a2p
accept
access
acct
addftinfo
addr2line
adjtime
afmtodit
after
aio_cancel
aio_error
aio_read
aio_return
aio_suspend
aio_waitcomplete
aio_write
alias
aliases
alloc
anvil
append
apply
apropos
ar
array
as
asa
asn1parse
at
atq
atrm
attemptckalloc
attemptckrealloc
authlib
authtest
autopoint
awk
b64decode
b64encode
basename
batch
bc
bdes
bell
bg
bgerror
biff
big5
binary
bind
bindkey
bindtags
bindtextdomain
bio
bitmap
blowfish
bn
bootparams
bootptab
bounce
brandelf
break
breaksw
brk
bsdiff
bsdtar
bsnmpd
bspatch
bthost
btsockstat
buffer
builtin
builtins
bunzip2
button
byacc
bzcat
bzegrep
bzfgrep
bzgrep
bzip2
c2ph
c89
c99
ca
cal
calendar
canvas
cap_mkdb
case
cat
catch
catman
cc
cd
cdcontrol
chdir
checkbutton
checknr
chflags
chfn
chgrp
chio
chkey
chmod
chown
chpass
chroot
chsh
ci
ciphers
ckalloc
ckdist
ckfree
ckrealloc
cksum
cleanup
clear
clipboard
clock
clock_getres
clock_gettime
clock_settime
close
cmp
co
col
colcrt
colldef
colors
colrm
column
comm
command
compile_et
complete
compress
concat
config
connect
console
continue
core
courierlogger
couriertcpd
cp
cpan
cpio
cpp
creat
crl
crontab
crunchgen
crunchide
crypt
crypto
csh
csplit
ctags
ctm
ctm_dequeue
ctm_rmail
ctm_smail
cu
cursor
cursors
cut
cvs
date
dbiprof
dbiproxy
dc
dcgettext
dcngettext
dd
dde
default
defer
deliverquota
des
destroy
devfs
df
dgettext
dgst
dh
dhparam
dialog
diff
diff3
dig
dir
dirent
dirname
dirs
discard
disktab
dngettext
do
domainname
done
dprofpp
dsa
dsaparam
dtmfdecode
du
dup
dup2
eaccess
ec
ecdsa
echo
echotc
ecparam
ed
edit
editrc
ee
egrep
elf
elfdump
elif
else
enc
enc2xs
encoding
end
endif
endsw
engine
enigma
entry
env
envsubst
eof
eqn
err
errno
error
errstr
esac
ethers
euc
eui64
eval
event
evp
ex
exec
execve
exit
expand
export
exports
expr
extattr
extattr_delete_fd
extattr_delete_file
extattr_get_fd
extattr_get_file
extattr_set_fd
extattr_set_file
f77
false
famm
famx
fblocked
fbtab
fc
fchdir
fchflags
fchmod
fchown
fcntl
fconfigure
fcopy
fdescfs
fdformat
fdread
fdwrite
fetch
fg
fgrep
fhopen
fhstat
fhstatfs
fi
file
file2c
fileevent
filename
filetest
find
find2perl
finger
flex
flock
flush
fmt
focus
fold
font
fontedit
for
foreach
fork
format
forward
fpathconf
frame
from
fs
fstab
fstat
fstatfs
fsync
ftp
ftpchroot
ftpusers
ftruncate
futimes
g711conv
gb2312
gb18030
gbk
gcc
gcore
gcov
gdb
gencat
gendsa
genrsa
gensnmptree
getconf
getdents
getdirentries
getdtablesize
getegid
geteuid
getfacl
getfh
getfsstat
getgid
getgroups
getitimer
getlogin
getopt
getopts
getpeername
getpgid
getpgrp
getpid
getppid
getpriority
getresgid
getresuid
getrlimit
getrusage
gets
getsid
getsockname
getsockopt
gettext
gettextize
gettimeofday
gettytab
getuid
glob
global
gmake
goto
gperf
gprof
grab
grep
grid
grn
grodvi
groff
groff_font
groff_out
groff_tmac
grog
grolbp
grolj4
grops
grotty
group
groups
gunzip
gzcat
gzexe
gzip
h2ph
h2xs
hash
hashstat
hd
head
help2man
hesinfo
hexdump
history
host
hostname
hosts
hosts_access
hosts_options
hpftodit
http
hup
i386_get_ioperm
i386_get_ldt
i386_set_ioperm
i386_set_ldt
i386_vm86
iconv
id
ident
idprio
if
ifnames253
ifnames259
image
imapd
incr
indent
indxbib
info
infokey
inode
install
instmodsh
interp
intro
introduction
ioctl
ipcrm
ipcs
ipf
ipftest
ipnat
ippool
ipresend
issetugid
jail
jail_attach
jobid
jobs
join
jot
kbdcontrol
kbdmap
kcon
kdestroy
kdump
kenv
kevent
keycap
keylogin
keylogout
keymap
keysyms
kgdb
kill
killall
killpg
kinit
kldfind
kldfirstmod
kldload
kldnext
kldstat
kldsym
kldunload
klist
kpasswd
kqueue
kse
kse_create
kse_exit
kse_release
kse_switchin
kse_thr_interrupt
kse_wakeup
ktrace
label
labelframe
lam
lappend
last
lastcomm
lastlog
lchflags
lchmod
lchown
ld
ldap
ldapadd
ldapcompare
ldapdelete
ldapmodify
ldapmodrdn
ldappasswd
ldapsearch
ldapwhoami
ldd
leave
less
lesskey
lex
lgetfh
lhash
libnetcfg
library
limit
limits
lindex
link
linprocfs
linsert
lint
lio_listio
list
listbox
listen
lj4_font
lkbib
llength
lmtp
ln
load
loadfont
local
locale
locate
lock
lockf
log
logger
login
logins
logname
logout
look
lookbib
lorder
lower
lp
lpq
lpr
lprm
lptest
lrange
lreplace
ls
lsearch
lseek
lset
lsort
lstat
lsvfs
lutimes
lynx
m4
madvise
magic
mail
maildiracl
maildirkw
maildirmake
mailq
mailx
make
makeinfo
makewhatis
man
manpath
master
mc
mcedit
mcview
md2
md4
md5
mdc2
memory
menu
menubar
menubutton
merge
mesg
message
mincore
minherit
minigzip
mkdep
mkdir
mkfifo
mkimapdcert
mklocale
mknod
mkpop3dcert
mkstr
mktemp
mlock
mlockall
mmap
mmroff
modfind
modfnext
modnext
modstat
moduli
more
motd
mount
mprotect
mptable
msdos
msdosfs
msgattrib
msgcat
msgcmp
msgcomm
msgconv
msgen
msgexec
msgfilter
msgfmt
msggrep
msginit
msgmerge
msgs
msgunfmt
msguniq
mskanji
msql2mysql
msync
mt
munlock
munlockall
munmap
mv
myisamchk
myisamlog
myisampack
mysql
mysqlaccess
mysqladmin
mysqlbinlog
mysqlcheck
mysqld
mysqldump
mysqld_multi
mysqld_safe
mysqlhotcopy
mysqlimport
mysqlshow
mysql_config
mysql_fix_privilege_tables
mysql_zap
namespace
nanosleep
nawk
nc
ncal
ncplist
ncplogin
ncplogout
neqn
netconfig
netgroup
netid
netstat
networks
newaliases
newgrp
nex
nfsstat
nfssvc
ngettext
nice
nl
nm
nmount
nohup
nologin
notify
nroff
nseq
nslookup
ntp_adjtime
ntp_gettime
nvi
nview
objcopy
objdump
objformat
ocsp
od
onintr
open
openssl
opieaccess
opieinfo
opiekey
opiekeys
opiepasswd
option
options
oqmgr
pack
package
packagens
pagesize
palette
pam_auth
panedwindow
parray
passwd
paste
patch
pathchk
pathconf
pawd
pax
pbm
pcre
pcreapi
pcrebuild
pcrecallout
pcrecompat
pcrecpp
pcregrep
pcrematching
pcrepartial
pcrepattern
pcreperform
pcreposix
pcreprecompile
pcresample
pcretest
perl
perl56delta
perl58delta
perl561delta
perl570delta
perl571delta
perl572delta
perl573delta
perl581delta
perl582delta
perl583delta
perl584delta
perl585delta
perl586delta
perl587delta
perl588delta
perl5004delta
perl5005delta
perlaix
perlamiga
perlapi
perlapio
perlapollo
perlartistic
perlbeos
perlbook
perlboot
perlbot
perlbs2000
perlbug
perlcall
perlcc
perlce
perlcheat
perlclib
perlcn
perlcompile
perlcygwin
perldata
perldbmfilter
perldebguts
perldebtut
perldebug
perldelta
perldgux
perldiag
perldoc
perldos
perldsc
perlebcdic
perlembed
perlepoc
perlfaq
perlfaq1
perlfaq2
perlfaq3
perlfaq4
perlfaq5
perlfaq6
perlfaq7
perlfaq8
perlfaq9
perlfilter
perlfork
perlform
perlfreebsd
perlfunc
perlglossary
perlgpl
perlguts
perlhack
perlhist
perlhpux
perlhurd
perlintern
perlintro
perliol
perlipc
perlirix
perlivp
perljp
perlko
perllexwarn
perllinux
perllocale
perllol
perlmachten
perlmacos
perlmacosx
perlmint
perlmod
perlmodinstall
perlmodlib
perlmodstyle
perlmpeix
perlnetware
perlnewmod
perlnumber
perlobj
perlop
perlopenbsd
perlopentut
perlos2
perlos390
perlos400
perlothrtut
perlpacktut
perlplan9
perlpod
perlpodspec
perlport
perlqnx
perlre
perlref
perlreftut
perlrequick
perlreref
perlretut
perlrun
perlsec
perlsolaris
perlstyle
perlsub
perlsyn
perlthrtut
perltie
perltoc
perltodo
perltooc
perltoot
perltrap
perltru64
perltw
perlunicode
perluniintro
perlutil
perluts
perlvar
perlvmesa
perlvms
perlvos
perlwin32
perlxs
perlxstut
perror
pfbtops
pftp
pgrep
phones
photo
pic
pickup
piconv
pid
pipe
pkcs7
pkcs8
pkcs12
pkg_add
pkg_check
pkg_create
pkg_delete
pkg_info
pkg_sign
pkg_version
pkill
pl2pm
place
pod2html
pod2latex
pod2man
pod2text
pod2usage
podchecker
podselect
poll
popd
popup
posix_madvise
postalias
postcat
postconf
postdrop
postfix
postkick
postlock
postlog
postmap
postqueue
postsuper
pr
pread
preadv
printcap
printenv
printf
proc
procfs
profil
protocols
prove
proxymap
ps
psed
psroff
pstruct
ptrace
publickey
pushd
puts
pwd
pwrite
pwritev
qmgr
qmqpd
quota
quotactl
radiobutton
raise
rand
ranlib
rcp
rcs
rcsclean
rcsdiff
rcsfile
rcsfreeze
rcsintro
rcsmerge
read
readelf
readlink
readonly
readv
realpath
reboot
recv
recvfrom
recvmsg
red
ree
refer
regexp
registry
regsub
rehash
remote
rename
repeat
replace
req
reset
resolver
resource
return
rev
revoke
rfcomm_sppd
rfork
rhosts
ripemd
ripemd160
rlog
rlogin
rm
rmd160
rmdir
rpc
rpcgen
rs
rsa
rsautl
rsh
rtld
rtprio
rup
ruptime
rusers
rwall
rwho
s2p
safe
sasl
sasldblistusers2
saslpasswd2
sbrk
scache
scale
scan
sched
sched_getparam
sched_getscheduler
sched_get_priority_max
sched_get_priority_min
sched_rr_get_interval
sched_setparam
sched_setscheduler
sched_yield
scon
scp
script
scrollbar
sdiff
sed
seek
select
selection
semctl
semget
semop
send
sendbug
sendfile
sendmail
sendmsg
sendto
services
sess_id
set
setegid
setenv
seteuid
setfacl
setgid
setgroups
setitimer
setlogin
setpgid
setpgrp
setpriority
setregid
setresgid
setresuid
setreuid
setrlimit
setsid
setsockopt
settc
settimeofday
setty
setuid
setvar
sftp
sh
sha
sha1
sha256
shar
shells
shift
shmat
shmctl
shmdt
shmget
showq
shutdown
sigaction
sigaltstack
sigblock
sigmask
sigpause
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sigprocmask
sigreturn
sigsetmask
sigstack
sigsuspend
sigvec
sigwait
size
slapadd
slapcat
slapd
slapdn
slapindex
slappasswd
slaptest
sleep
slogin
slurpd
smbutil
smime
smtp
smtpd
socket
socketpair
sockstat
soelim
sort
source
spawn
speed
spinbox
spkac
splain
split
squid
squid_ldap_auth
squid_ldap_group
squid_unix_group
sscop
ssh
sshd_config
ssh_config
stab
startslip
stat
statfs
stop
string
strings
strip
stty
su
subst
sum
suspend
swapoff
swapon
switch
symlink
sync
sysarch
syscall
sysconftool
sysconftoolcheck
systat
s_client
s_server
s_time
tabs
tail
talk
tar
tbl
tclsh
tcltest
tclvars
tcopy
tcpdump
tcpslice
tcsh
tee
tell
telltc
telnet
term
termcap
terminfo
test
texindex
texinfo
text
textdomain
tfmtodit
tftp
then
threads
time
tip
tk
tkerror
tkvars
tkwait
tlsmgr
tmac
top
toplevel
touch
tput
tr
trace
trafshow
trap
troff
true
truncate
truss
tset
tsort
tty
ttys
type
tzfile
ui
ul
ulimit
umask
unalias
uname
uncomplete
uncompress
undelete
unexpand
unhash
unifdef
unifdefall
uniq
units
unknown
unlimit
unlink
unmount
unset
unsetenv
until
unvis
update
uplevel
uptime
upvar
usbhidaction
usbhidctl
users
utf8
utimes
utmp
utrace
uudecode
uuencode
uuidgen
vacation
variable
verify
version
vfork
vgrind
vgrindefs
vi
vidcontrol
vidfont
view
virtual
vis
vt220keys
vwait
w
wait
wait3
wait4
waitpid
wall
wc
wget
what
whatis
where
whereis
which
while
who
whoami
whois
window
winfo
wish
wm
write
writev
wtmp
x509
xargs
xgettext
xmlwf
xstr
xsubpp
yacc
yes
ypcat
ypchfn
ypchpass
ypchsh
ypmatch
yppasswd
ypwhich
yyfix
zcat
zcmp
zdiff
zegrep
zfgrep
zforce
zgrep
zmore
znew
_exit
__syscall
 
FreeBSD/Linux/UNIX General Commands Manual
Hypertext Man Pages
perlwin32
 
PERLWIN32(1)	       Perl Programmers Reference Guide 	  PERLWIN32(1)



NAME
       perlwin32 - Perl under Windows

SYNOPSIS
       These are instructions for building Perl under Windows 9x/NT/2000/XP on
       the Intel x86 and Itanium architectures.

DESCRIPTION
       Before you start, you should glance through the README file found in
       the top-level directory to which the Perl distribution was extracted.
       Make sure you read and understand the terms under which this software
       is being distributed.

       Also make sure you read "BUGS AND CAVEATS" below for the known limita-
       tions of this port.

       The INSTALL file in the perl top-level has much information that is
       only relevant to people building Perl on Unix-like systems.  In partic-
       ular, you can safely ignore any information that talks about "Config-
       ure".

       You may also want to look at two other options for building a perl that
       will work on Windows NT:  the README.cygwin and README.os2 files, each
       of which give a different set of rules to build a Perl that will work
       on Win32 platforms.  Those two methods will probably enable you to
       build a more Unix-compatible perl, but you will also need to download
       and use various other build-time and run-time support software
       described in those files.

       This set of instructions is meant to describe a so-called "native" port
       of Perl to Win32 platforms.  This includes both 32-bit and 64-bit Win-
       dows operating systems.	The resulting Perl requires no additional
       software to run (other than what came with your operating system).
       Currently, this port is capable of using one of the following compilers
       on the Intel x86 architecture:

	     Borland C++	   version 5.02 or later
	     Microsoft Visual C++  version 2.0 or later
	     MinGW with gcc	   gcc version 2.95.2 or later

       The last of these is a high quality freeware compiler.  Use version
       3.2.x or later for the best results with this compiler.

       The Borland C++ and Microsoft Visual C++ compilers are also now being
       given away free.  The Borland compiler is available as "Borland C++
       Compiler Free Command Line Tools" and is the same compiler that ships
       with the full "Borland C++ Builder" product.  The Microsoft compiler is
       available as "Visual C++ Toolkit 2003", and also as part of the ".NET
       Framework SDK", and is the same compiler that ships with "Visual Studio
       .NET 2003 Professional".

       This port can also be built on the Intel IA64 using:

	     Microsoft Platform SDK    Nov 2001 (64-bit compiler and tools)

       The MS Platform SDK can be downloaded from http://www.microsoft.com/.

       This port fully supports MakeMaker (the set of modules that is used to
       build extensions to perl).  Therefore, you should be able to build and
       install most extensions found in the CPAN sites.  See "Usage Hints for
       Perl on Win32" below for general hints about this.

       Setting Up Perl on Win32


       Make
	   You need a "make" program to build the sources.  If you are using
	   Visual C++ or the Platform SDK tools under Windows NT/2000/XP,
	   nmake will work.  All other builds need dmake.

	   dmake is a freely available make that has very nice macro features
	   and parallelability.

	   A port of dmake for Windows is available from:

	       http://search.cpan.org/dist/dmake/

	   Fetch and install dmake somewhere on your path.

	   There exists a minor coexistence problem with dmake and Borland C++
	   compilers.  Namely, if a distribution has C files named with mixed
	   case letters, they will be compiled into appropriate .obj-files
	   named with all lowercase letters, and every time dmake is invoked
	   to bring files up to date, it will try to recompile such files
	   again.  For example, Tk distribution has a lot of such files,
	   resulting in needless recompiles every time dmake is invoked.  To
	   avoid this, you may use the script "sync_ext.pl" after a successful
	   build.  It is available in the win32 subdirectory of the Perl
	   source distribution.

       Command Shell
	   Use the default "cmd" shell that comes with NT.  Some versions of
	   the popular 4DOS/NT shell have incompatibilities that may cause you
	   trouble.  If the build fails under that shell, try building again
	   with the cmd shell.

	   The nmake Makefile also has known incompatibilities with the "com-
	   mand.com" shell that comes with Windows 9x.	You will need to use
	   dmake and makefile.mk to build under Windows 9x.

	   The surest way to build it is on Windows NT/2000/XP, using the cmd
	   shell.

	   Make sure the path to the build directory does not contain spaces.
	   The build usually works in this circumstance, but some tests will
	   fail.

       Borland C++
	   If you are using the Borland compiler, you will need dmake.	(The
	   make that Borland supplies is seriously crippled and will not work
	   for MakeMaker builds.)

	   See "Make" above.

       Microsoft Visual C++
	   The nmake that comes with Visual C++ will suffice for building.
	   You will need to run the VCVARS32.BAT file, usually found somewhere
	   like C:\MSDEV4.2\BIN or C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Stu-
	   dio\VC98\Bin.  This will set your build environment.

	   You can also use dmake to build using Visual C++; provided, how-
	   ever, you set OSRELEASE to "microsft" (or whatever the directory
	   name under which the Visual C dmake configuration lives) in your
	   environment and edit win32/config.vc to change "make=nmake" into
	   "make=dmake".  The latter step is only essential if you want to use
	   dmake as your default make for building extensions using MakeMaker.

       Microsoft Visual C++ Toolkit 2003
	   This free toolkit contains the same compiler and linker that ship
	   with Visual Studio .NET 2003 Professional, but doesn't contain
	   everything necessary to build Perl.

	   You will also need to download the "Platform SDK" (the "Core SDK"
	   and "MDAC SDK" components are required) for header files, libraries
	   and rc.exe, and ".NET Framework SDK" for more libraries and
	   nmake.exe.  Note that the latter (which also includes the free com-
	   piler and linker) requires the ".NET Framework Redistributable" to
	   be installed first.	This can be downloaded and installed sepa-
	   rately, but is included in the "Visual C++ Toolkit 2003" anyway.

	   These packages can all be downloaded by searching in the Download
	   Center at http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/search.aspx?display-
	   lang=en.  (Providing exact links to these packages has proven a
	   pointless task because the links keep on changing so often.)

	   Try to obtain the latest version of the Platform SDK.  Sometimes
	   these packages contain a particular Windows OS version in their
	   name, but actually work on other OS versions too.  For example, the
	   "Windows Server 2003 SP1 Platform SDK" also runs on Windows XP SP2
	   and Windows 2000.

	   According to the download pages the Toolkit and the .NET Framework
	   SDK are only supported on Windows 2000/XP/2003, so trying to use
	   these tools on Windows 95/98/ME and even Windows NT probably won't
	   work.

	   Install the Toolkit first, then the Platform SDK, then the .NET
	   Framework SDK.  Setup your environment as follows (assuming default
	   installation locations were chosen):

		   SET PATH=%SystemRoot%\system32;%SystemRoot%;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual C++ Toolkit 2003\bin;C:\Program Files\Microsoft SDK\Bin;C:\Program Files\Microsoft.NET\SDK\v1.1\Bin
		   SET INCLUDE=C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual C++ Toolkit 2003\include;C:\Program Files\Microsoft SDK\include;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003\Vc7\include
		   SET LIB=C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual C++ Toolkit 2003\lib;C:\Program Files\Microsoft SDK\lib;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003\Vc7\lib

	   Several required files will still be missing:

	   *   cvtres.exe is required by link.exe when using a .res file.  It
	       is actually installed by the .NET Framework SDK, but into a
	       location such as the following:

		       C:\WINDOWS\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v1.1.4322

	       Copy it from there to C:\Program Files\Microsoft SDK\Bin

	   *   lib.exe is normally used to build libraries, but link.exe with
	       the /lib option also works, so change win32/config.vc to use it
	       instead:

	       Change the line reading:

		       ar='lib'

	       to:

		       ar='link /lib'

	       It may also be useful to create a batch file called lib.bat in
	       C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual C++ Toolkit 2003\bin contain-
	       ing:

		       @echo off
		       link /lib %*

	       for the benefit of any naughty C extension modules that you
	       might want to build later which explicitly reference "lib"
	       rather than taking their value from $Config{ar}.

	   *   setargv.obj is required to build perlglob.exe (and perl.exe if
	       the USE_SETARGV option is enabled).  The Platform SDK supplies
	       this object file in source form in C:\Program Files\Microsoft
	       SDK\src\crt.  Copy setargv.c, cruntime.h and internal.h from
	       there to some temporary location and build setargv.obj using

		       cl.exe /c /I. /D_CRTBLD setargv.c

	       Then copy setargv.obj to C:\Program Files\Microsoft SDK\lib

	       Alternatively, if you don't need perlglob.exe and don't need to
	       enable the USE_SETARGV option then you can safely just remove
	       all mention of $(GLOBEXE) from win32/Makefile and setargv.obj
	       won't be required anyway.

	   Perl should now build using the win32/Makefile.  You will need to
	   edit that file to set

		   CCTYPE = MSVC70FREE

	   and to set CCHOME, CCINCDIR and CCLIBDIR as per the environment
	   setup above.

       Microsoft Platform SDK 64-bit Compiler
	   The nmake that comes with the Platform SDK will suffice for build-
	   ing Perl.  Make sure you are building within one of the "Build
	   Environment" shells available after you install the Platform SDK
	   from the Start Menu.

       MinGW release 3 with gcc
	   The latest release of MinGW at the time of writing is 3.1.0, which
	   contains gcc-3.2.3.	It can be downloaded here:

	       http://www.mingw.org/

	   Perl also compiles with earlier releases of gcc (2.95.2 and up).
	   See below for notes about using earlier versions of MinGW/gcc.

	   You also need dmake.  See "Make" above on how to get it.

       MinGW release 1 with gcc
	   The MinGW-1.1 bundle contains gcc-2.95.3.

	   Make sure you install the binaries that work with MSVCRT.DLL as
	   indicated in the README for the GCC bundle.	You may need to set up
	   a few environment variables (usually ran from a batch file).

	   There are a couple of problems with the version of
	   gcc-2.95.2-msvcrt.exe released 7 November 1999:

	   *   It left out a fix for certain command line quotes.  To fix
	       this, be sure to download and install the file
	       fixes/quote-fix-msvcrt.exe from the above ftp location.

	   *   The definition of the fpos_t type in stdio.h may be wrong.  If
	       your stdio.h has this problem, you will see an exception when
	       running the test t/lib/io_xs.t.	To fix this, change the type-
	       def for fpos_t from "long" to "long long" in the file
	       i386-mingw32msvc/include/stdio.h, and rebuild.

	   A potentially simpler to install (but probably soon-to-be-outdated)
	   bundle of the above package with the mentioned fixes already
	   applied is available here:

	       http://downloads.ActiveState.com/pub/staff/gsar/gcc-2.95.2-msvcrt.zip
	       ftp://ftp.ActiveState.com/pub/staff/gsar/gcc-2.95.2-msvcrt.zip

       Building


       o   Make sure you are in the "win32" subdirectory under the perl
	   toplevel.  This directory contains a "Makefile" that will work with
	   versions of nmake that come with Visual C++ or the Platform SDK,
	   and a dmake "makefile.mk" that will work for all supported compil-
	   ers.  The defaults in the dmake makefile are setup to build using
	   MinGW/gcc.

       o   Edit the makefile.mk (or Makefile, if you're using nmake) and
	   change the values of INST_DRV and INST_TOP.	 You can also enable
	   various build flags.  These are explained in the makefiles.

	   Note that it is generally not a good idea to try to build a perl
	   with INST_DRV and INST_TOP set to a path that already exists from a
	   previous build.  In particular, this may cause problems with the
	   lib/ExtUtils/t/Embed.t test, which attempts to build a test program
	   and may end up building against the installed perl's lib/CORE
	   directory rather than the one being tested.

	   You will have to make sure that CCTYPE is set correctly and that
	   CCHOME points to wherever you installed your compiler.

	   The default value for CCHOME in the makefiles for Visual C++ may
	   not be correct for some versions.  Make sure the default exists and
	   is valid.

	   You may also need to comment out the "DELAYLOAD = ..." line in the
	   Makefile if you're using VC++ 6.0 without the latest service pack
	   and the linker reports an internal error.

	   If you have either the source or a library that contains
	   des_fcrypt(), enable the appropriate option in the makefile.  A
	   ready-to-use version of fcrypt.c, based on the version originally
	   written by Eric Young at ftp://ftp.funet.fi/pub/crypt/mir-
	   rors/dsi/libdes/, is bundled with the distribution and CRYPT_SRC is
	   set to use it.  Alternatively, if you have built a library that
	   contains des_fcrypt(), you can set CRYPT_LIB to point to the
	   library name.  Perl will also build without des_fcrypt(), but the
	   crypt() builtin will fail at run time.

	   If you want build some core extensions statically into perl's dll,
	   specify them in the STATIC_EXT macro.

	   Be sure to read the instructions near the top of the makefiles
	   carefully.

       o   Type "dmake" (or "nmake" if you are using that make).

	   This should build everything.  Specifically, it will create
	   perl.exe, perl58.dll at the perl toplevel, and various other exten-
	   sion dll's under the lib\auto directory.  If the build fails for
	   any reason, make sure you have done the previous steps correctly.

       Testing Perl on Win32

       Type "dmake test" (or "nmake test").  This will run most of the tests
       from the testsuite (many tests will be skipped).

       There should be no test failures when running under Windows NT/2000/XP.
       Many tests will fail under Windows 9x due to the inferior command
       shell.

       Some test failures may occur if you use a command shell other than the
       native "cmd.exe", or if you are building from a path that contains spa-
       ces.  So don't do that.

       If you are running the tests from a emacs shell window, you may see
       failures in op/stat.t.  Run "dmake test-notty" in that case.

       If you're using the Borland compiler, you may see a failure in
       op/taint.t arising from the inability to find the Borland Runtime DLLs
       on the system default path.  You will need to copy the DLLs reported by
       the messages from where Borland chose to install it, into the Windows
       system directory (usually somewhere like C:\WINNT\SYSTEM32) and rerun
       the test.

       If you're using Borland compiler versions 5.2 and below, you may run
       into problems finding the correct header files when building exten-
       sions.  For example, building the "Tk" extension may fail because both
       perl and Tk contain a header file called "patchlevel.h".  The latest
       Borland compiler (v5.5) is free of this misbehaviour, and it even sup-
       ports an option -VI- for backward (bugward) compatibility for using the
       old Borland search algorithm  to locate header files.

       If you run the tests on a FAT partition, you may see some failures for
       "link()" related tests:

	   Failed Test			   Stat Wstat Total Fail  Failed  List

	   ../ext/IO/lib/IO/t/io_dup.t			  6    4  66.67%  2-5
	   ../lib/File/Temp/t/mktemp.t			  9    1  11.11%  2
	   ../lib/File/Temp/t/posix.t			  7    1  14.29%  3
	   ../lib/File/Temp/t/security.t		 13    1   7.69%  2
	   ../lib/File/Temp/t/tempfile.t		 20    2  10.00%  2 4
	   comp/multiline.t				  6    2  33.33%  5-6
	   io/dup.t					  8    6  75.00%  2-7
	   op/write.t					 47    7  14.89%  1-3 6 9-11

       Testing on NTFS avoids these errors.

       Furthermore, you should make sure that during "make test" you do not
       have any GNU tool packages in your path: some toolkits like Unixutils
       include some tools ("type" for instance) which override the Windows
       ones and makes tests fail. Remove them from your path while testing to
       avoid these errors.

       Please report any other failures as described under "BUGS AND CAVEATS".

       Installation of Perl on Win32

       Type "dmake install" (or "nmake install").  This will put the newly
       built perl and the libraries under whatever "INST_TOP" points to in the
       Makefile.  It will also install the pod documentation under
       "$INST_TOP\$INST_VER\lib\pod" and HTML versions of the same under
       "$INST_TOP\$INST_VER\lib\pod\html".

       To use the Perl you just installed you will need to add a new entry to
       your PATH environment variable: "$INST_TOP\bin", e.g.

	   set PATH=c:\perl\bin;%PATH%

       If you opted to uncomment "INST_VER" and "INST_ARCH" in the makefile
       then the installation structure is a little more complicated and you
       will need to add two new PATH components instead:
       "$INST_TOP\$INST_VER\bin" and "$INST_TOP\$INST_VER\bin\$ARCHNAME", e.g.

	   set PATH=c:\perl\5.6.0\bin;c:\perl\5.6.0\bin\MSWin32-x86;%PATH%

       Usage Hints for Perl on Win32


       Environment Variables
	   The installation paths that you set during the build get compiled
	   into perl, so you don't have to do anything additional to start
	   using that perl (except add its location to your PATH variable).

	   If you put extensions in unusual places, you can set PERL5LIB to a
	   list of paths separated by semicolons where you want perl to look
	   for libraries.  Look for descriptions of other environment vari-
	   ables you can set in perlrun.

	   You can also control the shell that perl uses to run system() and
	   backtick commands via PERL5SHELL.  See perlrun.

	   Perl does not depend on the registry, but it can look up certain
	   default values if you choose to put them there.  Perl attempts to
	   read entries from "HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Perl" and
	   "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Perl".	Entries in the former override
	   entries in the latter.  One or more of the following entries (of
	   type REG_SZ or REG_EXPAND_SZ) may be set:

	       lib-$]		   version-specific standard library path to add to @INC
	       lib		   standard library path to add to @INC
	       sitelib-$]	   version-specific site library path to add to @INC
	       sitelib		   site library path to add to @INC
	       vendorlib-$]	   version-specific vendor library path to add to @INC
	       vendorlib	   vendor library path to add to @INC
	       PERL*		   fallback for all %ENV lookups that begin with "PERL"

	   Note the $] in the above is not literal.  Substitute whatever ver-
	   sion of perl you want to honor that entry, e.g. 5.6.0.  Paths must
	   be separated with semicolons, as usual on win32.

       File Globbing
	   By default, perl handles file globbing using the File::Glob exten-
	   sion, which provides portable globbing.

	   If you want perl to use globbing that emulates the quirks of DOS
	   filename conventions, you might want to consider using File::Dos-
	   Glob to override the internal glob() implementation.  See
	   File::DosGlob for details.

       Using perl from the command line
	   If you are accustomed to using perl from various command-line
	   shells found in UNIX environments, you will be less than pleased
	   with what Windows offers by way of a command shell.

	   The crucial thing to understand about the Windows environment is
	   that the command line you type in is processed twice before Perl
	   sees it.  First, your command shell (usually CMD.EXE on Windows NT,
	   and COMMAND.COM on Windows 9x) preprocesses the command line, to
	   handle redirection, environment variable expansion, and location of
	   the executable to run. Then, the perl executable splits the remain-
	   ing command line into individual arguments, using the C runtime
	   library upon which Perl was built.

	   It is particularly important to note that neither the shell nor the
	   C runtime do any wildcard expansions of command-line arguments (so
	   wildcards need not be quoted).  Also, the quoting behaviours of the
	   shell and the C runtime are rudimentary at best (and may, if you
	   are using a non-standard shell, be inconsistent).  The only (use-
	   ful) quote character is the double quote (").  It can be used to
	   protect spaces and other special characters in arguments.

	   The Windows NT documentation has almost no description of how the
	   quoting rules are implemented, but here are some general observa-
	   tions based on experiments: The C runtime breaks arguments at spa-
	   ces and passes them to programs in argc/argv.  Double quotes can be
	   used to prevent arguments with spaces in them from being split up.
	   You can put a double quote in an argument by escaping it with a
	   backslash and enclosing the whole argument within double quotes.
	   The backslash and the pair of double quotes surrounding the argu-
	   ment will be stripped by the C runtime.

	   The file redirection characters "<", ">", and "|" can be quoted by
	   double quotes (although there are suggestions that this may not
	   always be true).  Single quotes are not treated as quotes by the
	   shell or the C runtime, they don't get stripped by the shell (just
	   to make this type of quoting completely useless).  The caret "^"
	   has also been observed to behave as a quoting character, but this
	   appears to be a shell feature, and the caret is not stripped from
	   the command line, so Perl still sees it (and the C runtime phase
	   does not treat the caret as a quote character).

	   Here are some examples of usage of the "cmd" shell:

	   This prints two doublequotes:

	       perl -e "print '\"\"' "

	   This does the same:

	       perl -e "print \"\\\"\\\"\" "

	   This prints "bar" and writes "foo" to the file "blurch":

	       perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" > blurch

	   This prints "foo" ("bar" disappears into nowhereland):

	       perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" 2> nul

	   This prints "bar" and writes "foo" into the file "blurch":

	       perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" 1> blurch

	   This pipes "foo" to the "less" pager and prints "bar" on the con-
	   sole:

	       perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" | less

	   This pipes "foo\nbar\n" to the less pager:

	       perl -le "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" 2>&1 | less

	   This pipes "foo" to the pager and writes "bar" in the file
	   "blurch":

	       perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" 2> blurch | less

	   Discovering the usefulness of the "command.com" shell on Windows 9x
	   is left as an exercise to the reader :)

	   One particularly pernicious problem with the 4NT command shell for
	   Windows NT is that it (nearly) always treats a % character as indi-
	   cating that environment variable expansion is needed.  Under this
	   shell, it is therefore important to always double any % characters
	   which you want Perl to see (for example, for hash variables), even
	   when they are quoted.

       Building Extensions
	   The Comprehensive Perl Archive Network (CPAN) offers a wealth of
	   extensions, some of which require a C compiler to build.  Look in
	   http://www.cpan.org/ for more information on CPAN.

	   Note that not all of the extensions available from CPAN may work in
	   the Win32 environment; you should check the information at
	   http://testers.cpan.org/ before investing too much effort into
	   porting modules that don't readily build.

	   Most extensions (whether they require a C compiler or not) can be
	   built, tested and installed with the standard mantra:

	       perl Makefile.PL
	       $MAKE
	       $MAKE test
	       $MAKE install

	   where $MAKE is whatever 'make' program you have configured perl to
	   use.  Use "perl -V:make" to find out what this is.  Some extensions
	   may not provide a testsuite (so "$MAKE test" may not do anything or
	   fail), but most serious ones do.

	   It is important that you use a supported 'make' program, and ensure
	   Config.pm knows about it.  If you don't have nmake, you can either
	   get dmake from the location mentioned earlier or get an old version
	   of nmake reportedly available from:

	    http://download.microsoft.com/download/vc15/Patch/1.52/W95/EN-US/nmake15.exe

	   Another option is to use the make written in Perl, available from
	   CPAN.

	       http://www.cpan.org/modules/by-module/Make/

	   You may also use dmake.  See "Make" above on how to get it.

	   Note that MakeMaker actually emits makefiles with different syntax
	   depending on what 'make' it thinks you are using.  Therefore, it is
	   important that one of the following values appears in Config.pm:

	       make='nmake'	   # MakeMaker emits nmake syntax
	       make='dmake'	   # MakeMaker emits dmake syntax
	       any other value	   # MakeMaker emits generic make syntax
				       (e.g GNU make, or Perl make)

	   If the value doesn't match the 'make' program you want to use, edit
	   Config.pm to fix it.

	   If a module implements XSUBs, you will need one of the supported C
	   compilers.  You must make sure you have set up the environment for
	   the compiler for command-line compilation.

	   If a module does not build for some reason, look carefully for why
	   it failed, and report problems to the module author.  If it looks
	   like the extension building support is at fault, report that with
	   full details of how the build failed using the perlbug utility.

       Command-line Wildcard Expansion
	   The default command shells on DOS descendant operating systems
	   (such as they are) usually do not expand wildcard arguments sup-
	   plied to programs.  They consider it the application's job to han-
	   dle that.  This is commonly achieved by linking the application (in
	   our case, perl) with startup code that the C runtime libraries usu-
	   ally provide.  However, doing that results in incompatible perl
	   versions (since the behavior of the argv expansion code differs
	   depending on the compiler, and it is even buggy on some compilers).
	   Besides, it may be a source of frustration if you use such a perl
	   binary with an alternate shell that *does* expand wildcards.

	   Instead, the following solution works rather well. The nice things
	   about it are 1) you can start using it right away; 2) it is more
	   powerful, because it will do the right thing with a pattern like
	   */*/*.c; 3) you can decide whether you do/don't want to use it; and
	   4) you can extend the method to add any customizations (or even
	   entirely different kinds of wildcard expansion).

		   C:\> copy con c:\perl\lib\Wild.pm
		   # Wild.pm - emulate shell @ARGV expansion on shells that don't
		   use File::DosGlob;
		   @ARGV = map {
				 my @g = File::DosGlob::glob($_) if /[*?]/;
				 @g ? @g : $_;
			       } @ARGV;
		   1;
		   ^Z
		   C:\> set PERL5OPT=-MWild
		   C:\> perl -le "for (@ARGV) { print }" */*/perl*.c
		   p4view/perl/perl.c
		   p4view/perl/perlio.c
		   p4view/perl/perly.c
		   perl5.005/win32/perlglob.c
		   perl5.005/win32/perllib.c
		   perl5.005/win32/perlglob.c
		   perl5.005/win32/perllib.c
		   perl5.005/win32/perlglob.c
		   perl5.005/win32/perllib.c

	   Note there are two distinct steps there: 1) You'll have to create
	   Wild.pm and put it in your perl lib directory. 2) You'll need to
	   set the PERL5OPT environment variable.  If you want argv expansion
	   to be the default, just set PERL5OPT in your default startup envi-
	   ronment.

	   If you are using the Visual C compiler, you can get the C runtime's
	   command line wildcard expansion built into perl binary.  The
	   resulting binary will always expand unquoted command lines, which
	   may not be what you want if you use a shell that does that for you.
	   The expansion done is also somewhat less powerful than the approach
	   suggested above.

       Win32 Specific Extensions
	   A number of extensions specific to the Win32 platform are available
	   from CPAN.  You may find that many of these extensions are meant to
	   be used under the Activeware port of Perl, which used to be the
	   only native port for the Win32 platform.  Since the Activeware port
	   does not have adequate support for Perl's extension building tools,
	   these extensions typically do not support those tools either and,
	   therefore, cannot be built using the generic steps shown in the
	   previous section.

	   To ensure smooth transitioning of existing code that uses the
	   ActiveState port, there is a bundle of Win32 extensions that con-
	   tains all of the ActiveState extensions and several other Win32
	   extensions from CPAN in source form, along with many added bug-
	   fixes, and with MakeMaker support.  The latest version of this bun-
	   dle is available at:

	       http://search.cpan.org/dist/libwin32/

	   See the README in that distribution for building and installation
	   instructions.

       Notes on 64-bit Windows
	   Windows .NET Server supports the LLP64 data model on the Intel Ita-
	   nium architecture.

	   The LLP64 data model is different from the LP64 data model that is
	   the norm on 64-bit Unix platforms.  In the former, "int" and "long"
	   are both 32-bit data types, while pointers are 64 bits wide.  In
	   addition, there is a separate 64-bit wide integral type, "__int64".
	   In contrast, the LP64 data model that is pervasive on Unix plat-
	   forms provides "int" as the 32-bit type, while both the "long" type
	   and pointers are of 64-bit precision.  Note that both models pro-
	   vide for 64-bits of addressability.

	   64-bit Windows running on Itanium is capable of running 32-bit x86
	   binaries transparently.  This means that you could use a 32-bit
	   build of Perl on a 64-bit system.  Given this, why would one want
	   to build a 64-bit build of Perl?  Here are some reasons why you
	   would bother:

	   *   A 64-bit native application will run much more efficiently on
	       Itanium hardware.

	   *   There is no 2GB limit on process size.

	   *   Perl automatically provides large file support when built under
	       64-bit Windows.

	   *   Embedding Perl inside a 64-bit application.

       Running Perl Scripts

       Perl scripts on UNIX use the "#!" (a.k.a "shebang") line to indicate to
       the OS that it should execute the file using perl.  Win32 has no compa-
       rable means to indicate arbitrary files are executables.

       Instead, all available methods to execute plain text files on Win32
       rely on the file "extension".  There are three methods to use this to
       execute perl scripts:

       1       There is a facility called "file extension associations" that
	       will work in Windows NT 4.0.  This can be manipulated via the
	       two commands "assoc" and "ftype" that come standard with Win-
	       dows NT 4.0.  Type "ftype /?" for a complete example of how to
	       set this up for perl scripts (Say what?	You thought Windows NT
	       wasn't perl-ready? :).

       2       Since file associations don't work everywhere, and there are
	       reportedly bugs with file associations where it does work, the
	       old method of wrapping the perl script to make it look like a
	       regular batch file to the OS, may be used.  The install process
	       makes available the "pl2bat.bat" script which can be used to
	       wrap perl scripts into batch files.  For example:

		       pl2bat foo.pl

	       will create the file "FOO.BAT".	Note "pl2bat" strips any .pl
	       suffix and adds a .bat suffix to the generated file.

	       If you use the 4DOS/NT or similar command shell, note that
	       "pl2bat" uses the "%*" variable in the generated batch file to
	       refer to all the command line arguments, so you may need to
	       make sure that construct works in batch files.  As of this
	       writing, 4DOS/NT users will need a "ParameterChar = *" state-
	       ment in their 4NT.INI file or will need to execute "setdos /p*"
	       in the 4DOS/NT startup file to enable this to work.

       3       Using "pl2bat" has a few problems:  the file name gets changed,
	       so scripts that rely on $0 to find what they must do may not
	       run properly; running "pl2bat" replicates the contents of the
	       original script, and so this process can be maintenance inten-
	       sive if the originals get updated often.  A different approach
	       that avoids both problems is possible.

	       A script called "runperl.bat" is available that can be copied
	       to any filename (along with the .bat suffix).  For example, if
	       you call it "foo.bat", it will run the file "foo" when it is
	       executed.  Since you can run batch files on Win32 platforms
	       simply by typing the name (without the extension), this effec-
	       tively runs the file "foo", when you type either "foo" or
	       "foo.bat".  With this method, "foo.bat" can even be in a dif-
	       ferent location than the file "foo", as long as "foo" is avail-
	       able somewhere on the PATH.  If your scripts are on a filesys-
	       tem that allows symbolic links, you can even avoid copying
	       "runperl.bat".

	       Here's a diversion:  copy "runperl.bat" to "runperl", and type
	       "runperl".  Explain the observed behavior, or lack thereof. :)
	       Hint: .gnidnats llits er'uoy fi ,"lrepnur" eteled :tniH

       Miscellaneous Things

       A full set of HTML documentation is installed, so you should be able to
       use it if you have a web browser installed on your system.

       "perldoc" is also a useful tool for browsing information contained in
       the documentation, especially in conjunction with a pager like "less"
       (recent versions of which have Win32 support).  You may have to set the
       PAGER environment variable to use a specific pager.  "perldoc -f foo"
       will print information about the perl operator "foo".

       One common mistake when using this port with a GUI library like "Tk" is
       assuming that Perl's normal behavior of opening a command-line window
       will go away.  This isn't the case.  If you want to start a copy of
       "perl" without opening a command-line window, use the "wperl" exe-
       cutable built during the installation process.  Usage is exactly the
       same as normal "perl" on Win32, except that options like "-h" don't
       work (since they need a command-line window to print to).

       If you find bugs in perl, you can run "perlbug" to create a bug report
       (you may have to send it manually if "perlbug" cannot find a mailer on
       your system).

BUGS AND CAVEATS
       Norton AntiVirus interferes with the build process, particularly if set
       to "AutoProtect, All Files, when Opened". Unlike large applications the
       perl build process opens and modifies a lot of files. Having the the
       AntiVirus scan each and every one slows build the process signifi-
       cantly.	Worse, with PERLIO=stdio the build process fails with peculiar
       messages as the virus checker interacts badly with miniperl.exe writing
       configure files (it seems to either catch file part written and treat
       it as suspicious, or virus checker may have it "locked" in a way which
       inhibits miniperl updating it). The build does complete with

	  set PERLIO=perlio

       but that may be just luck. Other AntiVirus software may have similar
       issues.

       Some of the built-in functions do not act exactly as documented in
       perlfunc, and a few are not implemented at all.	To avoid surprises,
       particularly if you have had prior exposure to Perl in other operating
       environments or if you intend to write code that will be portable to
       other environments, see perlport for a reasonably definitive list of
       these differences.

       Not all extensions available from CPAN may build or work properly in
       the Win32 environment.  See "Building Extensions".

       Most "socket()" related calls are supported, but they may not behave as
       on Unix platforms.  See perlport for the full list.  Perl requires
       Winsock2 to be installed on the system. If you're running Win95, you
       can download Winsock upgrade from here:

       http://www.microsoft.com/windows95/downloads/contents/WUAd-
       minTools/S_WUNetworkingTools/W95Sockets2/Default.asp

       Later OS versions already include Winsock2 support.

       Signal handling may not behave as on Unix platforms (where it doesn't
       exactly "behave", either :).  For instance, calling "die()" or "exit()"
       from signal handlers will cause an exception, since most implementa-
       tions of "signal()" on Win32 are severely crippled.  Thus, signals may
       work only for simple things like setting a flag variable in the han-
       dler.  Using signals under this port should currently be considered
       unsupported.

       Please send detailed descriptions of any problems and solutions that
       you may find to <perlbug@perl.org>, along with the output produced by
       "perl -V".

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
       The use of a camel with the topic of Perl is a trademark of O'Reilly
       and Associates, Inc. Used with permission.

AUTHORS
       Gary Ng <71564.1743@CompuServe.COM>
       Gurusamy Sarathy 
       Nick Ing-Simmons 
       Jan Dubois 
       Steve Hay 

       This document is maintained by Jan Dubois.

SEE ALSO
       perl

HISTORY
       This port was originally contributed by Gary Ng around 5.003_24, and
       borrowed from the Hip Communications port that was available at the
       time.  Various people have made numerous and sundry hacks since then.

       Borland support was added in 5.004_01 (Gurusamy Sarathy).

       GCC/mingw32 support was added in 5.005 (Nick Ing-Simmons).

       Support for PERL_OBJECT was added in 5.005 (ActiveState Tool Corp).

       Support for fork() emulation was added in 5.6 (ActiveState Tool Corp).

       Win9x support was added in 5.6 (Benjamin Stuhl).

       Support for 64-bit Windows added in 5.8 (ActiveState Corp).

       Last updated: 30 September 2005



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