a2p
accept
access
acct
addftinfo
addr2line
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afmtodit
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aio_cancel
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apropos
ar
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as
asa
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at
atq
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diff
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dig
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discard
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do
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done
dprofpp
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du
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ec
ecdsa
echo
echotc
ecparam
ed
edit
editrc
ee
egrep
elf
elfdump
elif
else
enc
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end
endif
endsw
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enigma
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env
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err
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_exit
__syscall
 
FreeBSD/Linux/UNIX General Commands Manual
Hypertext Man Pages
entry
 
entry(n)		     Tk Built-In Commands		      entry(n)



NAME
       entry - Create and manipulate entry widgets

SYNOPSIS
       entry  pathName	?options?  -background	  -highlightthickness -select-
       background -borderwidth	 -insertbackground   -selectborderwidth  -cur-
       sor   -insertborderwidth  -selectforeground		 -exportselec-
       tion    -insertofftime -takefocus   -font     -insertontime  -textvari-
       able    -foreground    -insertwidth   -xscrollcommand   -highlightback-
       ground	  -justify -highlightcolor     -relief

WIDGET-SPECIFIC OPTIONS
       Specifies the background color to use when the entry is	disabled.   If
       this  option  is the empty string, the normal background color is used.
       Specifies the foreground color to use when the entry is	disabled.   If
       this  option  is the empty string, the normal foreground color is used.
       Specifies a script to eval when validateCommand returns 0.  Setting  it
       to {} disables this feature (the default).  The best use of this option
       is to set it to bell.   See  Validation	below  for  more  information.
       Specifies  the  background color to use when the entry is readonly.  If
       this option is the empty string, the normal background color  is  used.
       If  this  option  is specified, then the true contents of the entry are
       not displayed in the window.  Instead, each character  in  the  entry's
       value  will  be	displayed  as the first character in the value of this
       option, such as ``*''.  This is useful, for example, if the entry is to
       be  used  to enter a password.  If characters in the entry are selected
       and copied elsewhere, the information copied will be what is displayed,
       not  the true contents of the entry.  Specifies one of three states for
       the entry:  normal, disabled, or readonly.  If the entry  is  readonly,
       then  the  value may not be changed using widget commands and no inser-
       tion cursor will be displayed, even if the input focus is in  the  wid-
       get; the contents of the widget may still be selected.  If the entry is
       disabled, the value may not be changed, no  insertion  cursor  will  be
       displayed,  the	contents  will not be selectable, and the entry may be
       displayed in a different color, depending on the values	of  the  -dis-
       abledforeground and -disabledbackground options.  Specifies the mode in
       which validation should operate: none, focus, focusin,  focusout,  key,
       or  all.   It  defaults	to  none.   When you want validation, you must
       explicitly state which mode you wish to use.  See Validation below  for
       more.   Specifies  a script to eval when you want to validate the input
       into the entry widget.  Setting it to {}  disables  this  feature  (the
       default).   This  command must return a valid Tcl boolean value.  If it
       returns 0 (or the valid Tcl  boolean  equivalent)  then	it  means  you
       reject  the  new  edition  and it will not occur and the invalidCommand
       will be evaluated if it is set. If it returns 1, then the  new  edition
       occurs.	See Validation below for more information.  Specifies an inte-
       ger value indicating the desired width of the entry window, in average-
       size  characters  of  the  widget's font.  If the value is less than or
       equal to zero, the widget picks a size just large enough  to  hold  its
       current text.


DESCRIPTION
       The entry command creates a new window (given by the pathName argument)
       and makes it into  an  entry  widget.   Additional  options,  described
       above,  may  be specified on the command line or in the option database
       to configure aspects of the entry such as its colors, font, and relief.
       The entry command returns its pathName argument.  At the time this com-
       mand is invoked, there must not exist  a  window  named	pathName,  but
       pathName's parent must exist.

       An  entry  is  a widget that displays a one-line text string and allows
       that string to be edited using widget commands described  below,  which
       are  typically  bound to keystrokes and mouse actions.  When first cre-
       ated, an entry's string is empty.   A  portion  of  the	entry  may  be
       selected  as  described	below.	If an entry is exporting its selection
       (see the exportSelection option), then it will observe the standard X11
       protocols  for  handling the selection;	entry selections are available
       as type STRING.	Entries also observe the standard Tk rules for dealing
       with the input focus.  When an entry has the input focus it displays an
       insertion cursor to indicate where new characters will be inserted.

       Entries are capable of displaying strings that  are  too  long  to  fit
       entirely  within  the widget's window.  In this case, only a portion of
       the string will be displayed;  commands described below may be used  to
       change the view in the window.  Entries use the standard xScrollCommand
       mechanism for interacting with scrollbars (see the description  of  the
       xScrollCommand  option  for  details).	They also support scanning, as
       described below.

VALIDATION
       Validation works by setting the	validateCommand  option  to  a	script
       which will be evaluated according to the validate option as follows:


       none	 Default.  This means no validation will occur.

       focus	 validateCommand  will	be  called  when the entry receives or
		 loses focus.

       focusin	 validateCommand will be called when the entry receives focus.

       focusout  validateCommand will be called when the entry loses focus.

       key	 validateCommand will be called when the entry is edited.

       all	 validateCommand will be called for all above conditions.

       It  is possible to perform percent substitutions on the validateCommand
       and invalidCommand, just as you would in a bind script.	The  following
       substitutions are recognized:


       %d   Type  of  action:  1  for  insert,	0 for delete, or -1 for focus,
	    forced or textvariable validation.

       %i   Index of char string to be inserted/deleted, if any, otherwise -1.

       %P   The value of the entry if the edit is allowed.  If you are config-
	    uring the entry widget to have a new textvariable,	this  will  be
	    the value of that textvariable.

       %s   The current value of entry prior to editing.

       %S   The text string being inserted/deleted, if any, {} otherwise.

       %v   The type of validation currently set.

       %V   The  type of validation that triggered the callback (key, focusin,
	    focusout, forced).

       %W   The name of the entry widget.

       In general, the textVariable and validateCommand can  be  dangerous  to
       mix.  Any problems have been overcome so that using the validateCommand
       will not interfere with the traditional behavior of the	entry  widget.
       Using  the  textVariable  for read-only purposes will never cause prob-
       lems.  The danger comes when you try set the textVariable to  something
       that  the  validateCommand  would  not accept, which causes validate to
       become none (the invalidCommand will not be triggered).	The same  hap-
       pens when an error occurs evaluating the validateCommand.

       Primarily,  an error will occur when the validateCommand or invalidCom-
       mand encounters an error in its script while evaluating or validateCom-
       mand  does  not	return a valid Tcl boolean value.  The validate option
       will also set itself to none when you edit the entry widget from within
       either  the  validateCommand or the invalidCommand.  Such editions will
       override the one that was being validated.  If you  wish  to  edit  the
       entry  widget  (for  example  set it to {}) during validation and still
       have the validate option set, you should include the command after idle
       {%W  config  -validate  %v}  in	the  validateCommand or invalidCommand
       (whichever one you were editing the entry widget  from).   It  is  also
       recommended to not set an associated textVariable during validation, as
       that can cause the  entry  widget  to  become  out  of  sync  with  the
       textVariable.

WIDGET COMMAND
       The  entry  command  creates  a new Tcl command whose name is pathName.
       This command may be used to invoke various operations  on  the  widget.
       It  has	the  following	general  form:	pathName  option ?arg arg ...?
       Option and the args determine the exact behavior of the command.

       Many of the widget commands for entries take one  or  more  indices  as
       arguments.   An	index  specifies a particular character in the entry's
       string, in any of the following ways:

       number	   Specifies the character as a numerical index, where 0  cor-
		   responds to the first character in the string.

       anchor	   Indicates  the anchor point for the selection, which is set
		   with the select from and select adjust widget commands.

       end	   Indicates the character just after  the  last  one  in  the
		   entry's string.  This is equivalent to specifying a numeri-
		   cal index equal to the length of the entry's string.

       insert	   Indicates the character adjacent to and immediately follow-
		   ing the insertion cursor.

       sel.first   Indicates  the  first character in the selection.  It is an
		   error to use this form if the selection isn't in the  entry
		   window.

       sel.last    Indicates  the  character  just  after  the last one in the
		   selection.  It is an error to use this form if  the	selec-
		   tion isn't in the entry window.

       @number	   In  this  form, number is treated as an x-coordinate in the
		   entry's window;  the character spanning  that  x-coordinate
		   is used.  For example, ``@0'' indicates the left-most char-
		   acter in the window.

       Abbreviations may be used for any of the forms  above,  e.g.  ``e''  or
       ``sel.f''.   In general, out-of-range indices are automatically rounded
       to the nearest legal value.

       The following commands are possible for entry widgets:

       pathName bbox index
	      Returns a list of four numbers describing the  bounding  box  of
	      the  character  given  by  index.  The first two elements of the
	      list give the x and y coordinates of the	upper-left  corner  of
	      the  screen area covered by the character (in pixels relative to
	      the widget) and the last two elements give the width and	height
	      of  the  character,  in pixels.  The bounding box may refer to a
	      region outside the visible area of the window.

       pathName cget option
	      Returns the current value of the configuration option  given  by
	      option.  Option may have any of the values accepted by the entry
	      command.

       pathName configure ?option? ?value option value ...?
	      Query or modify the configuration options of the widget.	If  no
	      option is specified, returns a list describing all of the avail-
	      able options for pathName (see Tk_ConfigureInfo for  information
	      on  the  format  of  this list).	If option is specified with no
	      value, then the command returns a list describing the one  named
	      option (this list will be identical to the corresponding sublist
	      of the value returned if no option is  specified).   If  one  or
	      more option-value pairs are specified, then the command modifies
	      the given widget option(s) to have the given value(s);  in  this
	      case  the  command returns an empty string.  Option may have any
	      of the values accepted by the entry command.

       pathName delete first ?last?
	      Delete one or more elements of the entry.  First is the index of
	      the  first  character  to  delete,  and last is the index of the
	      character just after the last one  to  delete.   If  last  isn't
	      specified  it  defaults  to  first+1, i.e. a single character is
	      deleted.	This command returns an empty string.

       pathName get
	      Returns the entry's string.

       pathName icursor index
	      Arrange for the insertion cursor to be displayed just before the
	      character given by index.  Returns an empty string.

       pathName index index
	      Returns the numerical index corresponding to index.

       pathName insert index string
	      Insert  the characters of string just before the character indi-
	      cated by index.  Returns an empty string.

       pathName scan option args
	      This command is used to implement scanning on entries.   It  has
	      two forms, depending on option:

	      pathName scan mark x
		     Records x and the current view in the entry window;  used
		     in conjunction with later scan  dragto  commands.	 Typi-
		     cally  this  command  is  associated  with a mouse button
		     press in the widget.  It returns an empty string.

	      pathName scan dragto x
		     This command computes the difference between its x  argu-
		     ment and the x argument to the last scan mark command for
		     the widget.  It then adjusts the view left or right by 10
		     times  the  difference in x-coordinates.  This command is
		     typically associated with mouse motion events in the wid-
		     get,  to produce the effect of dragging the entry at high
		     speed through the window.	The return value is  an  empty
		     string.

       pathName selection option arg
	      This  command  is  used to adjust the selection within an entry.
	      It has several forms, depending on option:

	      pathName selection adjust index
		     Locate the end of the selection nearest to the  character
		     given  by	index, and adjust that end of the selection to
		     be at index (i.e. including but not going beyond  index).
		     The  other  end of the selection is made the anchor point
		     for future select to commands.  If  the  selection  isn't
		     currently	in  the entry, then a new selection is created
		     to include the characters	between  index	and  the  most
		     recent  selection	anchor	point,	inclusive.  Returns an
		     empty string.

	      pathName selection clear
		     Clear the selection if it is currently  in  this  widget.
		     If  the  selection  isn't in this widget then the command
		     has no effect.  Returns an empty string.

	      pathName selection from index
		     Set the selection anchor point to just before the charac-
		     ter  given  by  index.   Doesn't  change  the  selection.
		     Returns an empty string.

	      pathName selection present
		     Returns 1 if there is  are  characters  selected  in  the
		     entry, 0 if nothing is selected.

	      pathName selection range start end
		     Sets  the	selection  to  include the characters starting
		     with the one indexed by start and	ending	with  the  one
		     just  before end.	If end refers to the same character as
		     start or an earlier one, then the	entry's  selection  is
		     cleared.

	      pathName selection to index
		     If index is before the anchor point, set the selection to
		     the characters from index up to  but  not	including  the
		     anchor  point.  If index is the same as the anchor point,
		     do nothing.  If index is after the anchor point, set  the
		     selection	to  the characters from the anchor point up to
		     but not including index.  The anchor point is  determined
		     by  the  most recent select from or select adjust command
		     in this widget.  If the selection isn't  in  this	widget
		     then  a  new  selection  is created using the most recent
		     anchor point specified for the widget.  Returns an  empty
		     string.

       pathName validate
	      This  command is used to force an evaluation of the validateCom-
	      mand independent of the conditions  specified  by  the  validate
	      option.  This is done by temporarily setting the validate option
	      to all.  It returns 0 or 1.

       pathName xview args
	      This command is used to query and change the horizontal position
	      of the text in the widget's window.  It can take any of the fol-
	      lowing forms:

	      pathName xview
		     Returns a list containing two elements.  Each element  is
		     a	real fraction between 0 and 1;	together they describe
		     the horizontal span that is visible in the  window.   For
		     example,  if  the first element is .2 and the second ele-
		     ment is .6, 20% of the entry's text is off-screen to  the
		     left, the middle 40% is visible in the window, and 40% of
		     the text is off-screen to the right.  These are the  same
		     values  passed  to  scrollbars  via  the  -xscrollcommand
		     option.

	      pathName xview index
		     Adjusts the view in the  window  so  that	the  character
		     given  by index is displayed at the left edge of the win-
		     dow.

	      pathName xview moveto fraction
		     Adjusts the view in the  window  so  that	the  character
		     fraction  of the way through the text appears at the left
		     edge of the window.  Fraction must be a fraction  between
		     0 and 1.

	      pathName xview scroll number what
		     This  command shifts the view in the window left or right
		     according to number and what.  Number must be an integer.
		     What  must be either units or pages or an abbreviation of
		     one of these.  If what is units, the view adjusts left or
		     right  by number average-width characters on the display;
		     if it is pages then the view adjusts  by  number  screen-
		     fuls.   If  number is negative then characters farther to
		     the left become visible;  if it is positive then  charac-
		     ters farther to the right become visible.

DEFAULT BINDINGS
       Tk  automatically creates class bindings for entries that give them the
       following default behavior.  In the descriptions below, ``word'' refers
       to  a  contiguous group of letters, digits, or ``_'' characters, or any
       single character other than these.

       [1]    Clicking mouse button 1  positions  the  insertion  cursor  just
	      before the character underneath the mouse cursor, sets the input
	      focus to this widget, and clears any selection  in  the  widget.
	      Dragging with mouse button 1 strokes out a selection between the
	      insertion cursor and the character under the mouse.

       [2]    Double-clicking with mouse button 1 selects the word  under  the
	      mouse and positions the insertion cursor at the end of the word.
	      Dragging after a double click will stroke out a  selection  con-
	      sisting of whole words.

       [3]    Triple-clicking  with  mouse button 1 selects all of the text in
	      the entry and positions the insertion cursor at the end  of  the
	      line.

       [4]    The ends of the selection can be adjusted by dragging with mouse
	      button 1 while the Shift key is down;  this will adjust the  end
	      of  the selection that was nearest to the mouse cursor when but-
	      ton 1 was pressed.  If the button is double-clicked before drag-
	      ging  then  the  selection  will	be  adjusted in units of whole
	      words.

       [5]    Clicking mouse button 1 with the Control key down will  position
	      the  insertion  cursor in the entry without affecting the selec-
	      tion.

       [6]    If any normal printing characters are typed in  an  entry,  they
	      are inserted at the point of the insertion cursor.

       [7]    The  view  in  the  entry can be adjusted by dragging with mouse
	      button 2.  If mouse button  2  is  clicked  without  moving  the
	      mouse, the selection is copied into the entry at the position of
	      the mouse cursor.

       [8]    If the mouse is dragged out of the entry on the  left  or  right
	      sides  while  button  1 is pressed, the entry will automatically
	      scroll to make more text visible (if there  is  more  text  off-
	      screen on the side where the mouse left the window).

       [9]    The  Left and Right keys move the insertion cursor one character
	      to the left or right;  they also	clear  any  selection  in  the
	      entry  and  set the selection anchor.  If Left or Right is typed
	      with the Shift key down, then the insertion cursor moves and the
	      selection  is  extended  to include the new character.  Control-
	      Left and Control-Right move the insertion cursor by  words,  and
	      Control-Shift-Left  and  Control-Shift-Right  move the insertion
	      cursor by words and also extend the  selection.	Control-b  and
	      Control-f  behave  the  same  as	Left  and Right, respectively.
	      Meta-b and Meta-f behave the same as Control-Left  and  Control-
	      Right, respectively.

       [10]   The  Home  key,  or Control-a, will move the insertion cursor to
	      the beginning of the entry and clear any selection in the entry.
	      Shift-Home  moves  the  insertion cursor to the beginning of the
	      entry and also extends the selection to that point.

       [11]   The End key, or Control-e, will move the insertion cursor to the
	      end  of  the entry and clear any selection in the entry.	Shift-
	      End moves the cursor to the end and  extends  the  selection  to
	      that point.

       [12]   The Select key and Control-Space set the selection anchor to the
	      position of the insertion cursor.  They don't affect the current
	      selection.   Shift-Select  and  Control-Shift-Space  adjust  the
	      selection to the	current  position  of  the  insertion  cursor,
	      selecting  from  the anchor to the insertion cursor if there was
	      not any selection previously.

       [13]   Control-/ selects all the text in the entry.

       [14]   Control-\ clears any selection in the entry.

       [15]   The F16 key (labelled Copy on many Sun workstations)  or	Meta-w
	      copies the selection in the widget to the clipboard, if there is
	      a selection.

       [16]   The F20 key (labelled Cut on many Sun workstations) or Control-w
	      copies  the selection in the widget to the clipboard and deletes
	      the selection.  If there is no  selection  in  the  widget  then
	      these keys have no effect.

       [17]   The  F18	key  (labelled Paste on many Sun workstations) or Con-
	      trol-y inserts the contents of the clipboard at the position  of
	      the insertion cursor.

       [18]   The  Delete  key	deletes  the selection, if there is one in the
	      entry.  If there is no selection, it deletes  the  character  to
	      the right of the insertion cursor.

       [19]   The  BackSpace  key and Control-h delete the selection, if there
	      is one in the entry.  If there is no selection, it  deletes  the
	      character to the left of the insertion cursor.

       [20]   Control-d  deletes  the  character to the right of the insertion
	      cursor.

       [21]   Meta-d deletes the word to the right of the insertion cursor.

       [22]   Control-k deletes all the characters to the right of the	inser-
	      tion cursor.

       [23]   Control-t  reverses the order of the two characters to the right
	      of the insertion cursor.

       If the entry is disabled using the -state option, then the entry's view
       can  still be adjusted and text in the entry can still be selected, but
       no insertion cursor will be displayed and no  text  modifications  will
       take  place  except  if	the  entry  is	linked to a variable using the
       -textvariable option, in which case any changes	to  the  variable  are
       reflected by the entry whatever the value of its -state option.

       The  behavior  of  entries  can be changed by defining new bindings for
       individual widgets or by redefining the class bindings.


KEYWORDS
       entry, widget



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