a2p
accept
access
acct
addftinfo
addr2line
adjtime
afmtodit
after
aio_cancel
aio_error
aio_read
aio_return
aio_suspend
aio_waitcomplete
aio_write
alias
aliases
alloc
anvil
append
apply
apropos
ar
array
as
asa
asn1parse
at
atq
atrm
attemptckalloc
attemptckrealloc
authlib
authtest
autopoint
awk
b64decode
b64encode
basename
batch
bc
bdes
bell
bg
bgerror
biff
big5
binary
bind
bindkey
bindtags
bindtextdomain
bio
bitmap
blowfish
bn
bootparams
bootptab
bounce
brandelf
break
breaksw
brk
bsdiff
bsdtar
bsnmpd
bspatch
bthost
btsockstat
buffer
builtin
builtins
bunzip2
button
byacc
bzcat
bzegrep
bzfgrep
bzgrep
bzip2
c2ph
c89
c99
ca
cal
calendar
canvas
cap_mkdb
case
cat
catch
catman
cc
cd
cdcontrol
chdir
checkbutton
checknr
chflags
chfn
chgrp
chio
chkey
chmod
chown
chpass
chroot
chsh
ci
ciphers
ckalloc
ckdist
ckfree
ckrealloc
cksum
cleanup
clear
clipboard
clock
clock_getres
clock_gettime
clock_settime
close
cmp
co
col
colcrt
colldef
colors
colrm
column
comm
command
compile_et
complete
compress
concat
config
connect
console
continue
core
courierlogger
couriertcpd
cp
cpan
cpio
cpp
creat
crl
crontab
crunchgen
crunchide
crypt
crypto
csh
csplit
ctags
ctm
ctm_dequeue
ctm_rmail
ctm_smail
cu
cursor
cursors
cut
cvs
date
dbiprof
dbiproxy
dc
dcgettext
dcngettext
dd
dde
default
defer
deliverquota
des
destroy
devfs
df
dgettext
dgst
dh
dhparam
dialog
diff
diff3
dig
dir
dirent
dirname
dirs
discard
disktab
dngettext
do
domainname
done
dprofpp
dsa
dsaparam
dtmfdecode
du
dup
dup2
eaccess
ec
ecdsa
echo
echotc
ecparam
ed
edit
editrc
ee
egrep
elf
elfdump
elif
else
enc
enc2xs
encoding
end
endif
endsw
engine
enigma
entry
env
envsubst
eof
eqn
err
errno
error
errstr
esac
ethers
euc
eui64
eval
event
evp
ex
exec
execve
exit
expand
export
exports
expr
extattr
extattr_delete_fd
extattr_delete_file
extattr_get_fd
extattr_get_file
extattr_set_fd
extattr_set_file
f77
false
famm
famx
fblocked
fbtab
fc
fchdir
fchflags
fchmod
fchown
fcntl
fconfigure
fcopy
fdescfs
fdformat
fdread
fdwrite
fetch
fg
fgrep
fhopen
fhstat
fhstatfs
fi
file
file2c
fileevent
filename
filetest
find
find2perl
finger
flex
flock
flush
fmt
focus
fold
font
fontedit
for
foreach
fork
format
forward
fpathconf
frame
from
fs
fstab
fstat
fstatfs
fsync
ftp
ftpchroot
ftpusers
ftruncate
futimes
g711conv
gb2312
gb18030
gbk
gcc
gcore
gcov
gdb
gencat
gendsa
genrsa
gensnmptree
getconf
getdents
getdirentries
getdtablesize
getegid
geteuid
getfacl
getfh
getfsstat
getgid
getgroups
getitimer
getlogin
getopt
getopts
getpeername
getpgid
getpgrp
getpid
getppid
getpriority
getresgid
getresuid
getrlimit
getrusage
gets
getsid
getsockname
getsockopt
gettext
gettextize
gettimeofday
gettytab
getuid
glob
global
gmake
goto
gperf
gprof
grab
grep
grid
grn
grodvi
groff
groff_font
groff_out
groff_tmac
grog
grolbp
grolj4
grops
grotty
group
groups
gunzip
gzcat
gzexe
gzip
h2ph
h2xs
hash
hashstat
hd
head
help2man
hesinfo
hexdump
history
host
hostname
hosts
hosts_access
hosts_options
hpftodit
http
hup
i386_get_ioperm
i386_get_ldt
i386_set_ioperm
i386_set_ldt
i386_vm86
iconv
id
ident
idprio
if
ifnames253
ifnames259
image
imapd
incr
indent
indxbib
info
infokey
inode
install
instmodsh
interp
intro
introduction
ioctl
ipcrm
ipcs
ipf
ipftest
ipnat
ippool
ipresend
issetugid
jail
jail_attach
jobid
jobs
join
jot
kbdcontrol
kbdmap
kcon
kdestroy
kdump
kenv
kevent
keycap
keylogin
keylogout
keymap
keysyms
kgdb
kill
killall
killpg
kinit
kldfind
kldfirstmod
kldload
kldnext
kldstat
kldsym
kldunload
klist
kpasswd
kqueue
kse
kse_create
kse_exit
kse_release
kse_switchin
kse_thr_interrupt
kse_wakeup
ktrace
label
labelframe
lam
lappend
last
lastcomm
lastlog
lchflags
lchmod
lchown
ld
ldap
ldapadd
ldapcompare
ldapdelete
ldapmodify
ldapmodrdn
ldappasswd
ldapsearch
ldapwhoami
ldd
leave
less
lesskey
lex
lgetfh
lhash
libnetcfg
library
limit
limits
lindex
link
linprocfs
linsert
lint
lio_listio
list
listbox
listen
lj4_font
lkbib
llength
lmtp
ln
load
loadfont
local
locale
locate
lock
lockf
log
logger
login
logins
logname
logout
look
lookbib
lorder
lower
lp
lpq
lpr
lprm
lptest
lrange
lreplace
ls
lsearch
lseek
lset
lsort
lstat
lsvfs
lutimes
lynx
m4
madvise
magic
mail
maildiracl
maildirkw
maildirmake
mailq
mailx
make
makeinfo
makewhatis
man
manpath
master
mc
mcedit
mcview
md2
md4
md5
mdc2
memory
menu
menubar
menubutton
merge
mesg
message
mincore
minherit
minigzip
mkdep
mkdir
mkfifo
mkimapdcert
mklocale
mknod
mkpop3dcert
mkstr
mktemp
mlock
mlockall
mmap
mmroff
modfind
modfnext
modnext
modstat
moduli
more
motd
mount
mprotect
mptable
msdos
msdosfs
msgattrib
msgcat
msgcmp
msgcomm
msgconv
msgen
msgexec
msgfilter
msgfmt
msggrep
msginit
msgmerge
msgs
msgunfmt
msguniq
mskanji
msql2mysql
msync
mt
munlock
munlockall
munmap
mv
myisamchk
myisamlog
myisampack
mysql
mysqlaccess
mysqladmin
mysqlbinlog
mysqlcheck
mysqld
mysqldump
mysqld_multi
mysqld_safe
mysqlhotcopy
mysqlimport
mysqlshow
mysql_config
mysql_fix_privilege_tables
mysql_zap
namespace
nanosleep
nawk
nc
ncal
ncplist
ncplogin
ncplogout
neqn
netconfig
netgroup
netid
netstat
networks
newaliases
newgrp
nex
nfsstat
nfssvc
ngettext
nice
nl
nm
nmount
nohup
nologin
notify
nroff
nseq
nslookup
ntp_adjtime
ntp_gettime
nvi
nview
objcopy
objdump
objformat
ocsp
od
onintr
open
openssl
opieaccess
opieinfo
opiekey
opiekeys
opiepasswd
option
options
oqmgr
pack
package
packagens
pagesize
palette
pam_auth
panedwindow
parray
passwd
paste
patch
pathchk
pathconf
pawd
pax
pbm
pcre
pcreapi
pcrebuild
pcrecallout
pcrecompat
pcrecpp
pcregrep
pcrematching
pcrepartial
pcrepattern
pcreperform
pcreposix
pcreprecompile
pcresample
pcretest
perl
perl56delta
perl58delta
perl561delta
perl570delta
perl571delta
perl572delta
perl573delta
perl581delta
perl582delta
perl583delta
perl584delta
perl585delta
perl586delta
perl587delta
perl588delta
perl5004delta
perl5005delta
perlaix
perlamiga
perlapi
perlapio
perlapollo
perlartistic
perlbeos
perlbook
perlboot
perlbot
perlbs2000
perlbug
perlcall
perlcc
perlce
perlcheat
perlclib
perlcn
perlcompile
perlcygwin
perldata
perldbmfilter
perldebguts
perldebtut
perldebug
perldelta
perldgux
perldiag
perldoc
perldos
perldsc
perlebcdic
perlembed
perlepoc
perlfaq
perlfaq1
perlfaq2
perlfaq3
perlfaq4
perlfaq5
perlfaq6
perlfaq7
perlfaq8
perlfaq9
perlfilter
perlfork
perlform
perlfreebsd
perlfunc
perlglossary
perlgpl
perlguts
perlhack
perlhist
perlhpux
perlhurd
perlintern
perlintro
perliol
perlipc
perlirix
perlivp
perljp
perlko
perllexwarn
perllinux
perllocale
perllol
perlmachten
perlmacos
perlmacosx
perlmint
perlmod
perlmodinstall
perlmodlib
perlmodstyle
perlmpeix
perlnetware
perlnewmod
perlnumber
perlobj
perlop
perlopenbsd
perlopentut
perlos2
perlos390
perlos400
perlothrtut
perlpacktut
perlplan9
perlpod
perlpodspec
perlport
perlqnx
perlre
perlref
perlreftut
perlrequick
perlreref
perlretut
perlrun
perlsec
perlsolaris
perlstyle
perlsub
perlsyn
perlthrtut
perltie
perltoc
perltodo
perltooc
perltoot
perltrap
perltru64
perltw
perlunicode
perluniintro
perlutil
perluts
perlvar
perlvmesa
perlvms
perlvos
perlwin32
perlxs
perlxstut
perror
pfbtops
pftp
pgrep
phones
photo
pic
pickup
piconv
pid
pipe
pkcs7
pkcs8
pkcs12
pkg_add
pkg_check
pkg_create
pkg_delete
pkg_info
pkg_sign
pkg_version
pkill
pl2pm
place
pod2html
pod2latex
pod2man
pod2text
pod2usage
podchecker
podselect
poll
popd
popup
posix_madvise
postalias
postcat
postconf
postdrop
postfix
postkick
postlock
postlog
postmap
postqueue
postsuper
pr
pread
preadv
printcap
printenv
printf
proc
procfs
profil
protocols
prove
proxymap
ps
psed
psroff
pstruct
ptrace
publickey
pushd
puts
pwd
pwrite
pwritev
qmgr
qmqpd
quota
quotactl
radiobutton
raise
rand
ranlib
rcp
rcs
rcsclean
rcsdiff
rcsfile
rcsfreeze
rcsintro
rcsmerge
read
readelf
readlink
readonly
readv
realpath
reboot
recv
recvfrom
recvmsg
red
ree
refer
regexp
registry
regsub
rehash
remote
rename
repeat
replace
req
reset
resolver
resource
return
rev
revoke
rfcomm_sppd
rfork
rhosts
ripemd
ripemd160
rlog
rlogin
rm
rmd160
rmdir
rpc
rpcgen
rs
rsa
rsautl
rsh
rtld
rtprio
rup
ruptime
rusers
rwall
rwho
s2p
safe
sasl
sasldblistusers2
saslpasswd2
sbrk
scache
scale
scan
sched
sched_getparam
sched_getscheduler
sched_get_priority_max
sched_get_priority_min
sched_rr_get_interval
sched_setparam
sched_setscheduler
sched_yield
scon
scp
script
scrollbar
sdiff
sed
seek
select
selection
semctl
semget
semop
send
sendbug
sendfile
sendmail
sendmsg
sendto
services
sess_id
set
setegid
setenv
seteuid
setfacl
setgid
setgroups
setitimer
setlogin
setpgid
setpgrp
setpriority
setregid
setresgid
setresuid
setreuid
setrlimit
setsid
setsockopt
settc
settimeofday
setty
setuid
setvar
sftp
sh
sha
sha1
sha256
shar
shells
shift
shmat
shmctl
shmdt
shmget
showq
shutdown
sigaction
sigaltstack
sigblock
sigmask
sigpause
sigpending
sigprocmask
sigreturn
sigsetmask
sigstack
sigsuspend
sigvec
sigwait
size
slapadd
slapcat
slapd
slapdn
slapindex
slappasswd
slaptest
sleep
slogin
slurpd
smbutil
smime
smtp
smtpd
socket
socketpair
sockstat
soelim
sort
source
spawn
speed
spinbox
spkac
splain
split
squid
squid_ldap_auth
squid_ldap_group
squid_unix_group
sscop
ssh
sshd_config
ssh_config
stab
startslip
stat
statfs
stop
string
strings
strip
stty
su
subst
sum
suspend
swapoff
swapon
switch
symlink
sync
sysarch
syscall
sysconftool
sysconftoolcheck
systat
s_client
s_server
s_time
tabs
tail
talk
tar
tbl
tclsh
tcltest
tclvars
tcopy
tcpdump
tcpslice
tcsh
tee
tell
telltc
telnet
term
termcap
terminfo
test
texindex
texinfo
text
textdomain
tfmtodit
tftp
then
threads
time
tip
tk
tkerror
tkvars
tkwait
tlsmgr
tmac
top
toplevel
touch
tput
tr
trace
trafshow
trap
troff
true
truncate
truss
tset
tsort
tty
ttys
type
tzfile
ui
ul
ulimit
umask
unalias
uname
uncomplete
uncompress
undelete
unexpand
unhash
unifdef
unifdefall
uniq
units
unknown
unlimit
unlink
unmount
unset
unsetenv
until
unvis
update
uplevel
uptime
upvar
usbhidaction
usbhidctl
users
utf8
utimes
utmp
utrace
uudecode
uuencode
uuidgen
vacation
variable
verify
version
vfork
vgrind
vgrindefs
vi
vidcontrol
vidfont
view
virtual
vis
vt220keys
vwait
w
wait
wait3
wait4
waitpid
wall
wc
wget
what
whatis
where
whereis
which
while
who
whoami
whois
window
winfo
wish
wm
write
writev
wtmp
x509
xargs
xgettext
xmlwf
xstr
xsubpp
yacc
yes
ypcat
ypchfn
ypchpass
ypchsh
ypmatch
yppasswd
ypwhich
yyfix
zcat
zcmp
zdiff
zegrep
zfgrep
zforce
zgrep
zmore
znew
_exit
__syscall
 
FreeBSD/Linux/UNIX General Commands Manual
Hypertext Man Pages
as
 
AS(1)			     GNU Development Tools			 AS(1)



NAME
       AS - the portable GNU assembler.

SYNOPSIS
       as [-a[cdhlns][=file]] [-D] [--defsym sym=val]
	[-f] [--gstabs] [--gstabs+] [--gdwarf2] [--help]
	[-I dir] [-J] [-K] [-L]
	[--listing-lhs-width=NUM] [--listing-lhs-width2=NUM]
	[--listing-rhs-width=NUM] [--listing-cont-lines=NUM]
	[--keep-locals] [-o objfile] [-R] [--statistics] [-v]
	[-version] [--version] [-W] [--warn] [--fatal-warnings]
	[-w] [-x] [-Z] [--target-help] [target-options]
	[--|files ...]

       Target Alpha options:
	  [-mcpu]
	  [-mdebug | -no-mdebug]
	  [-relax] [-g] [-Gsize]
	  [-F] [-32addr]

       Target ARC options:
	  [-marc[5|6|7|8]]
	  [-EB|-EL]

       Target ARM options:
	  [-mcpu=processor[+extension...]]
	  [-march=architecture[+extension...]]
	  [-mfpu=floating-point-format]
	  [-mfloat-abi=abi]
	  [-mthumb]
	  [-EB|-EL]
	  [-mapcs-32|-mapcs-26|-mapcs-float|
	   -mapcs-reentrant]
	  [-mthumb-interwork] [-moabi] [-k]

       Target CRIS options:
	  [--underscore | --no-underscore]
	  [--pic] [-N]
	  [--emulation=criself | --emulation=crisaout]

       Target D10V options:
	  [-O]

       Target D30V options:
	  [-O|-n|-N]

       Target i386 options:
	  [--32|--64] [-n]

       Target i960 options:
	  [-ACA|-ACA_A|-ACB|-ACC|-AKA|-AKB|
	   -AKC|-AMC]
	  [-b] [-no-relax]

       Target IP2K options:
	  [-mip2022|-mip2022ext]

       Target M32R options:
	  [--m32rx|--[no-]warn-explicit-parallel-conflicts|
	  --W[n]p]

       Target M680X0 options:
	  [-l] [-m68000|-m68010|-m68020|...]

       Target M68HC11 options:
	  [-m68hc11|-m68hc12|-m68hcs12]
	  [-mshort|-mlong]
	  [-mshort-double|-mlong-double]
	  [--force-long-branchs] [--short-branchs]
	  [--strict-direct-mode] [--print-insn-syntax]
	  [--print-opcodes] [--generate-example]

       Target MCORE options:
	  [-jsri2bsr] [-sifilter] [-relax]
	  [-mcpu=[210|340]]

       Target MIPS options:
	  [-nocpp] [-EL] [-EB] [-O[optimization level]]
	  [-g[debug level]] [-G num] [-KPIC] [-call_shared]
	  [-non_shared] [-xgot] [--membedded-pic]
	  [-mabi=ABI] [-32] [-n32] [-64] [-mfp32] [-mgp32]
	  [-march=CPU] [-mtune=CPU] [-mips1] [-mips2]
	  [-mips3] [-mips4] [-mips5] [-mips32] [-mips32r2]
	  [-mips64] [-mips64r2]
	  [-construct-floats] [-no-construct-floats]
	  [-trap] [-no-break] [-break] [-no-trap]
	  [-mfix7000] [-mno-fix7000]
	  [-mips16] [-no-mips16]
	  [-mips3d] [-no-mips3d]
	  [-mdmx] [-no-mdmx]
	  [-mdebug] [-no-mdebug]
	  [-mpdr] [-mno-pdr]

       Target MMIX options:
	  [--fixed-special-register-names] [--globalize-symbols]
	  [--gnu-syntax] [--relax] [--no-predefined-symbols]
	  [--no-expand] [--no-merge-gregs] [-x]
	  [--linker-allocated-gregs]

       Target PDP11 options:
	  [-mpic|-mno-pic] [-mall] [-mno-extensions]
	  [-mextension|-mno-extension]
	  [-mcpu] [-mmachine]

       Target picoJava options:
	  [-mb|-me]

       Target PowerPC options:
	  [-mpwrx|-mpwr2|-mpwr|-m601|-mppc|-mppc32|-m603|-m604|
	   -m403|-m405|-mppc64|-m620|-mppc64bridge|-mbooke|
	   -mbooke32|-mbooke64]
	  [-mcom|-many|-maltivec] [-memb]
	  [-mregnames|-mno-regnames]
	  [-mrelocatable|-mrelocatable-lib]
	  [-mlittle|-mlittle-endian|-mbig|-mbig-endian]
	  [-msolaris|-mno-solaris]

       Target SPARC options:
	  [-Av6|-Av7|-Av8|-Asparclet|-Asparclite
	   -Av8plus|-Av8plusa|-Av9|-Av9a]
	  [-xarch=v8plus|-xarch=v8plusa] [-bump]
	  [-32|-64]

       Target TIC54X options:
	[-mcpu=54[123589]|-mcpu=54[56]lp] [-mfar-mode|-mf]
	[-merrors-to-file <filename>|-me <filename>]

       Target Xtensa options:
	[--[no-]density] [--[no-]relax] [--[no-]generics]
	[--[no-]text-section-literals]
	[--[no-]target-align] [--[no-]longcalls]

DESCRIPTION
       GNU as is really a family of assemblers.  If you use (or have used) the
       GNU assembler on one architecture, you should  find  a  fairly  similar
       environment  when you use it on another architecture.  Each version has
       much in common with the others, including  object  file	formats,  most
       assembler directives (often called pseudo-ops) and assembler syntax.

       as  is  primarily intended to assemble the output of the GNU C compiler
       "gcc" for use by the linker "ld".  Nevertheless, we've tried to make as
       assemble  correctly  everything	that  other  assemblers  for  the same
       machine would assemble.	 Any  exceptions  are  documented  explicitly.
       This  doesn't  mean as always uses the same syntax as another assembler
       for the same architecture; for example, we know of several incompatible
       versions of 680x0 assembly language syntax.

       Each  time  you	run  as  it assembles exactly one source program.  The
       source program is made up of one or more files.	(The standard input is
       also a file.)

       You give as a command line that has zero or more input file names.  The
       input files are read (from left file name to right).   A  command  line
       argument  (in  any position) that has no special meaning is taken to be
       an input file name.

       If you give as no file names it attempts to read one  input  file  from
       the  as	standard input, which is normally your terminal.  You may have
       to type ctl-D to tell as there is no more program to assemble.

       Use -- if you need to explicitly name the standard input file  in  your
       command line.

       If the source is empty, as produces a small, empty object file.

       as  may	write  warnings  and error messages to the standard error file
       (usually your terminal).  This should not happen when  a compiler  runs
       as  automatically.  Warnings report an assumption made so that as could
       keep assembling a flawed program; errors report a  grave  problem  that
       stops the assembly.

       If  you	are  invoking  as  via the GNU C compiler, you can use the -Wa
       option to pass arguments through to the assembler.  The assembler argu-
       ments  must  be separated from each other (and the -Wa) by commas.  For
       example:

	       gcc -c -g -O -Wa,-alh,-L file.c

       This passes two options to the assembler: -alh (emit a listing to stan-
       dard  output  with high-level and assembly source) and -L (retain local
       symbols in the symbol table).

       Usually you do not need to use this -Wa mechanism, since many  compiler
       command-line  options  are automatically passed to the assembler by the
       compiler.  (You can call the GNU compiler driver with the -v option  to
       see  precisely what options it passes to each compilation pass, includ-
       ing the assembler.)

OPTIONS
       -a[cdhlmns]
	   Turn on listings, in any of a variety of ways:

	   -ac omit false conditionals

	   -ad omit debugging directives

	   -ah include high-level source

	   -al include assembly

	   -am include macro expansions

	   -an omit forms processing

	   -as include symbols

	   =file
	       set the name of the listing file

	   You may combine these options; for example, use -aln  for  assembly
	   listing  without forms processing.  The =file option, if used, must
	   be the last one.  By itself, -a defaults to -ahls.

       -D  Ignored.  This option is accepted  for  script  compatibility  with
	   calls to other assemblers.

       --defsym sym=value
	   Define the symbol sym to be value before assembling the input file.
	   value must be an integer constant.  As in C, a leading 0x indicates
	   a hexadecimal value, and a leading 0 indicates an octal value.

       -f  ``fast''---skip whitespace and comment preprocessing (assume source
	   is compiler output).

       --gstabs
	   Generate stabs debugging information for each assembler line.  This
	   may help debugging assembler code, if the debugger can handle it.

       --gstabs+
	   Generate  stabs debugging information for each assembler line, with
	   GNU extensions that probably only gdb can handle,  and  that  could
	   make  other	debuggers  crash or refuse to read your program.  This
	   may help debugging assembler code.  Currently the only  GNU	exten-
	   sion is the location of the current working directory at assembling
	   time.

       --gdwarf2
	   Generate DWARF2 debugging  information  for	each  assembler  line.
	   This  may help debugging assembler code, if the debugger can handle
	   it.	Note---this option is only supported by some targets, not  all
	   of them.

       --help
	   Print a summary of the command line options and exit.

       --target-help
	   Print a summary of all target specific options and exit.

       -I dir
	   Add directory dir to the search list for ".include" directives.

       -J  Don't warn about signed overflow.

       -K  Issue  warnings  when  difference tables altered for long displace-
	   ments.

       -L
       --keep-locals
	   Keep (in the symbol table) local  symbols.	On  traditional  a.out
	   systems  these  start  with L, but different systems have different
	   local label prefixes.

       --listing-lhs-width=number
	   Set the maximum width, in words, of the output data column  for  an
	   assembler listing to number.

       --listing-lhs-width2=number
	   Set the maximum width, in words, of the output data column for con-
	   tinuation lines in an assembler listing to number.

       --listing-rhs-width=number
	   Set the maximum width of an input source line, as  displayed  in  a
	   listing, to number bytes.

       --listing-cont-lines=number
	   Set	the  maximum number of lines printed in a listing for a single
	   line of input to number + 1.

       -o objfile
	   Name the object-file output from as objfile.

       -R  Fold the data section into the text section.

       --statistics
	   Print the maximum space (in bytes) and total time (in seconds) used
	   by assembly.

       --strip-local-absolute
	   Remove local absolute symbols from the outgoing symbol table.

       -v
       -version
	   Print the as version.

       --version
	   Print the as version and exit.

       -W
       --no-warn
	   Suppress warning messages.

       --fatal-warnings
	   Treat warnings as errors.

       --warn
	   Don't suppress warning messages or treat them as errors.

       -w  Ignored.

       -x  Ignored.

       -Z  Generate an object file even after errors.

       -- | files ...
	   Standard input, or source files to assemble.

       The  following  options	are available when as is configured for an ARC
       processor.

       -marc[5|6|7|8]
	   This option selects the core processor variant.

       -EB | -EL
	   Select either big-endian (-EB) or little-endian (-EL) output.

       The following options are available when as is configured for  the  ARM
       processor family.

       -mcpu=processor[+extension...]
	   Specify which ARM processor variant is the target.

       -march=architecture[+extension...]
	   Specify which ARM architecture variant is used by the target.

       -mfpu=floating-point-format
	   Select which Floating Point architecture is the target.

       -mfloat-abi=abi
	   Select which floating point ABI is in use.

       -mthumb
	   Enable Thumb only instruction decoding.

       -mapcs-32 | -mapcs-26 | -mapcs-float | -mapcs-reentrant | -moabi
	   Select which procedure calling convention is in use.

       -EB | -EL
	   Select either big-endian (-EB) or little-endian (-EL) output.

       -mthumb-interwork
	   Specify  that the code has been generated with interworking between
	   Thumb and ARM code in mind.

       -k  Specify that PIC code has been generated.

       See the info pages for documentation of the CRIS-specific options.

       The following options are available when as is configured  for  a  D10V
       processor.

       -O  Optimize output by parallelizing instructions.

       The  following  options	are available when as is configured for a D30V
       processor.

       -O  Optimize output by parallelizing instructions.

       -n  Warn when nops are generated.

       -N  Warn when a nop after a 32-bit multiply instruction is generated.

       The following options are available when as is configured for the Intel
       80960 processor.

       -ACA | -ACA_A | -ACB | -ACC | -AKA | -AKB | -AKC | -AMC
	   Specify which variant of the 960 architecture is the target.

       -b  Add code to collect statistics about branches taken.

       -no-relax
	   Do  not  alter  compare-and-branch  instructions for long displace-
	   ments; error if necessary.

       The following options are available when as is configured for the  Ubi-
       com IP2K series.

       -mip2022ext
	   Specifies that the extended IP2022 instructions are allowed.

       -mip2022
	   Restores  the  default  behaviour,  which  restricts  the permitted
	   instructions to just the basic IP2022 ones.

       The following options are available when as is configured for the Rene-
       sas M32R (formerly Mitsubishi M32R) series.

       --m32rx
	   Specify  which  processor  in  the  M32R family is the target.  The
	   default is normally the M32R, but this option  changes  it  to  the
	   M32RX.

       --warn-explicit-parallel-conflicts or --Wp
	   Produce  warning messages when questionable parallel constructs are
	   encountered.

       --no-warn-explicit-parallel-conflicts or --Wnp
	   Do not produce warning messages  when  questionable	parallel  con-
	   structs are encountered.

       The  following  options	are  available	when  as is configured for the
       Motorola 68000 series.

       -l  Shorten references to undefined symbols, to	one  word  instead  of
	   two.

       -m68000 | -m68008 | -m68010 | -m68020 | -m68030
       | -m68040 | -m68060 | -m68302 | -m68331 | -m68332
       | -m68333 | -m68340 | -mcpu32 | -m5200
	   Specify  what  processor  in  the  68000 family is the target.  The
	   default is normally the 68020, but this can be changed at  configu-
	   ration time.

       -m68881 | -m68882 | -mno-68881 | -mno-68882
	   The	target machine does (or does not) have a floating-point copro-
	   cessor.  The default is to assume a coprocessor for	68020,	68030,
	   and	cpu32.	 Although  the	basic 68000 is not compatible with the
	   68881, a combination of the two can be specified, since it's possi-
	   ble	to  do emulation of the coprocessor instructions with the main
	   processor.

       -m68851 | -mno-68851
	   The target machine does (or does not) have a memory-management unit
	   coprocessor.  The default is to assume an MMU for 68020 and up.

       For  details  about  the PDP-11 machine dependent features options, see
       @ref{PDP-11-Options}.

       -mpic | -mno-pic
	   Generate position-independent (or  position-dependent)  code.   The
	   default is -mpic.

       -mall
       -mall-extensions
	   Enable all instruction set extensions.  This is the default.

       -mno-extensions
	   Disable all instruction set extensions.

       -mextension | -mno-extension
	   Enable (or disable) a particular instruction set extension.

       -mcpu
	   Enable  the	instruction  set  extensions supported by a particular
	   CPU, and disable all other extensions.

       -mmachine
	   Enable the instruction set extensions  supported  by  a  particular
	   machine model, and disable all other extensions.

       The  following  options are available when as is configured for a pico-
       Java processor.

       -mb Generate ``big endian'' format output.

       -ml Generate ``little endian'' format output.

       The following options are available  when  as  is  configured  for  the
       Motorola 68HC11 or 68HC12 series.

       -m68hc11 | -m68hc12 | -m68hcs12
	   Specify  what  processor  is the target.  The default is defined by
	   the configuration option when building the assembler.

       -mshort
	   Specify to use the 16-bit integer ABI.

       -mlong
	   Specify to use the 32-bit integer ABI.

       -mshort-double
	   Specify to use the 32-bit double ABI.

       -mlong-double
	   Specify to use the 64-bit double ABI.

       --force-long-branchs
	   Relative branches are turned into absolute ones. This concerns con-
	   ditional  branches,	unconditional  branches  and branches to a sub
	   routine.

       -S | --short-branchs
	   Do not turn relative branchs into absolute ones when the offset  is
	   out of range.

       --strict-direct-mode
	   Do  not  turn  the  direct addressing mode into extended addressing
	   mode when the instruction does not support direct addressing  mode.

       --print-insn-syntax
	   Print the syntax of instruction in case of error.

       --print-opcodes
	   print the list of instructions with syntax and then exit.

       --generate-example
	   print  an  example of instruction for each possible instruction and
	   then exit.  This option is only useful for testing as.

       The following options are available when as is configured for the SPARC
       architecture:

       -Av6 | -Av7 | -Av8 | -Asparclet | -Asparclite
       -Av8plus | -Av8plusa | -Av9 | -Av9a
	   Explicitly select a variant of the SPARC architecture.

	   -Av8plus and -Av8plusa select a 32 bit environment.	-Av9 and -Av9a
	   select a 64 bit environment.

	   -Av8plusa and -Av9a enable the SPARC V9 instruction set with Ultra-
	   SPARC extensions.

       -xarch=v8plus | -xarch=v8plusa
	   For compatibility with the Solaris v9 assembler.  These options are
	   equivalent to -Av8plus and -Av8plusa, respectively.

       -bump
	   Warn when the assembler switches to another architecture.

       The following options are available when as is configured for the 'c54x
       architecture.

       -mfar-mode
	   Enable  extended  addressing  mode.	 All addresses and relocations
	   will assume extended addressing (usually 23 bits).

       -mcpu=CPU_VERSION
	   Sets the CPU version being compiled for.

       -merrors-to-file FILENAME
	   Redirect error output to a file, for  broken  systems  which  don't
	   support such behaviour in the shell.

       The  following  options	are available when as is configured for a MIPS
       processor.

       -G num
	   This option sets the largest size of an object that can  be	refer-
	   enced  implicitly  with the "gp" register.  It is only accepted for
	   targets that use ECOFF format, such as a DECstation running Ultrix.
	   The default value is 8.

       -EB Generate ``big endian'' format output.

       -EL Generate ``little endian'' format output.

       -mips1
       -mips2
       -mips3
       -mips4
       -mips5
       -mips32
       -mips32r2
       -mips64
       -mips64r2
	   Generate  code  for	a particular MIPS Instruction Set Architecture
	   level.  -mips1 is an alias for -march=r3000, -mips2 is an alias for
	   -march=r6000,  -mips3 is an alias for -march=r4000 and -mips4 is an
	   alias for -march=r8000.  -mips5, -mips32, -mips32r2,  -mips64,  and
	   -mips64r2  correspond  to generic MIPS V, MIPS32, MIPS32 Release 2,
	   MIPS64, and MIPS64 Release 2 ISA processors, respectively.

       -march=CPU
	   Generate code for a particular MIPS cpu.

       -mtune=cpu
	   Schedule and tune for a particular MIPS cpu.

       -mfix7000
       -mno-fix7000
	   Cause nops to be inserted if the read of the  destination  register
	   of an mfhi or mflo instruction occurs in the following two instruc-
	   tions.

       -mdebug
       -no-mdebug
	   Cause stabs-style debugging output to go into an ECOFF-style  .mde-
	   bug section instead of the standard ELF .stabs sections.

       -mpdr
       -mno-pdr
	   Control generation of ".pdr" sections.

       -mgp32
       -mfp32
	   The	register sizes are normally inferred from the ISA and ABI, but
	   these flags force a certain group of registers to be treated as  32
	   bits  wide  at all times.  -mgp32 controls the size of general-pur-
	   pose registers and -mfp32 controls the size of floating-point  reg-
	   isters.

       -mips16
       -no-mips16
	   Generate  code  for	the  MIPS 16 processor.  This is equivalent to
	   putting  ".set  mips16"  at	the  start  of	the   assembly	 file.
	   -no-mips16 turns off this option.

       -mips3d
       -no-mips3d
	   Generate code for the MIPS-3D Application Specific Extension.  This
	   tells the assembler to  accept  MIPS-3D  instructions.   -no-mips3d
	   turns off this option.

       -mdmx
       -no-mdmx
	   Generate  code  for	the MDMX Application Specific Extension.  This
	   tells the assembler to accept MDMX  instructions.   -no-mdmx  turns
	   off this option.

       --construct-floats
       --no-construct-floats
	   The	--no-construct-floats option disables the construction of dou-
	   ble width floating point constants by loading the two halves of the
	   value  into the two single width floating point registers that make
	   up the double width register.   By  default	--construct-floats  is
	   selected,  allowing construction of these floating point constants.

       --emulation=name
	   This option causes as to emulate as configured for some other  tar-
	   get, in all respects, including output format (choosing between ELF
	   and ECOFF only), handling  of  pseudo-opcodes  which  may  generate
	   debugging  information  or  store  symbol  table  information,  and
	   default endianness.	The available configuration names are: mipsec-
	   off,  mipself,  mipslecoff,	mipsbecoff,  mipslelf,	mipsbelf.  The
	   first two do not alter the default endianness from that of the pri-
	   mary  target  for  which  the  assembler was configured; the others
	   change the default to little- or big-endian as indicated by	the  b
	   or  l  in  the name.  Using -EB or -EL will override the endianness
	   selection in any case.

	   This option is currently supported only when the primary target  as
	   is  configured for is a MIPS ELF or ECOFF target.  Furthermore, the
	   primary target or others  specified	with  --enable-targets=...  at
	   configuration  time	must  include support for the other format, if
	   both are to be available.  For example, the	Irix  5  configuration
	   includes support for both.

	   Eventually, this option will support more configurations, with more
	   fine-grained control over the assembler's  behavior,  and  will  be
	   supported for more processors.

       -nocpp
	   as  ignores this option.  It is accepted for compatibility with the
	   native tools.

       --trap
       --no-trap
       --break
       --no-break
	   Control how to deal with multiplication overflow  and  division  by
	   zero.  --trap or --no-break (which are synonyms) take a trap excep-
	   tion (and only work for Instruction Set Architecture  level	2  and
	   higher); --break or --no-trap (also synonyms, and the default) take
	   a break exception.

       -n  When this option is used, as will issue a  warning  every  time  it
	   generates a nop instruction from a macro.

       The  following options are available when as is configured for an MCore
       processor.

       -jsri2bsr
       -nojsri2bsr
	   Enable or disable the JSRI to BSR transformation.  By default  this
	   is  enabled.   The  command	line option -nojsri2bsr can be used to
	   disable it.

       -sifilter
       -nosifilter
	   Enable or disable the silicon filter behaviour.  By default this is
	   disabled.   The  default can be overridden by the -sifilter command
	   line option.

       -relax
	   Alter jump instructions for long displacements.

       -mcpu=[210|340]
	   Select the cpu type on the target hardware.	 This  controls  which
	   instructions can be assembled.

       -EB Assemble for a big endian target.

       -EL Assemble for a little endian target.

       See the info pages for documentation of the MMIX-specific options.

       The following options are available when as is configured for an Xtensa
       processor.

       --density | --no-density
	   Enable or disable use of instructions from the Xtensa code  density
	   option.   This is enabled by default when the Xtensa processor sup-
	   ports the code density option.

       --relax | --no-relax
	   Enable or disable  instruction  relaxation.	 This  is  enabled  by
	   default.   Note:  In the current implementation, these options also
	   control whether assembler optimizations are performed, making these
	   options equivalent to --generics and --no-generics.

       --generics | --no-generics
	   Enable  or disable all assembler transformations of Xtensa instruc-
	   tions.  The default is --generics;  --no-generics  should  be  used
	   only  in  the  rare	cases when the instructions must be exactly as
	   specified in the assembly source.

       --text-section-literals | --no-text-section-literals
	   With --text-section-literals, literal pools are interspersed in the
	   text  section.   The  default  is --no-text-section-literals, which
	   places literals in a separate section in the output file.

       --target-align | --no-target-align
	   Enable or disable automatic alignment to reduce branch penalties at
	   the expense of some code density.  The default is --target-align.

       --longcalls | --no-longcalls
	   Enable  or  disable	transformation	of  call instructions to allow
	   calls  across  a  greater  range  of  addresses.   The  default  is
	   --no-longcalls.

SEE ALSO
       gcc(1), ld(1), and the Info entries for binutils and ld.

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright  (C)  1991,  92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 2000, 2001, 2002
       Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify	this  document
       under  the  terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or
       any later version published by the Free Software  Foundation;  with  no
       Invariant  Sections,  with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover
       Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
       Free Documentation License''.



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