a2p
accept
access
acct
addftinfo
addr2line
adjtime
afmtodit
after
aio_cancel
aio_error
aio_read
aio_return
aio_suspend
aio_waitcomplete
aio_write
alias
aliases
alloc
anvil
append
apply
apropos
ar
array
as
asa
asn1parse
at
atq
atrm
attemptckalloc
attemptckrealloc
authlib
authtest
autopoint
awk
b64decode
b64encode
basename
batch
bc
bdes
bell
bg
bgerror
biff
big5
binary
bind
bindkey
bindtags
bindtextdomain
bio
bitmap
blowfish
bn
bootparams
bootptab
bounce
brandelf
break
breaksw
brk
bsdiff
bsdtar
bsnmpd
bspatch
bthost
btsockstat
buffer
builtin
builtins
bunzip2
button
byacc
bzcat
bzegrep
bzfgrep
bzgrep
bzip2
c2ph
c89
c99
ca
cal
calendar
canvas
cap_mkdb
case
cat
catch
catman
cc
cd
cdcontrol
chdir
checkbutton
checknr
chflags
chfn
chgrp
chio
chkey
chmod
chown
chpass
chroot
chsh
ci
ciphers
ckalloc
ckdist
ckfree
ckrealloc
cksum
cleanup
clear
clipboard
clock
clock_getres
clock_gettime
clock_settime
close
cmp
co
col
colcrt
colldef
colors
colrm
column
comm
command
compile_et
complete
compress
concat
config
connect
console
continue
core
courierlogger
couriertcpd
cp
cpan
cpio
cpp
creat
crl
crontab
crunchgen
crunchide
crypt
crypto
csh
csplit
ctags
ctm
ctm_dequeue
ctm_rmail
ctm_smail
cu
cursor
cursors
cut
cvs
date
dbiprof
dbiproxy
dc
dcgettext
dcngettext
dd
dde
default
defer
deliverquota
des
destroy
devfs
df
dgettext
dgst
dh
dhparam
dialog
diff
diff3
dig
dir
dirent
dirname
dirs
discard
disktab
dngettext
do
domainname
done
dprofpp
dsa
dsaparam
dtmfdecode
du
dup
dup2
eaccess
ec
ecdsa
echo
echotc
ecparam
ed
edit
editrc
ee
egrep
elf
elfdump
elif
else
enc
enc2xs
encoding
end
endif
endsw
engine
enigma
entry
env
envsubst
eof
eqn
err
errno
error
errstr
esac
ethers
euc
eui64
eval
event
evp
ex
exec
execve
exit
expand
export
exports
expr
extattr
extattr_delete_fd
extattr_delete_file
extattr_get_fd
extattr_get_file
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extattr_set_file
f77
false
famm
famx
fblocked
fbtab
fc
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fcntl
fconfigure
fcopy
fdescfs
fdformat
fdread
fdwrite
fetch
fg
fgrep
fhopen
fhstat
fhstatfs
fi
file
file2c
fileevent
filename
filetest
find
find2perl
finger
flex
flock
flush
fmt
focus
fold
font
fontedit
for
foreach
fork
format
forward
fpathconf
frame
from
fs
fstab
fstat
fstatfs
fsync
ftp
ftpchroot
ftpusers
ftruncate
futimes
g711conv
gb2312
gb18030
gbk
gcc
gcore
gcov
gdb
gencat
gendsa
genrsa
gensnmptree
getconf
getdents
getdirentries
getdtablesize
getegid
geteuid
getfacl
getfh
getfsstat
getgid
getgroups
getitimer
getlogin
getopt
getopts
getpeername
getpgid
getpgrp
getpid
getppid
getpriority
getresgid
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getrlimit
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gets
getsid
getsockname
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gettext
gettextize
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gettytab
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glob
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gmake
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gprof
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grid
grn
grodvi
groff
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grolj4
grops
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gunzip
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hash
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hd
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hesinfo
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host
hostname
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hosts_access
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hpftodit
http
hup
i386_get_ioperm
i386_get_ldt
i386_set_ioperm
i386_set_ldt
i386_vm86
iconv
id
ident
idprio
if
ifnames253
ifnames259
image
imapd
incr
indent
indxbib
info
infokey
inode
install
instmodsh
interp
intro
introduction
ioctl
ipcrm
ipcs
ipf
ipftest
ipnat
ippool
ipresend
issetugid
jail
jail_attach
jobid
jobs
join
jot
kbdcontrol
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kdestroy
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kevent
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keylogin
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kse_create
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ktrace
label
labelframe
lam
lappend
last
lastcomm
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lchflags
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ld
ldap
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leave
less
lesskey
lex
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link
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lint
lio_listio
list
listbox
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ln
load
loadfont
local
locale
locate
lock
lockf
log
logger
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lp
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lutimes
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magic
mail
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mc
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mptable
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mt
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nview
objcopy
objdump
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ocsp
od
onintr
open
openssl
opieaccess
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option
options
oqmgr
pack
package
packagens
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palette
pam_auth
panedwindow
parray
passwd
paste
patch
pathchk
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pawd
pax
pbm
pcre
pcreapi
pcrebuild
pcrecallout
pcrecompat
pcrecpp
pcregrep
pcrematching
pcrepartial
pcrepattern
pcreperform
pcreposix
pcreprecompile
pcresample
pcretest
perl
perl56delta
perl58delta
perl561delta
perl570delta
perl571delta
perl572delta
perl573delta
perl581delta
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_exit
__syscall
 
FreeBSD/Linux/UNIX General Commands Manual
Hypertext Man Pages
psed
 
S2P(1)		       Perl Programmers Reference Guide 		S2P(1)



NAME
       psed - a stream editor

SYNOPSIS
	  psed [-an] script [file ...]
	  psed [-an] [-e script] [-f script-file] [file ...]

	  s2p  [-an] [-e script] [-f script-file]

DESCRIPTION
       A stream editor reads the input stream consisting of the specified
       files (or standard input, if none are given), processes is line by line
       by applying a script consisting of edit commands, and writes resulting
       lines to standard output. The filename `"-"' may be used to read stan-
       dard input.

       The edit script is composed from arguments of -e options and
       script-files, in the given order. A single script argument may be spec-
       ified as the first parameter.

       If this program is invoked with the name s2p, it will act as a sed-to-
       Perl translator. See "sed Script Translation".

       sed returns an exit code of 0 on success or >0 if an error occurred.

OPTIONS
       -a  A file specified as argument to the w edit command is by default
	   opened before input processing starts. Using -a, opening of such
	   files is delayed until the first line is actually written to the
	   file.

       -e script
	   The editing commands defined by script are appended to the script.
	   Multiple commands must be separated by newlines.

       -f script-file
	   Editing commands from the specified script-file are read and
	   appended to the script.

       -n  By default, a line is written to standard output after the editing
	   script has been applied to it. The -n option suppresses automatic
	   printing.

COMMANDS
       sed command syntax is defined as

	  [address[,address]][!]function[argument]

       with whitespace being permitted before or after addresses, and between
       the function character and the argument. The addresses and the address
       inverter ("!") are used to restrict the application of a command to the
       selected line(s) of input.

       Each command must be on a line of its own, except where noted in the
       synopses below.

       The edit cycle performed on each input line consist of reading the line
       (without its trailing newline character) into the pattern space, apply-
       ing the applicable commands of the edit script, writing the final con-
       tents of the pattern space and a newline to the standard output.  A
       hold space is provided for saving the contents of the pattern space for
       later use.

       Addresses

       A sed address is either a line number or a pattern, which may be com-
       bined arbitrarily to construct ranges. Lines are numbered across all
       input files.

       Any address may be followed by an exclamation mark (`"!"'), selecting
       all lines not matching that address.

       number
	   The line with the given number is selected.

       $   A dollar sign ("$") is the line number of the last line of the
	   input stream.

       /regular expression/
	   A pattern address is a basic regular expression (see "Basic Regular
	   Expressions"), between the delimiting character "/".  Any other
	   character except "\" or newline may be used to delimit a pattern
	   address when the initial delimiter is prefixed with a backslash
	   (`"\"').

       If no address is given, the command selects every line.

       If one address is given, it selects the line (or lines) matching the
       address.

       Two addresses select a range that begins whenever the first address
       matches, and ends (including that line) when the second address
       matches.  If the first (second) address is a matching pattern, the sec-
       ond address is not applied to the very same line to determine the end
       of the range. Likewise, if the second address is a matching pattern,
       the first address is not applied to the very same line to determine the
       begin of another range. If both addresses are line numbers, and the
       second line number is less than the first line number, then only the
       first line is selected.

       Functions

       The maximum permitted number of addresses is indicated with each func-
       tion synopsis below.

       The argument text consists of one or more lines following the command.
       Embedded newlines in text must be preceded with a backslash.  Other
       backslashes in text are deleted and the following character is taken
       literally.

       [1addr]a\ text
	   Write text (which must start on the line following the command) to
	   standard output immediately before reading the next line of input,
	   either by executing the N function or by beginning a new cycle.

       [2addr]b [label]
	   Branch to the : function with the specified label. If no label is
	   given, branch to the end of the script.

       [2addr]c\ text
	   The line, or range of lines, selected by the address is deleted.
	   The text (which must start on the line following the command) is
	   written to standard output. With an address range, this occurs at
	   the end of the range.

       [2addr]d
	   Deletes the pattern space and starts the next cycle.

       [2addr]D
	   Deletes the pattern space through the first embedded newline or to
	   the end.  If the pattern space becomes empty, a new cycle is
	   started, otherwise execution of the script is restarted.

       [2addr]g
	   Replace the contents of the pattern space with the hold space.

       [2addr]G
	   Append a newline and the contents of the hold space to the pattern
	   space.

       [2addr]h
	   Replace the contents of the hold space with the pattern space.

       [2addr]H
	   Append a newline and the contents of the pattern space to the hold
	   space.

       [1addr]i\ text
	   Write the text (which must start on the line following the command)
	   to standard output.

       [2addr]l
	   Print the contents of the pattern space: non-printable characters
	   are shown in C-style escaped form; long lines are split and have a
	   trailing `"\"' at the point of the split; the true end of a line is
	   marked with a `"$"'. Escapes are: `\a', `\t', `\n', `\f', `\r',
	   `\e' for BEL, HT, LF, FF, CR, ESC, respectively, and `\' followed
	   by a three-digit octal number for all other non-printable charac-
	   ters.

       [2addr]n
	   If automatic printing is enabled, write the pattern space to the
	   standard output. Replace the pattern space with the next line of
	   input. If there is no more input, processing is terminated.

       [2addr]N
	   Append a newline and the next line of input to the pattern space.
	   If there is no more input, processing is terminated.

       [2addr]p
	   Print the pattern space to the standard output. (Use the -n option
	   to suppress automatic printing at the end of a cycle if you want to
	   avoid double printing of lines.)

       [2addr]P
	   Prints the pattern space through the first embedded newline or to
	   the end.

       [1addr]q
	   Branch to the end of the script and quit without starting a new
	   cycle.

       [1addr]r file
	   Copy the contents of the file to standard output immediately before
	   the next attempt to read a line of input. Any error encountered
	   while reading file is silently ignored.

       [2addr]s/regular expression/replacement/flags
	   Substitute the replacement string for the first substring in the
	   pattern space that matches the regular expression.  Any character
	   other than backslash or newline can be used instead of a slash to
	   delimit the regular expression and the replacement.	To use the
	   delimiter as a literal character within the regular expression and
	   the replacement, precede the character by a backslash (`"\"').

	   Literal newlines may be embedded in the replacement string by pre-
	   ceding a newline with a backslash.

	   Within the replacement, an ampersand (`"&"') is replaced by the
	   string matching the regular expression. The strings `"\1"' through
	   `"\9"' are replaced by the corresponding subpattern (see "Basic
	   Regular Expressions").  To get a literal `"&"' or `"\"' in the
	   replacement text, precede it by a backslash.

	   The following flags modify the behaviour of the s command:

	   g	   The replacement is performed for all matching, non-overlap-
		   ping substrings of the pattern space.

	   1..9    Replace only the n-th matching substring of the pattern
		   space.

	   p	   If the substitution was made, print the new value of the
		   pattern space.

	   w file  If the substitution was made, write the new value of the
		   pattern space to the specified file.

       [2addr]t [label]
	   Branch to the : function with the specified label if any s substi-
	   tutions have been made since the most recent reading of an input
	   line or execution of a t function. If no label is given, branch to
	   the end of the script.

       [2addr]w file
	   The contents of the pattern space are written to the file.

       [2addr]x
	   Swap the contents of the pattern space and the hold space.

       [1addr]=
	   Prints the current line number on the standard output.

       [0addr]: [label]
	   The command specifies the position of the label. It has no other
	   effect.

       [2addr]{ [command]
       [0addr]}
	   These two commands begin and end a command list. The first command
	   may be given on the same line as the opening { command. The com-
	   mands within the list are jointly selected by the address(es) given
	   on the { command (but may still have individual addresses).

       [0addr]# [comment]
	   The entire line is ignored (treated as a comment). If, however, the
	   first two characters in the script are `"#n"', automatic printing
	   of output is suppressed, as if the -n option were given on the com-
	   mand line.

BASIC REGULAR EXPRESSIONS
       A Basic Regular Expression (BRE), as defined in POSIX 1003.2, consists
       of atoms, for matching parts of a string, and bounds, specifying repe-
       titions of a preceding atom.

       Atoms

       The possible atoms of a BRE are: ., matching any single character; ^
       and $, matching the null string at the beginning or end of a string,
       respectively; a bracket expressions, enclosed in [ and ] (see below);
       and any single character with no other significance (matching that
       character). A \ before one of: ., ^, $, [, *, \, matching the character
       after the backslash. A sequence of atoms enclosed in \( and \) becomes
       an atom and establishes the target for a backreference, consisting of
       the substring that actually matches the enclosed atoms.	Finally, \
       followed by one of the digits 0 through 9 is a backreference.

       A ^ that is not first, or a $ that is not last does not have a special
       significance and need not be preceded by a backslash to become literal.
       The same is true for a ], that does not terminate a bracket expression.

       An unescaped backslash cannot be last in a BRE.

       Bounds

       The BRE bounds are: *, specifying 0 or more matches of the preceding
       atom; \{count\}, specifying that many repetitions; \{minimum,\}, giving
       a lower limit; and \{minimum,maximum\} finally defines a lower and
       upper bound.

       A bound appearing as the first item in a BRE is taken literally.

       Bracket Expressions

       A bracket expression is a list of characters, character ranges and
       character classes enclosed in [ and ] and matches any single character
       from the represented set of characters.

       A character range is written as two characters separated by - and rep-
       resents all characters (according to the character collating sequence)
       that are not less than the first and not greater than the second.
       (Ranges are very collating-sequence-dependent, and portable programs
       should avoid relying on them.)

       A character class is one of the class names

	  alnum     digit     punct
	  alpha     graph     space
	  blank     lower     upper
	  cntrl     print     xdigit

       enclosed in [: and :] and represents the set of characters as defined
       in ctype(3).

       If the first character after [ is ^, the sense of matching is inverted.

       To include a literal `"^"', place it anywhere else but first. To
       include a literal '"]"' place it first or immediately after an initial
       ^. To include a literal `"-"' make it the first (or second after ^) or
       last character, or the second endpoint of a range.

       The special bracket expression constructs "[[:<:]]" and "[[:>:]]" match
       the null string at the beginning and end of a word respectively.  (Note
       that neither is identical to Perl's `\b' atom.)

       Additional Atoms

       Since some sed implementations provide additional regular expression
       atoms (not defined in POSIX 1003.2), psed is capable of translating the
       following backslash escapes:

       \< This is the same as "[[:>:]]".
       \> This is the same as "[[:<:]]".
       \w This is an abbreviation for "[[:alnum:]_]".
       \W This is an abbreviation for "[^[:alnum:]_]".
       \y Match the empty string at a word boundary.
       \B Match the empty string between any two either word or non-word char-
       acters.

       To enable this feature, the environment variable PSEDEXTBRE must be set
       to a string containing the requested characters, e.g.:
       "PSEDEXTBRE='<>wW'".

ENVIRONMENT
       The environment variable "PSEDEXTBRE" may be set to extend BREs.  See
       "Additional Atoms".

DIAGNOSTICS
       ambiguous translation for character `%s' in `y' command
	   The indicated character appears twice, with different translations.

       `[' cannot be last in pattern
	   A `[' in a BRE indicates the beginning of a bracket expression.

       `\' cannot be last in pattern
	   A `\' in a BRE is used to make the subsequent character literal.

       `\' cannot be last in substitution
	   A `\' in a subsitution string is used to make the subsequent char-
	   acter literal.

       conflicting flags `%s'
	   In an s command, either the `g' flag and an n-th occurrence flag,
	   or multiple n-th occurrence flags are specified. Note that only the
	   digits `1' through `9' are permitted.

       duplicate label %s (first defined at %s)
       excess address(es)
	   The command has more than the permitted number of addresses.

       extra characters after command (%s)
       illegal option `%s'
       improper delimiter in s command
	   The BRE and substitution may not be delimited with `\' or newline.

       invalid address after `,'
       invalid backreference (%s)
	   The specified backreference number exceeds the number of backrefer-
	   ences in the BRE.

       invalid repeat clause `\{%s\}'
	   The repeat clause does not contain a valid integer value, or pair
	   of values.

       malformed regex, 1st address
       malformed regex, 2nd address
       malformed regular expression
       malformed substitution expression
       malformed `y' command argument
	   The first or second string of a y command  is syntactically incor-
	   rect.

       maximum less than minimum in `\{%s\}'
       no script command given
	   There must be at least one -e or one -f option specifying a script
	   or script file.

       `\' not valid as delimiter in `y' command
       option -e requires an argument
       option -f requires an argument
       `s' command requires argument
       start of unterminated `{'
       string lengths in `y' command differ
	   The translation table strings in a y commanf must have equal
	   lengths.

       undefined label `%s'
       unexpected `}'
	   A } command without a preceding { command was encountered.

       unexpected end of script
	   The end of the script was reached although a text line after a a, c
	   or i command indicated another line.

       unknown command `%s'
       unterminated `['
	   A BRE contains an unterminated bracket expression.

       unterminated `\('
	   A BRE contains an unterminated backreference.

       `\{' without closing `\}'
	   A BRE contains an unterminated bounds specification.

       `\)' without preceding `\('
       `y' command requires argument

EXAMPLE
       The basic material for the preceding section was generated by running
       the sed script

	  #no autoprint
	  s/^.*Warn( *"\([^"]*\)".*$/\1/
	  t process
	  b
	  :process
	  s/$!/%s/g
	  s/$[_[:alnum:]]\{1,\}/%s/g
	  s/\\\\/\\/g
	  s/^/=item /
	  p

       on the program's own text, and piping the output into "sort -u".

SED SCRIPT TRANSLATION
       If this program is invoked with the name s2p it will act as a sed-to-
       Perl translator. After option processing (all other arguments are
       ignored), a Perl program is printed on standard output, which will
       process the input stream (as read from all arguments) in the way
       defined by the sed script and the option setting used for the transla-
       tion.

SEE ALSO
       perl(1), re_format(7)

BUGS
       The l command will show escape characters (ESC) as `"\e"', but a verti-
       cal tab (VT) in octal.

       Trailing spaces are truncated from labels in :, t and b commands.

       The meaning of an empty regular expression (`"//"'), as defined by sed,
       is "the last pattern used, at run time". This deviates from the Perl
       interpretation, which will re-use the "last last successfully executed
       regular expression". Since keeping track of pattern usage would create
       terribly cluttered code, and differences would only appear in obscure
       context (where other sed implementations appear to deviate, too), the
       Perl semantics was adopted. Note that common usage of this feature,
       such as in "/abc/s//xyz/", will work as expected.

       Collating elements (of bracket expressions in BREs) are not imple-
       mented.

STANDARDS
       This sed implementation conforms to the IEEE Std1003.2-1992 ("POSIX.2")
       definition of sed, and is compatible with the OpenBSD implementation,
       except where otherwise noted (see "BUGS").

AUTHOR
       This Perl implementation of sed was written by Wolfgang Laun, Wolf-
       gang.Laun@alcatel.at.

COPYRIGHT and LICENSE
       This program is free and open software. You may use, modify, distrib-
       ute, and sell this program (and any modified variants) in any way you
       wish, provided you do not restrict others from doing the same.



perl v5.8.8			  2006-12-06				S2P(1)
=193406
+73
(46)