STATEMENTS FROM A TEXT FILE
       The mysql client typically is used interactively, like this:

       shell> mysql db_name

       However, it is also possible to put your SQL statements in a file and
       then tell mysql to read its input from that file. To do so, create a
       text file text_file that contains the statements you wish to execute.
       Then invoke mysql as shown here:

       shell> mysql db_name < text_file

       If you place a USE db_name statement as the first statement in the
       file, it is unnecessary to specify the database name on the command
       line:

       shell> mysql < text_file

       If you are already running mysql, you can execute an SQL script file
       using the source or \.  command:

       mysql> source file_name
       mysql> \. file_name

       Sometimes you may want your script to display progress information to
       the user. For this you can insert statements like this:

       SELECT '' AS ' ';

       The statement shown outputs .

       For more information about batch mode, see Section 5, "Using mysql in
       Batch Mode".

MYSQL TIPS
       This section describes some techniques that can help you use mysql more
       effectively.

   Displaying Query Results Vertically
       Some query results are much more readable when displayed vertically,
       instead of in the usual horizontal table format. Queries can be
       displayed vertically by terminating the query with \G instead of a
       semicolon. For example, longer text values that include newlines often
       are much easier to read with vertical output:

       mysql> SELECT * FROM mails WHERE LENGTH(txt) < 300 LIMIT 300,1\G
       *************************** 1. row ***************************
	 msg_nro: 3068
	    date: 2000-03-01 23:29:50
       time_zone: +0200
       mail_from: Monty
	   reply: monty@no.spam.com
	 mail_to: "Thimble Smith" 
	     sbj: UTF-8
	     txt: >>>>> "Thimble" == Thimble Smith writes:
       Thimble> Hi.  I think this is a good idea.  Is anyone familiar
       Thimble> with UTF-8 or Unicode? Otherwise, I'll put this on my
       Thimble> TODO list and see what happens.
       Yes, please do that.
       Regards,
       Monty
	    file: inbox-jani-1
	    hash: 190402944
       1 row in set (0.09 sec)

   Using the --safe-updates Option
       For beginners, a useful startup option is --safe-updates (or
       --i-am-a-dummy, which has the same effect). This option was introduced
       in MySQL 3.23.11. It is helpful for cases when you might have issued a
       DELETE FROM tbl_name statement but forgotten the WHERE clause.
       Normally, such a statement deletes all rows from the table. With
       --safe-updates, you can delete rows only by specifying the key values
       that identify them. This helps prevent accidents.

       When you use the --safe-updates option, mysql issues the following
       statement when it connects to the MySQL server:

       SET SQL_SAFE_UPDATES=1,SQL_SELECT_LIMIT=1000, SQL_MAX_JOIN_SIZE=1000000;

       See Section 5.3, "SET Syntax".

       The SET statement has the following effects:

       o  You are not allowed to execute an UPDATE or DELETE statement unless
	  you specify a key constraint in the WHERE clause or provide a LIMIT
	  clause (or both). For example:

	  UPDATE tbl_name SET not_key_column=val WHERE key_column=val;
	  UPDATE tbl_name SET not_key_column=val LIMIT 1;

       o  The server limits all large SELECT results to 1,000 rows unless the
	  statement includes a LIMIT clause.

       o  The server aborts multiple-table SELECT statements that probably
	  need to examine more than 1,000,000 row combinations.

       To specify limits different from 1,000 and 1,000,000, you can override
       the defaults by using the --select_limit and --max_join_size options:

       shell> mysql --safe-updates --select_limit=500 --max_join_size=10000

   Disabling mysql Auto-Reconnect
       If the mysql client loses its connection to the server while sending a
       query, it immediately and automatically tries to reconnect once to the
       server and send the query again. However, even if mysql succeeds in
       reconnecting, your first connection has ended and all your previous
       session objects and settings are lost: temporary tables, the autocommit
       mode, and user-defined and session variables. Also, any current
       transaction rolls back. This behavior may be dangerous for you, as in
       the following example where the server was shut down and restarted
       without you knowing it:

       mysql> SET @a=1;
       Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.05 sec)
       mysql> INSERT INTO t VALUES(@a);
       ERROR 2006: MySQL server has gone away
       No connection. Trying to reconnect...
       Connection id:	 1
       Current database: test
       Query OK, 1 row affected (1.30 sec)
       mysql> SELECT * FROM t;
       +------+
       | a    |
       +------+
       | NULL |
       +------+
       1 row in set (0.05 sec)

       The @a user variable has been lost with the connection, and after the
       reconnection it is undefined. If it is important to have mysql
       terminate with an error if the connection has been lost, you can start
       the mysql client with the --skip-reconnect option.

SEE ALSO
       isamchk(1), isamlog(1), msql2mysql(1), myisamchk(1), myisamlog(1),
       myisampack(1), mysql.server(1), mysql_config(1),
       mysql_fix_privilege_tables(1), mysql_zap(1), mysqlaccess(1),
       mysqladmin(1), mysqlbinlog(1), mysqlcheck(1), mysqld(1),
       mysqld_multi(1), mysqld_safe(1), mysqldump(1), mysqlhotcopy(1),
       mysqlimport(1), mysqlshow(1), pack_isam(1), perror(1), replace(1),
       safe_mysqld(1)

       For more information, please refer to the MySQL Reference Manual, which
       may already be installed locally and which is also available online at
       http://dev.mysql.com/doc/.

AUTHOR
       MySQL AB (http://www.mysql.com/).  This software comes with no
       warranty.



MySQL 4.1			  01/27/2006			      MYSQL(1)
=184377
+364
(65)