PERLHPUX(1) Perl Programmers Reference Guide PERLHPUX(1)
README.hpux - Perl version 5 on Hewlett-Packard Unix (HP-UX) systems
This document describes various features of HP's Unix operating system
(HP-UX) that will affect how Perl version 5 (hereafter just Perl) is
compiled and/or runs.
Using perl as shipped with HP-UX
Application release September 2001, HP-UX 11.00 is the first to ship
with Perl. By the time it was perl-5.6.1 in /opt/perl. The first occur-
rence is on CD 5012-7954 and can be installed using
swinstall -s /cdrom perl
assuming you have mounted that CD on /cdrom. In this version the fol-
lowing modules were installed:
ActivePerl::DocTools-0.04 HTML::Parser-3.19 XML::DOM-1.25
Archive::Tar-0.072 HTML::Tagset-3.03 XML::Parser-2.27
Compress::Zlib-1.08 MIME::Base64-2.11 XML::Simple-1.05
Convert::ASN1-0.10 Net-1.07 XML::XPath-1.09
Digest::MD5-2.11 PPM-2.1.5 XML::XSLT-0.32
File::CounterFile-0.12 SOAP::Lite-0.46 libwww-perl-5.51
Font::AFM-1.18 Storable-1.011 libxml-perl-0.07
HTML-Tree-3.11 URI-1.11 perl-ldap-0.23
The build was a portable hppa-1.1 multithread build that supports large
files compiled with gcc-2.9-hppa-991112
If you perform a new installation, then Perl will be installed automat-
More recent (preinstalled) HP-UX systems have more recent versions of
Perl and the updated modules.
Using perl from HP's porting centre
HP porting centre tries very hard to keep up with customer demand and
release updates from the Open Source community. Having precompiled Perl
binaries available is obvious.
The HP porting centres are limited in what systems they are allowed to
port to and they usually choose the two most recent OS versions avail-
able. This means that at the moment of writing, there are only HP-UX
11.11 (pa-risc 2.0) and HP-UX 11.23 (Itanium 2) ports available on the
HP has asked the porting centre to move Open Source binaries from /opt
to /usr/local, so binaries produced since the start of July 2002 are
located in /usr/local.
One of HP porting centres URL's is http://hpux.connect.org.uk/ The port
currently available is built with GNU gcc.
Compiling Perl 5 on HP-UX
When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler. The C compiler
that ships with all HP-UX systems is a K&R compiler that should only be
used to build new kernels.
Perl can be compiled with either HP's ANSI C compiler or with gcc. The
former is recommended, as not only can it compile Perl with no diffi-
culty, but also can take advantage of features listed later that
require the use of HP compiler-specific command-line flags.
If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
complete, and be sure to read the Perl INSTALL file for more gcc-spe-
HP's current Unix systems run on its own Precision Architecture
(PA-RISC) chip. HP-UX used to run on the Motorola MC68000 family of
chips, but any machine with this chip in it is quite obsolete and this
document will not attempt to address issues for compiling Perl on the
The most recent version of PA-RISC at the time of this document's last
update is 2.0. HP PA-RISC systems are usually refered to with model
description "HP 9000".
A complete list of models at the time the OS was built is in the file
/usr/sam/lib/mo/sched.models. The first column corresponds to the last
part of the output of the "model" command. The second column is the
PA-RISC version and the third column is the exact chip type used.
(Start browsing at the bottom to prevent confusion ;-)
# grep L1000-44 /usr/sam/lib/mo/sched.models
L1000-44 2.0 PA8500
Portability Between PA-RISC Versions
An executable compiled on a PA-RISC 2.0 platform will not execute on a
PA-RISC 1.1 platform, even if they are running the same version of
HP-UX. If you are building Perl on a PA-RISC 2.0 platform and want
that Perl to also run on a PA-RISC 1.1, the compiler flags +DAportable
and +DS32 should be used.
It is no longer possible to compile PA-RISC 1.0 executables on either
the PA-RISC 1.1 or 2.0 platforms. The command-line flags are accepted,
but the resulting executable will not run when transferred to a PA-RISC
The original version of PA-RISC, HP no longer sells any system with
The following systems contained PA-RISC 1.0 chips:
600, 635, 645, 808, 815, 822, 825, 832, 834, 835, 840, 842, 845, 850,
852, 855, 860, 865, 870, 890
An upgrade to the PA-RISC design, it shipped for many years in many
The following systems contain with PA-RISC 1.1 chips:
705, 710, 712, 715, 720, 722, 725, 728, 730, 735, 742, 743, 744, 745,
747, 750, 755, 770, 777, 778, 779, 800, 801, 803, 806, 807, 809, 811,
813, 816, 817, 819, 821, 826, 827, 829, 831, 837, 839, 841, 847, 849,
851, 856, 857, 859, 867, 869, 877, 887, 891, 892, 897, A180, A180C,
B115, B120, B132L, B132L+, B160L, B180L, C100, C110, C115, C120,
C160L, D200, D210, D220, D230, D250, D260, D310, D320, D330, D350,
D360, D410, DX0, DX5, DXO, E25, E35, E45, E55, F10, F20, F30, G30,
G40, G50, G60, G70, H20, H30, H40, H50, H60, H70, I30, I40, I50, I60,
I70, J200, J210, J210XC, K100, K200, K210, K220, K230, K400, K410,
K420, S700i, S715, S744, S760, T500, T520
The most recent upgrade to the PA-RISC design, it added support for
64-bit integer data.
As of the date of this document's last update, the following systems
contain PA-RISC 2.0 chips:
700, 780, 781, 782, 783, 785, 802, 804, 810, 820, 861, 871, 879, 889,
893, 895, 896, 898, 899, A400, A500, B1000, B2000, C130, C140, C160,
C180, C180+, C180-XP, C200+, C400+, C3000, C360, C3600, CB260, D270,
D280, D370, D380, D390, D650, J220, J2240, J280, J282, J400, J410,
J5000, J5500XM, J5600, J7000, J7600, K250, K260, K260-EG, K270, K360,
K370, K380, K450, K460, K460-EG, K460-XP, K470, K570, K580, L1000,
L2000, L3000, N4000, R380, R390, SD16000, SD32000, SD64000, T540,
T600, V2000, V2200, V2250, V2500, V2600
Just before HP took over Compaq, some systems were renamed. the link
that contained the explanation is dead, so here's a short summary:
HP 9000 A-Class servers, now renamed HP Server rp2400 series.
HP 9000 L-Class servers, now renamed HP Server rp5400 series.
HP 9000 N-Class servers, now renamed HP Server rp7400.
rp2400, rp2405, rp2430, rp2450, rp2470, rp3410, rp3440, rp4410,
rp4440, rp5400, rp5405, rp5430, rp5450, rp5470, rp7400, rp7405,
rp7410, rp7420, rp8400, rp8420, Superdome
The current naming convention is:
||||`+- 00 - 99 relative capacity & newness (upgrades, etc.)
|||`--- unique number for each architecture to ensure different
||| systems do not have the same numbering across
||`---- 1 - 9 identifies family and/or relative positioning
|`----- c = ia32 (cisc)
| p = pa-risc
| x = ia-64 (Itanium & Itanium 2)
| h = housing
`------ t = tower
r = rack optimized
s = super scalable
b = blade
sa = appliance
Itanium Processor Family and HP-UX
HP-UX also runs on the new Itanium processor. This requires the use of
a different version of HP-UX (currently 11.23 or 11i v2), and with the
exception of a few differences detailed below and in later sections,
Perl should compile with no problems.
Although PA-RISC binaries can run on Itanium systems, you should not
attempt to use a PA-RISC version of Perl on an Itanium system. This is
because shared libraries created on an Itanium system cannot be loaded
while running a PA-RISC executable.
HP Itanium 2 systems are usually refered to with model description "HP
Itanium & Itanium 2
HP also ships servers with the 128-bit Itanium processor(s). As of the
date of this document's last update, the following systems contain Ita-
nium or Itanium 2 chips (this is very likely to be out of date):
BL60p, rx1600, rx1620, rx2600, rx2600hptc, rx2620, rx4610, rx4640,
rx5670, rx7620, rx8620, rx9610
To see all about your machine, type
ia64 hp server rx2600
Building Dynamic Extensions on HP-UX
HP-UX supports dynamically loadable libraries (shared libraries).
Shared libraries end with the suffix .sl. On Itanium systems, they end
with the suffix .so.
Shared libraries created on a platform using a particular PA-RISC ver-
sion are not usable on platforms using an earlier PA-RISC version by
default. However, this backwards compatibility may be enabled using
the same +DAportable compiler flag (with the same PA-RISC 1.0 caveat
Shared libraries created on an Itanium platform cannot be loaded on a
PA-RISC platform. Shared libraries created on a PA-RISC platform can
only be loaded on an Itanium platform if it is a PA-RISC executable
that is attempting to load the PA-RISC library. A PA-RISC shared
library cannot be loaded into an Itanium executable nor vice-versa.
To create a shared library, the following steps must be performed:
1. Compile source modules with +z or +Z flag to create a .o module
which contains Position-Independent Code (PIC). The linker will
tell you in the next step if +Z was needed.
(For gcc, the appropriate flag is -fpic or -fPIC.)
2. Link the shared library using the -b flag. If the code calls
any functions in other system libraries (e.g., libm), it must
be included on this line.
(Note that these steps are usually handled automatically by the exten-
If these dependent libraries are not listed at shared library creation
time, you will get fatal "Unresolved symbol" errors at run time when
the library is loaded.
You may create a shared library that refers to another library, which
may be either an archive library or a shared library. If this second
library is a shared library, this is called a "dependent library". The
dependent library's name is recorded in the main shared library, but it
is not linked into the shared library. Instead, it is loaded when the
main shared library is loaded. This can cause problems if you build an
extension on one system and move it to another system where the
libraries may not be located in the same place as on the first system.
If the referred library is an archive library, then it is treated as a
simple collection of .o modules (all of which must contain PIC). These
modules are then linked into the shared library.
Note that it is okay to create a library which contains a dependent
library that is already linked into perl.
Some extensions, like DB_File and Compress::Zlib use/require prebuilt
libraries for the perl extensions/modules to work. If these libraries
are built using the default configuration, it might happen that you run
into an error like "invalid loader fixup" during load phase. HP is
aware of this problem. Search the HP-UX cxx-dev forums for discussions
about the subject. The short answer is that everything (all libraries,
everything) must be compiled with "+z" or "+Z" to be PIC (position
independent code). (For gcc, that would be "-fpic" or "-fPIC"). In
HP-UX 11.00 or newer the linker error message should tell the name of
the offending object file.
A more general approach is to intervene manually, as with an example
for the DB_File module, which requires SleepyCat's libdb.sl:
# cd .../db-3.2.9/build_unix
# vi Makefile
... add +Z to all cflags to create shared objects
CFLAGS= -c $(CPPFLAGS) +Z -Ae +O2 +Onolimit \
CXXFLAGS= -c $(CPPFLAGS) +Z -Ae +O2 +Onolimit \
# make clean
# mkdir tmp
# cd tmp
# ar x ../libdb.a
# ld -b -o libdb-3.2.sl *.o
# mv libdb-3.2.sl /usr/local/lib
# rm *.o
# cd /usr/local/lib
# rm -f libdb.sl
# ln -s libdb-3.2.sl libdb.sl
# cd .../DB_File-1.76
# make distclean
# perl Makefile.PL
# make test
# make install
As of db-4.2.x it is no longer needed to do this by hand. Sleepycat has
changed the configuration process to add +z on HP-UX automatically.
# cd .../db-4.2.25/build_unix
# env CFLAGS=+DA2.0w LDFLAGS=+DA2.0w ../dist/configure
should work to generate 64bit shared libraries for HP-UX 11.00 and 11i.
It is no longer possible to link PA-RISC 1.0 shared libraries (even
though the command-line flags are still present).
PA-RISC and Itanium object files are not interchangeable. Although you
may be able to use ar to create an archive library of PA-RISC object
files on an Itanium system, you cannot link against it using an Itanium
The HP ANSI C Compiler
When using this compiler to build Perl, you should make sure that the
flag -Aa is added to the cpprun and cppstdin variables in the config.sh
file (though see the section on 64-bit perl below). If you are using a
recent version of the Perl distribution, these flags are set automati-
The GNU C Compiler
When you are going to use the GNU C compiler (gcc), and you don't have
gcc yet, you can either build it yourself from the sources (available
from e.g. http://www.gnu.ai.mit.edu/software/gcc/releases.html) or
fetch a prebuilt binary from the HP porting center. There are two
places where gcc prebuilds can be fetched; the first and best (for HP-
UX 11 only) is http://h21007.www2.hp.com/dspp/tech/tech_TechSoftwareDe-
tailPage_IDX/1,1703,547,00.html the second is
http://hpux.cs.utah.edu/hppd/hpux/Gnu/ where you can also find the GNU
binutils package. (Browse through the list, because there are often
multiple versions of the same package available).
Above mentioned distributions are depots. H.Merijn Brand has made pre-
built gcc binaries available on http://mirrors.develooper.com/hpux/
and/or http://www.cmve.net/~merijn/ for HP-UX 10.20, HP-UX 11.00, and
HP-UX 11.11 (HP-UX 11i) in both 32- and 64-bit versions. These are
bzipped tar archives that also include recent GNU binutils and GNU gdb.
Read the instructions on that page to rebuild gcc using itself.
On PA-RISC you need a different compiler for 32-bit applications and
for 64-bit applications. On PA-RISC, 32-bit objects and 64-bit objects
do not mix. Period. There is no different behaviour for HP C-ANSI-C or
GNU gcc. So if you require your perl binary to use 64-bit libraries,
like Oracle-64bit, you MUST build a 64-bit perl.
Building a 64-bit capable gcc on PA-RISC from source is possible only
when you have the HP C-ANSI C compiler or an already working 64-bit
binary of gcc available. Best performance for perl is achieved with
HP's native compiler.
Using Large Files with Perl on HP-UX
Beginning with HP-UX version 10.20, files larger than 2GB (2^31 bytes)
may be created and manipulated. Three separate methods of doing this
are available. Of these methods, the best method for Perl is to com-
pile using the -Duselargefiles flag to Configure. This causes Perl to
be compiled using structures and functions in which these are 64 bits
wide, rather than 32 bits wide. (Note that this will only work with
HP's ANSI C compiler. If you want to compile Perl using gcc, you will
have to get a version of the compiler that supports 64-bit operations.
See above for where to find it.)
There are some drawbacks to this approach. One is that any extension
which calls any file-manipulating C function will need to be recompiled
(just follow the usual "perl Makefile.PL; make; make test; make
The list of functions that will need to recompiled is:
creat, fgetpos, fopen, freopen, fsetpos, fstat,
fstatvfs, fstatvfsdev, ftruncate, ftw, lockf, lseek,
lstat, mmap, nftw, open, prealloc, stat,
statvfs, statvfsdev, tmpfile, truncate, getrlimit, setrlimit
Another drawback is only valid for Perl versions before 5.6.0. This
drawback is that the seek and tell functions (both the builtin version
and POSIX module version) will not perform correctly.
It is strongly recommended that you use this flag when you run Config-
ure. If you do not do this, but later answer the question about large
files when Configure asks you, you may get a configuration that cannot
be compiled, or that does not function as expected.
Threaded Perl on HP-UX
It is possible to compile a version of threaded Perl on any version of
HP-UX before 10.30, but it is strongly suggested that you be running on
HP-UX 11.00 at least.
To compile Perl with threads, add -Dusethreads to the arguments of Con-
figure. Verify that the -D_POSIX_C_SOURCE=199506L compiler flag is
automatically added to the list of flags. Also make sure that
-lpthread is listed before -lc in the list of libraries to link Perl
with. The hints provided for HP-UX during Configure will try very hard
to get this right for you.
HP-UX versions before 10.30 require a separate installation of a POSIX
threads library package. Two examples are the HP DCE package, available
on "HP-UX Hardware Extensions 3.0, Install and Core OS, Release 10.20,
April 1999 (B3920-13941)" or the Freely available PTH package, avail-
able on H.Merijn's site (http://mirrors.develooper.com/hpux/).
If you are going to use the HP DCE package, the library used for
threading is /usr/lib/libcma.sl, but there have been multiple updates
of that library over time. Perl will build with the first version, but
it will not pass the test suite. Older Oracle versions might be a com-
pelling reason not to update that library, otherwise please find a
newer version in one of the following patches: PHSS_19739, PHSS_20608,
d3:/usr/lib 106 > what libcma-*.1
HP DCE/9000 1.5 Module: libcma.sl (Export)
Date: Apr 29 1996 22:11:24
HP DCE/9000 1.5 PHSS_19739-40 Module: libcma.sl (Export)
Date: Sep 4 1999 01:59:07
HP DCE/9000 1.5 PHSS_20608 Module: libcma.1 (Export)
Date: Dec 8 1999 18:41:23
HP DCE/9000 1.5 PHSS_23672 Module: libcma.1 (Export)
Date: Apr 9 2001 10:01:06
d3:/usr/lib 107 >
If you choose for the PTH package, use swinstall to install pth in the
default location (/opt/pth), and then make symbolic links to the
libraries from /usr/lib
# cd /usr/lib
# ln -s /opt/pth/lib/libpth* .
For building perl to support Oracle, it needs to be linked with libcl
and libpthread. So even if your perl is an unthreaded build, these
libraries might be required. See "Oracle on HP-UX" below.
64-bit Perl on HP-UX
Beginning with HP-UX 11.00, programs compiled under HP-UX can take
advantage of the LP64 programming environment (LP64 means Longs and
Pointers are 64 bits wide), in which scalar variables will be able to
hold numbers larger than 2^32 with complete precision. Perl has proven
to be consistent and reliable in 64bit mode since 5.8.1 on all HP-UX
As of the date of this document, Perl is fully 64-bit compliant on HP-
UX 11.00 and up for both cc- and gcc builds. If you are about to build
a 64-bit perl with GNU gcc, please read the gcc section carefully.
Should a user have the need for compiling Perl in the LP64 environment,
use the -Duse64bitall flag to Configure. This will force Perl to be
compiled in a pure LP64 environment (with the +DD64 flag for HP
C-ANSI-C, with no additional options for GNU gcc 64-bit on PA-RISC, and
with -mlp64 for GNU gcc on Itanium). If you want to compile Perl using
gcc, you will have to get a version of the compiler that supports
You can also use the -Duse64bitint flag to Configure. Although there
are some minor differences between compiling Perl with this flag versus
the -Duse64bitall flag, they should not be noticeable from a Perl
user's perspective. When configuring -Duse64bitint using a 64bit gcc on
a pa-risc architecture, -Duse64bitint is silently promoted to
In both cases, it is strongly recommended that you use these flags when
you run Configure. If you do not use do this, but later answer the
questions about 64-bit numbers when Configure asks you, you may get a
configuration that cannot be compiled, or that does not function as
Oracle on HP-UX
Using perl to connect to Oracle databases through DBI and DBD::Oracle
has caused a lot of people many headaches. Read README.hpux in the
DBD::Oracle for much more information. The reason to mention it here is
that Oracle requires a perl built with libcl and libpthread, the latter
even when perl is build without threads. Building perl using all
defaults, but still enabling to build DBD::Oracle later on can be
Configure -A prepend:libswanted='cl pthread ' ...
Do not forget the space before the trailing quote.
Also note that this does not (yet) work with all configurations, it is
known to fail with 64-bit versions of GCC.
GDBM and Threads on HP-UX
If you attempt to compile Perl with threads on an 11.X system and also
link in the GDBM library, then Perl will immediately core dump when it
starts up. The only workaround at this point is to relink the GDBM
library under 11.X, then relink it into Perl.
NFS filesystems and utime(2) on HP-UX
If you are compiling Perl on a remotely-mounted NFS filesystem, the
test io/fs.t may fail on test #18. This appears to be a bug in HP-UX
and no fix is currently available.
perl -P and // and HP-UX
If HP-UX Perl is compiled with flags that will cause problems if the -P
flag of Perl (preprocess Perl code with the C preprocessor before perl
sees it) is used. The problem is that "//", being a C++-style until-
end-of-line comment, will disappear along with the remainder of the
line. This means that common Perl constructs like
will turn into illegal code
The workaround is to use some other quoting separator than "/", like
for example "!":
HP-UX Kernel Parameters (maxdsiz) for Compiling Perl
By default, HP-UX comes configured with a maximum data segment size of
64MB. This is too small to correctly compile Perl with the maximum
optimization levels. You can increase the size of the maxdsiz kernel
parameter through the use of SAM.
When using the GUI version of SAM, click on the Kernel Configuration
icon, then the Configurable Parameters icon. Scroll down and select
the maxdsiz line. From the Actions menu, select the Modify Config-
urable Parameter item. Insert the new formula into the Formula/Value
box. Then follow the instructions to rebuild your kernel and reboot
In general, a value of 256MB (or "256*1024*1024") is sufficient for
Perl to compile at maximum optimization.
nss_delete core dump from op/pwent or op/grent
You may get a bus error core dump from the op/pwent or op/grent tests.
If compiled with -g you will see a stack trace much like the following:
#0 0xc004216c in () from /usr/lib/libc.2
#1 0xc00d7550 in __nss_src_state_destr () from /usr/lib/libc.2
#2 0xc00d7768 in __nss_src_state_destr () from /usr/lib/libc.2
#3 0xc00d78a8 in nss_delete () from /usr/lib/libc.2
#4 0xc01126d8 in endpwent () from /usr/lib/libc.2
#5 0xd1950 in Perl_pp_epwent () from ./perl
#6 0x94d3c in Perl_runops_standard () from ./perl
#7 0x23728 in S_run_body () from ./perl
#8 0x23428 in perl_run () from ./perl
#9 0x2005c in main () from ./perl
The key here is the "nss_delete" call. One workaround for this bug
seems to be to create add to the file /etc/nsswitch.conf (at least) the
Whether you are using NIS does not matter. Amazingly enough, the same
bug also affects Solaris.
Jeff Okamoto H.Merijn Brand
With much assistance regarding shared libraries from Marc Sabatella.
Version 0.7.6: 2005-12-20
perl v5.8.8 2006-01-07 PERLHPUX(1)